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1.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 25: 43-49, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using the photosensitizer hypericin-glucamine in the progression of experimentally induced periodontal disease (PD) in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subgingival ligatures were inserted around the upper second molars of 30 rats. After 7 days (Baseline), the animals were randomly distributed into 3 experimental (n = 5) groups: Hypericin-glucamine; LED (amber LED, 700 mA, 590 nm, 90 mW, 34.10 J/cm2); and aPDT (Hypericin-glucamine + LED). The treated hemimaxillae were randomly chosen. The periodontal disease progression was monitored without treatment interference in the opposite hemimaxillaes, which were used as the negative control of each animal. The euthanasia was programmed according to each experimental period, 7 or 15 days after the Baseline. Microtomographic, histometric and Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) immunohistochemistry analyses were carried out. RESULTS: Computerized microtomography analyses indicated that the aPDT group had a significantly higher percentage of bone tissue when compared to the other 7 days experimental groups. This result was corroborated by the histometric evaluations of the furcal area. The LED-treated group presented the highest percentages of bone volume for the 15 days experimental groups, which is remarkably higher than the groups treated with Hy-g and aPDT. The histometric analyses demonstrated the control groups had greater bone loss in the proximal regions when compared to the treated groups. The aPDT led to a lower osteoclast activity at both 7 and 15 days. Thus, we can conclude that aPDT exhibits positive effects in PD treatment by promoting favorable conditions for periodontal repair.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Masculino , Maxila/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Perileno/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Licere (Online) ; 21(2): i:258-f:280, junho2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-910656

RESUMO

A educação em projetos fora do ambiente escolar é uma possibilidade no processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar se o lazer, vivenciado por meio de um projeto dessa natureza, pode promover um processo de educação e identificar a percepção de 5 futuros animadores socioculturais sobre lazer, educação e a relação entre ambos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o lazer contribui para a formação dos participantes do projeto por meio da educação para e pelo lazer. Os futuros animadores socioculturais apresentam vontade e percepção positiva quanto à utilização do aspecto educacional do lazer e de seus benefícios, e acreditam que a vivência contribuirá na formação pessoal, social e curricular dos alunos. Conclui-se que há a necessidade de formação continuada e de atenção especial dos monitores com o próprio lazer, e da instituição de uma equipe multidisciplinar para atuar na área.


Education in projects outside the school environment is a possibility in the teaching-learning process. The objectives of this study were to verify if leisure, experienced through such a project, can promote a process of education and identify the perception of 5 future socio-cultural animators on leisure, education and the relationship between both. The results indicate that leisure contributes to the development of project participants by means of education for and through leisure. Future socio-cultural animators are willing and positive about the use of the educational aspect of leisure and its benefits, and believe that the experience will contribute to the personal, social and curricular formation of the students. It is concluded that there is a need for continuous training and special attention of the monitors with their own leisure, and the institution of a multidisciplinary team to work in the area.


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Ensino , Características Culturais , Educação , Capacitação Profissional , Aprendizado Social , Aprendizagem , Atividades de Lazer
4.
Neuromolecular Med ; 19(1): 113-121, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27535567

RESUMO

The protein α-synuclein (α-Syn) interferes with glucose and lipid uptake and also activates innate immune cells. However, it remains unclear whether α-Syn or its familial mutant forms contribute to metabolic alterations and inflammation in synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we address this issue in transgenic mice for the mutant A53T human α-Syn (α-SynA53T), a mouse model of synucleinopathies. At 9.5 months of age, mice overexpressing α-SynA53T (homozygous) had a significant reduction in weight, exhibited improved locomotion and did not show major motor deficits compared with control transgenic mice (heterozygous). At 17 months of age, α-SynA53T overexpression promoted general reduction in grip strength and deficient hindlimb reflex and resulted in severe disease and mortality in 50 % of the mice. Analysis of serum metabolites further revealed decreased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in α-SynA53T-overexpressing mice. In fed conditions, these mice also showed a significant decrease in serum insulin without alterations in blood glucose. In addition, assessment of inflammatory gene expression in the brain showed a significant increase in TNF-α mRNA but not of IL-1ß induced by α-SynA53T overexpression. Interestingly, the brain mRNA levels of Sirtuin 2 (Sirt2), a deacetylase involved in both metabolic and inflammatory pathways, were significantly reduced. Our findings highlight the relevance of the mechanisms underlying initial weight loss and hyperactivity as early markers of synucleinopathies. Moreover, we found that changes in blood metabolites and decreased brain Sirt2 gene expression are associated with motor deficits.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Atividade Motora/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/genética , Mutação Puntual , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/genética , Química Encefálica/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Força da Mão , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/metabolismo , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/fisiopatologia , Reflexo Anormal/genética , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Sirtuína 2/biossíntese , Sirtuína 2/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/fisiologia
5.
Surg. cosmet. dermatol. (Impr.) ; 8(4): 362-365, out.-dez. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-877320

RESUMO

Retalhos cutâneos constituem técnica cirúrgica particularmente útil para reparos estéticos nos casos de excisões extensas e/ou lesões de localizações peculiares, como a orelha. Diversas opções de retalhos cutâneos já foram descritas, determinando resultados variáveis que dependem do conhecimento teórico e da experiência prática do cirurgião. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar dois casos de sucesso com a utilização das técnicas de retalhos anterior e posterior para reparação da orelha e revisar a literatura afim.


The skin flaps are surgical techniques particularly useful to aesthetic repair in cases of extended excision and/or unusual sites, as in the ear. Many skin flaps options were already reported, resulting in variable results of the theoretical knowledge and practical experience of the surgeon. This article aims to describe two successful cases of ear reconstruction with the use of anterior and posterior flaps and to review the current literature.

6.
J Periodontol ; 87(4): 452-60, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26693695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser has been widely used in the dental clinic; however, few studies have demonstrated the advantages of the use of this laser for bone osteotomies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the bone repair process of defects generated by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser or conventional drills. METHODS: Ninety-six rats were divided into two groups of 48 animals (drill group and laser group). After surgical exposure of the right tibia, the animals were subjected to a 2-mm-diameter osteotomy created by conventional drills (drill group) or by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser (laser group). The animals were sacrificed 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days after the creation of the defect, and histologic sections were obtained and used for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses for the detection of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand, vascular endothelial growth factor, and caspase-3. RESULTS: The osteotomy with the drill produced well-delimited and smooth walls, whereas the osteotomies in the laser group were irregular and presented an amorphous basophilic line and bone necrosis that was slowly resorbed during the repair process. Despite these characteristics, bone repair was similar between groups at various time points, and, at 60 days, the defects in both groups were completely repaired by newly formed bone. CONCLUSION: The repair process of osteotomies created by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, despite producing thermal damage to bone tissue, is comparable to that with conventional drills.


Assuntos
Osteotomia , Animais , Cromo , Érbio , Gálio , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Escândio , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Ítrio
7.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140228, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26501199

RESUMO

Iron overload is associated with acquired and genetic conditions, the most common being hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) type-I, caused by HFE mutations. Here, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 41 patients from the São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), six belonging to a family with HH type-I pseudodominant inheritance, and 35 unrelated individuals fulfilling the biochemical criteria of iron overload compatible with HH type-I. For this purpose, we analyzed the most common HFE mutations- c.845G>A [p.Cys282Tyr], c.187C>G [p.His63Asp], and c.193A>T [p.Ser65Cys]. Results revealed that the family's HH pseudodominant pattern is due to consanguineous marriage of HFE-c.845G>A carriers, and to marriage with a genetically unrelated spouse that is a -c.187G carrier. Regarding unrelated patients, six were homozygous for c.845A, and three were c.845A/c.187G compound heterozygous. We then performed sequencing of HFE exons 2, 4, 5 and their intron-flanking regions. No other mutations were observed, but we identified the -c.340+4C [IVS2+4C] splice variant in 26 (74.3%) patients. Functionally, the c.340+4C may generate alternative splicing by HFE exon 2 skipping and consequently, a protein missing the α1-domain essential for HFE/ transferrin receptor-1 interactions. Finally, we investigated HFE mutations configuration with iron overload by determining haplotypes and genotypic profiles. Results evidenced that carriers of HFE-c.187G allele also carry -c.340+4C, suggesting in-cis configuration. This data is corroborated by the association analysis where carriers of the complex allele HFE-c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] have an increased iron overload risk (RR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.40-2.94, p<0.001). Therefore, homozygous for this complex allele are at risk of having iron overload because they will produce two altered proteins--the p.63Asp [c.187G], and the protein lacking 88 amino acids encoded by exon 2. In summary, we provide evidence that the complex allele HFE-c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] has a role, as genetic predisposition factor, on iron overload in the São Miguel population. Independent replication studies in other populations are needed to confirm this association.


Assuntos
Heterozigoto , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Sobrecarga de Ferro/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Açores/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Antígenos HLA-A/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Proteína da Hemocromatose , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 15(2): 147-55, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25700046

RESUMO

Surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) combine several methods to determine the location and timing of viral amplification. The value of each surveillance method must be measured against its efficiency and costs to optimize integrated vector management and suppress WNV transmission to the human population. Here we extend previous comparisons of WNV surveillance methods by equitably comparing the most common methods after standardization on the basis of spatial sampling density and costs, and by estimating optimal levels of sampling effort for mosquito traps and sentinel chicken flocks. In general, testing for evidence of viral RNA in mosquitoes and public-reported dead birds resulted in detection of WNV approximately 2-5 weeks earlier than serological monitoring of sentinel chickens at equal spatial sampling density. For a fixed cost, testing of dead birds reported by the public was found to be the most cost effective of the methods, yielding the highest number of positive results per $1000. Increased spatial density of mosquito trapping was associated with more precise estimates of WNV infection prevalence in mosquitoes. Our findings also suggested that the most common chicken flock size of 10 birds could be reduced to six to seven without substantial reductions in timeliness or sensitivity. We conclude that a surveillance system that uses the testing of dead birds reported by the public complemented by strategically timed mosquito and chicken sampling as agency resources allow would detect viral activity efficiently in terms of effort and costs, so long as susceptible bird species that experience a high mortality rate from infection with WNV, such as corvids, are present in the area.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Culicidae/virologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 3(6): e001143, 2014 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between short sleep duration and cardiovascular risk, although the nature of any relationship and mechanisms remain unclear. Short sleep duration has also been linked to an increase in cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction has itself been implicated as a mediator of heightened cardiovascular risk. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8 nights of partial sleep restriction on endothelial function in healthy humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent a randomized study of usual sleep versus sleep restriction of two-thirds normal sleep time for 8 days/8 nights in a hospital-based clinical research unit. The main outcome was endothelial function measured by flow-mediated brachial artery vasodilatation (FMD). Those randomized to sleep restriction slept 5.1 hours/night during the experimental period compared with 6.9 hours/night in the control group. Sleep restriction was associated with significant impairment in FMD (8.6±4.6% during the initial pre-randomization acclimation phase versus 5.2±3.4% during the randomized experimental phase, P=0.01) whereas no change was seen in the control group (5.0±3.0 during the acclimation phase versus 6.73±2.9% during the experimental phase, P=0.10) for a between-groups difference of -4.40% (95% CI -7.00 to -1.81%, P=0.003). No change was seen in non-flow mediated vasodilatation (NFMD) in either group. CONCLUSION: In healthy individuals, moderate sleep restriction causes endothelial dysfunction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01334788.


Assuntos
Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/complicações , Sono , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Vasodilatação , Adulto , Artéria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Endotélio Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Polissonografia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Fatores de Risco , Privação do Sono/diagnóstico , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 5(4): 436-45, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24690191

RESUMO

We investigated the involvement of birds in the ecology of the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, and its associated zoonotic bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, at two interior coast-range study sites in northern California. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA), and B. burgdorferi s.s., the agent of Lyme disease (LD), are tick-borne pathogens that are well established in California. We screened blood and ticks from 349 individual birds in 48 species collected in 2011 and 2012 using pathogen-specific PCR. A total of 617 immature I. pacificus was collected with almost three times as many larvae than nymphs. There were 7.5 times more I. pacificus at the Napa County site compared to the Yolo County site. Two of 74 (3%) nymphal pools from an Oregon junco (Junco hyemalis) and a hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) and 4 individual larvae (all from Oregon juncos) were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. Blood samples from a golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla) and a European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) were positive for A. phagocytophilum DNA at very low levels. Birds that forage on ground or bark and nest on the ground, as well as some migratory species, are at an increased risk for acquiring I. pacificus. Our findings show that birds contribute to the ecologies of LD and GA in California by serving as a blood-meal source, feeding and transporting immature I. pacificus, and sometimes as a source of Borrelia infection.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Ixodes/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Migração Animal , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/classificação , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/genética , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Granulócitos/microbiologia , Ixodes/classificação , Larva , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , Ninfa , Passeriformes , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
11.
Araraquara; s.n; 2014. 59 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-867875

RESUMO

A Terapia Fotodinâmica (TFD) tem mostrado resultados satisfatórios quando associada aotratamento mecânico de doenças periodontais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se a TFDcom o fotossensibilizador hipericina-glucamina, ativado por LED âmbar (34,10 J/cm2) e associada à raspagem e alisamento radicular (RAR), promove melhor reparo da doença periodontal induzida experimentalmente em ratos. Para indução da DP foram instaladasligaduras no sulco de um dos segundos molares superiores, escolhido randomicamente. Após 15 dias as ligaduras foram removidas e os animais aleatoriamente distribuídos entre 4 grupos experimentais (n =5): Grupo IDP (Indução da Doença Periodontal); Grupo RAR; Grupo TFD; Grupo RAR+TFD. Após 7, 15 e 30 dias da aplicação do tratamento os animais forameutanasiados. As hemimaxilas foram submetidas a Microtomografia digital e avaliações histométricas. Os dados foram avaliados pelo teste de normalidade de Shapiro-Wilk. Osgrupos foram avaliados entre si e os dados paramétricos foram avaliados pelo teste ANOVA. Todos os testes foram aplicados com p<0,05. Não foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos avaliados. Concluímos que a TFD como adjunta à RAR ou isolada obteve resultados semelhantes à raspagem e alisamento radicular.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Fotoquimioterapia
12.
An Bras Dermatol ; 88(6 Suppl 1): 78-81, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24346886

RESUMO

Here, we describe an atypical case of systemic sclerosis in its diffuse cutaneous form with acute and rapid progression of the cutaneous condition, without any systemic manifestations and the infrequent formation of bullae, showing the importance of diagnosis and early treatment in such cases. This case also shows that special measures should be taken for bullous cutaneous lesions and ulcerations resulting from serious sclerosis, which are entry points and increase morbidity and risk of death. Other prognostic factors include age, ESR and renal and pulmonary involvement. Capillaroscopies can be useful predictors of greater severity of systemic scleroderma, revealing a greater link with systemic, rather than cutaneous, involvement.


Assuntos
Vesícula/patologia , Esclerodermia Difusa/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(6,supl.1): 78-81, Nov-Dec/2013. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-696815

RESUMO

Here, we describe an atypical case of systemic sclerosis in its diffuse cutaneous form with acute and rapid progression of the cutaneous condition, without any systemic manifestations and the infrequent formation of bullae, showing the importance of diagnosis and early treatment in such cases. This case also shows that special measures should be taken for bullous cutaneous lesions and ulcerations resulting from serious sclerosis, which are entry points and increase morbidity and risk of death. Other prognostic factors include age, ESR and renal and pulmonary involvement. Capillaroscopies can be useful predictors of greater severity of systemic scleroderma, revealing a greater link with systemic, rather than cutaneous, involvement.


Descrevemos um caso atípico de esclerose sistêmica em sua forma cutânea difusa com instalação aguda e rápida progressão do quadro cutâneo sem qualquer acometimento sistêmico e a infrequente formação de bolhas, demostrando a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento precoce frente a casos semelhantes e mostrando, com a experiência deste caso, que cuidados especiais devem ser tomados com as lesões cutâneas bolhosas e as ulcerações decorrentes da grave esclerose que são portas de entrada e aumentam a morbidade e risco de morte. Outros fatores prognósticos descritos são idade, VHS e envolvimento pulmonar e renal. A capilaroscopia pode ser preditor de maior gravidade da esclerodermia sistêmica, guardando maior relação com o envolvimento sistêmico do que cutâneo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vesícula/patologia , Esclerodermia Difusa/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 89(6): 1168-78, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24043690

RESUMO

The vector competence and bionomics of Culex pipiens form pipiens L. and Cx. pipiens f. molestus Forskäl were evaluated for populations from the Sacramento Valley. Both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit West Nile virus. Form molestus females also transmitted West Nile virus vertically to egg rafts and F1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. Culex pipiens complex from urban Sacramento blood-fed on seven different avian species and two mammalian species. Structure analysis of blood-fed mosquitoes identified K = 4 genetic clusters: f. molestus, f. pipiens, a group of genetically similar hybrids (Cluster X), and admixed individuals. When females were exposed as larvae to midwinter conditions in bioenvironmental chambers, 85% (N = 79) of aboveground Cx. pipiens complex females and 100% (N = 34) of underground f. molestus females did not enter reproductive diapause.


Assuntos
Culex/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Culex/classificação , Culex/virologia , Diapausa de Inseto , Feminino , Variação Genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Larva/virologia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Fenótipo , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia
15.
J Med Entomol ; 50(4): 773-90, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23926775

RESUMO

At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010-2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios <1.5 (indicative of a hormonally induced diapause). In contrast, most Cx. pipiens complex females did not enter reproductive diapause and ovarian follicles matured to >or=stage I-II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 +/- 30.7 and 162.85 +/- 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting collections occurred concurrently with diapause termination in field populations based on ovarian morphometrics. WNV RNA was detected in one pool of 18 males and in a single blood-fed female Cx. tarsalis collected during winter. Therefore, both vertically and horizontally infected Culex females may persist through winter and possibly transmit WNV after diapause termination in late winter or early spring in the Sacramento Valley of California.


Assuntos
Culex/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Células Vero/virologia , Ensaio de Placa Viral , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 168(4): 3267-72, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23669108

RESUMO

AIMS: Brugada syndrome is characterized by typical ECG features, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD), more frequent during nighttime. Autonomic cardiovascular control has been implicated in triggering the ventricular arrhythmias. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) elicits marked autonomic changes during sleep and is also associated with an increased risk of nighttime SCD. Brugada patients may have a higher likelihood of SDB compared to controls. However, no data are available on cardiac autonomic control in Brugada patients, particularly with regard to the comorbidity of SDB. METHODS: We evaluated autonomic cardiovascular control in Brugada patients with SDB (BRU-SDB, n=9), without SDB (BRU, n=9), in controls (CON, n=8) and in non-Brugada patients with SDB (n=6), during wakefulness and sleep (N2, N3 and REM). Linear spectral and entropy-derived measures of heart rate variability (HRV) were performed during apnea-free stable breathing epochs. RESULTS: Total HRV was attenuated in BRU-SDB compared to CON and BRU. During N2 and REM, in BRU-SDB patients sympathetic modulation decreased compared to BRU and CON, while during REM, they showed an increased parasympathetic modulation, compared to the other two groups. BRU-SDB and SDB were similar in terms of spectral components. Entropy-derived indices showed preserved dynamic changes in Brugada patients compared to controls through the different sleep stages. CONCLUSION: Brugada syndrome per se does not appear associated with an altered autonomic cardiovascular control during wakefulness and sleep. The comorbidity with SDB may contribute to disrupted autonomic cardiovascular regulation during sleep, possibly predisposing to the increased likelihood of sleep-related ventricular tachyarrhythmias and SCD.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Brugada/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Brugada/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Síndrome de Brugada/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/métodos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia
17.
J Med Entomol ; 50(2): 371-8, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23540126

RESUMO

Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, the primary summer vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV), also may serve as overwintering reservoir hosts. Detection of WN viral RNA from larvae hatched from eggs deposited by infected females during late summer and fall may provide evidence for the vertical passage of WNV to overwintering cohorts. To determine whether vertical transmission to the overwintering generation occurs in populations of Culex mosquitoes throughout California, larvae from naturally infected females were tested by family for WN viral RNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during August through October 2011. Viral RNA was detected in 34 of 934 Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Cx. pipiens complex females that laid viable egg rafts. From these egg rafts, first-instar larvae from nine families tested positive, yielding an overall field vertical transmission rate of 26% (n = 34). To determine whether the WNV may be lost transtadially during development to the adult stage, first-instar larvae and adult progeny from experimentally infected Cx. pipiens complex females were assessed for the presence and quantity of WN viral RNA. Most (approximately 75%) WNV infections were lost from positive families during larval development to the adult stage. In field and laboratory studies, only infected mothers with mean cycle threshold scores < or = 20 vertically transmitted WNV to larval progeny, adult progeny, or both. In summary, vertical transmission of WNV was detected repeatedly in naturally infected Culex mosquitoes collected throughout California during late summer and fall, with females having high titered infections capable of passing WNV onto their progeny destined for overwintering.


Assuntos
Culex/virologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , Larva/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Dinâmica Populacional , RNA Viral/análise , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
18.
Chest ; 144(1): 79-86, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23392199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies link short sleep duration to obesity and weight gain. Insufficient sleep appears to alter circulating levels of the hormones leptin and ghrelin, which may promote appetite, although the effects of sleep restriction on caloric intake and energy expenditure are unclear. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8 nights of sleep restriction on caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. METHODS: We conducted a randomized study of usual sleep vs a sleep restriction of two-thirds of normal sleep time for 8 days/8 nights in a hospital-based clinical research unit. The main outcomes were caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. RESULTS: Caloric intake in the sleep-restricted group increased by +559 kcal/d (SD, 706 kcal/d, P=.006) and decreased in the control group by -118 kcal/d (SD, 386 kcal/d, P=.51) for a net change of +677 kcal/d (95% CI, 148-1,206 kcal/d; P=.014). Sleep restriction was not associated with changes in activity energy expenditure (P=.62). No change was seen in levels of leptin (P=.27) or ghrelin (P=.21). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in caloric consumption with no change in activity energy expenditure or leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Increased caloric intake without any accompanying increase in energy expenditure may contribute to obesity in people who are exposed to long-term sleep restriction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01334788; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 35(8): 1005-11, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22670591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The head-up tilt test (HUT) is widely used to investigate unexplained syncope; however, in clinical practice, it is long and sometimes not well tolerated. OBJECTIVES: To compare the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and patients' tolerance of a conventional and shortened HUT. METHODS: Patients with a history of vasovagal syndrome (VVS) were randomized to a conventional HUT (group I) consisting of 20-minute passive tilt followed by 25 minutes after administration of sublingual isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), or a shortened HUT (group II) where ISDN was given immediately after tilt and observed for 25 minutes. The control group consisted of age- and gender-matched subjects without VVS symptoms. A specific questionnaire to evaluate tolerance was applied. RESULTS: Sixty patients (29 ± 10 years, 82% female) were included. In group I, 22/30 patients had a positive HUT compared to 21/30 in group II (73% vs 70%, P = 0.77). There was also no difference in the accuracy between the two protocols (63% vs 73%, P = 0.24). The time to positivity was shorter in group II (13.2 minutes vs 30 minutes, P < 0.001). Within the control group (n = 60), the frequency of false-positives was 47% and 23% for the conventional and shortened HUT, respectively (P = 0.058). After conventional HUT, 65.2% subjects reported that the test was too long compared to 25% subjects after the shortened HUT (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: In this study, the HUT without passive phase was not inferior to the conventional HUT regarding sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Furthermore, the shortened ISDN-potentiated protocol allowed faster diagnosis and was better tolerated.


Assuntos
Dinitrato de Isossorbida , Síncope Vasovagal/diagnóstico , Vasodilatadores , Adulto , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Isoproterenol , Dinitrato de Isossorbida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Nitroglicerina , Satisfação do Paciente , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Teste da Mesa Inclinada/métodos , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Med Entomol ; 48(2): 398-404, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21485380

RESUMO

Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are competent vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in the laboratory, and field-collected mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus in California and elsewhere. A better understanding of Cx. pipiens complex blood-feeding patterns will help define the threat that these mosquitoes pose to human health and their role in WNV amplification in northern California. We collected blood-engorged Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes from resting sites near and away from human habitation in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. Cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences were used to identify the vertebrate species from which blood meals were taken. Of 330 engorged mosquitoes collected at 28 sites from June through August 2007 and May through August 2008, >99% fed on an avian host. Three mosquitoes contained bovine blood and none had fed on a human. American Robins (Turdus migratorius) were bitten most often, and the proportion of American Robin blood meals increased significantly over the summer. Other important avian hosts included House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura). In rural areas, Barn Swallows, Brewer's Blackbirds (Euphagus cyanocephalus), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) were frequent hosts. In settings near human habitation, Mourning Doves and Western Meadowlarks were common hosts. Our data indicate that in north central California mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex may be more important as epiornitic than epidemic vectors of WNV.


Assuntos
Culex/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Aves/sangue , Sangue , California , Bovinos/sangue , Demografia , Humanos , Estações do Ano
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