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3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 50-56, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-973832

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Chemotherapeutic agents of anthracyclines class and humanized monoclonal antibodies are effective treatments for breast cancer, however, they present a potential risk of cardiotoxicity. Several predictors have been recognized as predictors in the development of cardiac toxicity, and the evaluation of left ventricular segmental wall motion abnormalities (LVSWMA) has not been studied. Objective: To analyze prospectively the role of LVSWMA among echocardiographic parameters in the prediction of development of cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment with chemotherapy. Methods: Prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with breast cancer and in chemotherapy treatment with potential cardiotoxicity medications including doxorubicin and trastuzumab. Transthoracic echocardiograms including speckle tracking strain echocardiography were performed at standard times before, during and after the treatment to assess the presence (or lack thereof) of cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity was defined by a 10% decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction, on at least one echocardiogram. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to verify the predictors related to the occurrence of cardiotoxicity over time. Results: Of the 112 patients selected (mean age 51,3 ± 12,9 years), 18 participants (16.1%) had cardiotoxicity. In the multivariate analysis using the logistic regression model, those with LVWMA (OR = 6.25 [CI 95%: 1.03; 37.95], p < 0,05), LV systolic dimension (1.34 [CI 95%: 1.01; 1.79], p < 0,05) and global longitudinal strain by speckle tracking (1.48 [CI 95%: 1.02; 2.12], p < 0,05) were strongly associated with cardiotoxicity. Conclusion: In the present study, we showed that LVWMA, in addition to global longitudinal strains, were strong predictors of cardiotoxicity and could be useful in the risk stratification of these patients.


Resumo Fundamento: Os agentes quimioterápicos da classe das antraciclinas e dos anticorpos monoclonais humanizados são tratamentos eficazes para o câncer de mama, entretanto, apresentam alto risco de cardiotoxicidade. Diversos parâmetros têm sido reconhecidos como preditores no desenvolvimento de toxicidade cardíaca, sendo que a avaliação da alteração contrátil segmentar ventricular esquerda (ACSVE) ainda não foi estudada. Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre o surgimento de ACSVE e o desenvolvimento de cardiotoxicidade em pacientes com câncer de mama em tratamento com quimioterapia. Métodos: Coorte prospectiva de pacientes diagnosticados com câncer de mama e em tratamento quimioterápico com doxorrubicina e/ou trastuzumab. Foram realizados ecocardiogramas transtorácicos antes, durante e depois do tratamento para avaliar a presença ou não de cardiotoxicidade. A cardiotoxicidade foi definida por um decréscimo de 10% na fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo, em pelo menos um ecocardiograma. Modelos de regressão logística multivariada foram utilizados para verificar os fatores preditores na ocorrência de cardiotoxicidade ao longo do tempo. Resultados: Dos 112 pacientes selecionados (idade média = 51,3 ± 12,9 anos), 18 (16,1%) apresentaram cardiotoxicidade. Na análise multivariada os pacientes com ACSVE (OR = 6,25 [IC 95%: 1,03; 37,95], p < 0,05), diâmetro sistólico do VE (OR = 1,34 [IC 95%:1,01; 1,79], p < 0,05) e strain longitudinal global pela técnica de speckle tracking (OR = 1,48 [IC 95%: 1,02; 2,12], p < 0,05) foram preditores significativos e independentes na predição de cardiotoxidade. Conclusão: Mostramos que ACSVE, bem como a redução do strain longitudinal global foram preditores independentes para cardiotoxicidade, podendo ser úteis na estratificação de risco destes pacientes.

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 112(1): 50-56, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapeutic agents of anthracyclines class and humanized monoclonal antibodies are effective treatments for breast cancer, however, they present a potential risk of cardiotoxicity. Several predictors have been recognized as predictors in the development of cardiac toxicity, and the evaluation of left ventricular segmental wall motion abnormalities (LVSWMA) has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To analyze prospectively the role of LVSWMA among echocardiographic parameters in the prediction of development of cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment with chemotherapy. METHODS: Prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with breast cancer and in chemotherapy treatment with potential cardiotoxicity medications including doxorubicin and trastuzumab. Transthoracic echocardiograms including speckle tracking strain echocardiography were performed at standard times before, during and after the treatment to assess the presence (or lack thereof) of cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity was defined by a 10% decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction, on at least one echocardiogram. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to verify the predictors related to the occurrence of cardiotoxicity over time. RESULTS: Of the 112 patients selected (mean age 51,3 ± 12,9 years), 18 participants (16.1%) had cardiotoxicity. In the multivariate analysis using the logistic regression model, those with LVWMA (OR = 6.25 [CI 95%: 1.03; 37.95], p < 0,05), LV systolic dimension (1.34 [CI 95%: 1.01; 1.79], p < 0,05) and global longitudinal strain by speckle tracking (1.48 [CI 95%: 1.02; 2.12], p < 0,05) were strongly associated with cardiotoxicity. CONCLUSION: In the present study, we showed that LVWMA, in addition to global longitudinal strains, were strong predictors of cardiotoxicity and could be useful in the risk stratification of these patients.

5.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(2): 205-212, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183988

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed tumor in women worldwide, with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Chemotherapy and hormone therapy have significantly reduced mortality; however, the adverse effects are significant. Aspirin has been incorporated into clinical practice for over 100 years at a low cost, making it particularly attractive as a potential agent in breast cancer prevention and as an adjunct treatment to endocrine therapy in the prophylaxis of cardiovascular complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of aspirin in reducing the incidence of breast cancer and to evaluate the impact of its use on morbidity and mortality and reduction of cardiovascular events as adjuvant therapy during breast cancer treatment with selective estrogen receptor modulators. A systematic review was performed using the PRISMA methodology and PICO criteria, based on the MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases. The original articles of clinical trials, cohort, case-control studies and meta-analyses published from January 1998 to June 2017, were considered. Most studies showed an association between the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators and the increase in thromboembolic events. The studies suggest a protective effect of aspirin for cardiovascular events during its concomitant use with selective estrogen receptor modulators and in the prevention of breast cancer. This systematic review suggests that aspirin therapy combines the benefit of protection against cardiovascular events with the potential reduction in breast cancer risk, and that the evaluation of the benefits of the interaction of endocrine therapy with aspirin should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(2): 205-212, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950222

RESUMO

Abstract Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed tumor in women worldwide, with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Chemotherapy and hormone therapy have significantly reduced mortality; however, the adverse effects are significant. Aspirin has been incorporated into clinical practice for over 100 years at a low cost, making it particularly attractive as a potential agent in breast cancer prevention and as an adjunct treatment to endocrine therapy in the prophylaxis of cardiovascular complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of aspirin in reducing the incidence of breast cancer and to evaluate the impact of its use on morbidity and mortality and reduction of cardiovascular events as adjuvant therapy during breast cancer treatment with selective estrogen receptor modulators. A systematic review was performed using the PRISMA methodology and PICO criteria, based on the MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases. The original articles of clinical trials, cohort, case-control studies and meta-analyses published from January 1998 to June 2017, were considered. Most studies showed an association between the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators and the increase in thromboembolic events. The studies suggest a protective effect of aspirin for cardiovascular events during its concomitant use with selective estrogen receptor modulators and in the prevention of breast cancer. This systematic review suggests that aspirin therapy combines the benefit of protection against cardiovascular events with the potential reduction in breast cancer risk, and that the evaluation of the benefits of the interaction of endocrine therapy with aspirin should be further investigated.


Resumo O câncer de mama é o tumor mais frequentemente diagnosticado em mulheres de todo o mundo, com impacto importante na morbimortalidade. A quimioterapia e a terapia hormonal reduziram significativamente a mortalidade, mas os efeitos adversos são consideráveis. A aspirina está incorporada à prática clínica há mais de 100 anos, com baixo custo, tornando-a particularmente atraente como potencial agente na prevenção do câncer de mama e auxiliar durante o tratamento endócrino, na profilaxia de complicações cardiovasculares. Objetivou-se avaliar o papel da aspirina na redução da incidência do câncer de mama e avaliar o impacto de seu uso na morbimortalidade e na redução de eventos cardiovasculares como terapia adjuvante durante o tratamento do câncer de mama com moduladores seletivos do receptor do estrogênio. Procedeu-se à revisão sistemática utilizando-se a metodologia PRISMA e os critérios PICO, nas bases MEDLINE, EMBASE e LILACS. Foram considerados os artigos originais do tipo ensaio clínico, coorte, caso-controle e metanálises, publicados no período de janeiro de 1998 até junho de 2017. Na maioria dos estudos, houve relação entre o uso dos moduladores seletivos do receptor do estrogênio e o aumento de eventos tromboembólicos. Os estudos sugerem efeito protetor da aspirina para eventos cardiovasculares em uso concomitante aos moduladores seletivos do receptor do estrogênio e na prevenção do câncer de mama. Esta revisão sistemática sugere que o tratamento com aspirina combina o benefício da proteção contra eventos cardiovasculares com a potencial redução do risco de câncer de mama, e que a avaliação dos benefícios da interação da terapia endócrina com a aspirina deve ser melhor investigada.

7.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(4): f:313-l:318, out.-dez. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-879527

RESUMO

O primeiro passo para a prevenção de cardiotoxicidade é avaliar o indivíduo quanto ao risco cardiovascular basal e identificar os pacientes de alto risco. É essencial a abordagem proativa, otimizando o tratamento das doenças cardiovasculares existentes e reduzindo os fatores que contribuem para o aumento do risco cardiovascular. Essa avaliação é um processo contínuo, que deve acontecer durante todo o tratamento. Nos pacientes candidatos a altas doses de antraciclina, algumas estratégias possíveis para mitigar a cardiotoxicidade são o uso de infusão contínua de antraciclina em vez de infusão em bolus, uso de doxorrubicina lipossomal em substituição a doxorrubicina tradicional e uso de dexrazoxano antes da infusão de antracíclico. As evidências atuais ainda não corroboram o uso rotineiro de bloqueadores neuro-hormonais ou estatinas como agentes cardioprotetores em todos os pacientes tratados com quimioterapia potencialmente cardiotóxica


he first step in preventing cardiotoxicity is to evaluate the baseline cardiovascular risk in the individual, and to identify high-risk patients. A proactive approach is essential, optimizing the treatment of existing cardiovascular patients and reducing the factors that contribute to the increase in cardiovascular risk. This evaluation is a continuous process that should occur throughout the treatment. In candidate patients for high-dose anthracycline, some possible strategies to mitigate cardiotoxicity are the use of continuous anthracycline infusion instead of as a bolus, the use of liposomal doxorubicin to replace traditional doxorubicin, and the use of dexrazoxane prior to anthracycline infusion. Current evidence does not support the routine use of neurohormonal blockers or statins as cardioprotective agents in all patients treated with potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cardiotoxicidade/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Fatores Etários , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Exercício , Obesidade , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Tabagismo , Disfunção Ventricular/diagnóstico
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