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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the driving difficulties experienced by individuals with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and characterise associated clinical and sociodemographic features, and impact on work. METHOD: The Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis (SIRAS) is a cohort study of patients with a clinical diagnosis of axSpA. Baseline information was collected on clinical and patient-reported measures, and work participation measures (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: Specific Health Problem (WPAI: SHP)). Patient-rated difficulties with nine driving tasks were used in a factor analysis, and relationships between driving difficulty and work participation investigated. RESULTS: 718 patients provided data for analysis, of which 642 (89%) had some difficulty with at least one driving task and 72 (10%) had some difficulty with all nine tasks. Three domains of driving difficulty were identified: dynamic driving scenarios, crossing traffic, and the physical act of driving. Chronic widespread pain, knee and back pain, fatigue, high disease activity and anxiety/depression were significantly associated with reporting driving difficulties across all three domains, particularly the physical act of driving. After adjusting for socio-demographic, disease activity, physical and mental health, driving difficulties in each domain were associated with a 2-3 times increased likelihood of restricted work productivity and with an increased risk of sickness absence in the past seven days. CONCLUSION: Driving difficulties are common in individuals with axSpA and impact on work, even after adjusting for clinical status. Improving understanding and awareness of driving disability will help direct advice and resources to enable individuals to remain independent and economically active.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043675, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain, defined as persistent or recurring pain or pain lasting longer than 3 months, is a common childhood problem and can profoundly impact children's physical, psychological and social functioning. The last comprehensive systematic review estimating the prevalence of chronic pain in children and adolescents was published in 2011. Since then, the literature on paediatric chronic pain has grown substantially. This manuscript outlines a protocol for an updated systematic review to provide updated estimates of the prevalence of various forms of chronic pain in children and adolescence. The review will also examine the relationship between sociodemographic and psychosocial factors related to chronic pain prevalence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This review will follow Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We will search EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO for observational studies published in English between 2009 and 2020 reporting population-based estimates of chronic non-disease-related pain prevalence in children or adolescents (age ≤19 years). Two independent reviewers will screen the titles and abstracts retrieved from the search based on predefined eligibility criteria. The full texts of relevant studies will then be assessed by two reviewers. Studies meeting inclusion criteria will be categorised according to the type of pain investigated: headache only, abdominal pain only, back pain only, musculoskeletal pain, combined pain, general pain and other pain. Data will be extracted using customised forms and studies will be assessed for risk of bias using a 10-item tool developed by Hoy et al (2012). A narrative synthesis will summarise the prevalence estimates of paediatric chronic pain and associated sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions will be performed if the data permit. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required. Findings will be disseminated through publication in an academic journal, presentations at conferences and in various media. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020198690.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between socioeconomic disadvantage (low education and/or income) and head and neck cancer is well established, with smoking and alcohol consumption explaining up to three-quarters of the risk. We aimed to investigate the nature of and explanations for head and neck cancer risk associated with occupational socioeconomic prestige (a perceptual measure of psychosocial status), occupational socioeconomic position and manual-work experience, and to assess the potential explanatory role of occupational exposures. METHODS: Pooled analysis included 5818 patients with head and neck cancer (and 7326 control participants) from five studies in Europe and South America. Lifetime job histories were coded to: (1) occupational social prestige-Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS); (2) occupational socioeconomic position-International Socio-Economic Index (ISEI); and (3) manual/non-manual jobs. RESULTS: For the longest held job, adjusting for smoking, alcohol and nature of occupation, increased head and neck cancer risk estimates were observed for low SIOPS OR=1.88 (95% CI: 1.64 to 2.17), low ISEI OR=1.74 (95% CI: 1.51 to 1.99) and manual occupations OR=1.49 (95% CI: 1.35 to 1.64). Following mutual adjustment by socioeconomic exposures, risk associated with low SIOPS remained OR=1.59 (95% CI: 1.30 to 1.94). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that low occupational socioeconomic prestige, position and manual work are associated with head and neck cancer, and such risks are only partly explained by smoking, alcohol and occupational exposures. Perceptual occupational psychosocial status (SIOPS) appears to be the strongest socioeconomic factor, relative to socioeconomic position and manual/non-manual work.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in the management of chronic widespread pain (CWP); we now test whether it can prevent onset among adults at high risk. METHODS: A population-based randomised controlled prevention trial, with recruitment through UK general practices. A mailed screening questionnaire identified adults at high risk of CWP. Participants received either usual care (UC) or a short course of telephone CBT (tCBT). The primary outcome was CWP onset at 12 months assessed by mailed questionnaire. There were seven secondary outcomes including quality of life (EuroQol Questionnaire-five dimensions-five levels/EQ-5D-5L) used as part of a health economic assessment. RESULTS: 996 participants were randomised and included in the intention-to-treat analysis of which 825 provided primary outcome data. The median age of participants was 59 years; 59% were women. At 12 months there was no difference in the onset of CWP (tCBT: 18.0% vs UC: 17.5%; OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.48). Participants who received tCBT were more likely to report better quality of life (EQ-5D-5L utility score mean difference 0.024 (95% CI 0.009 to 0.040)); and had 0.023 (95% CI 0.007 to 0.039) more quality-adjusted life-years at an additional cost of £42.30 (95% CI -£451.19 to £597.90), yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £1828. Most secondary outcomes showed significant benefit for the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: A short course of tCBT did not prevent onset of CWP in adults at high risk, but improved quality of life and was cost-effective. A low-cost, short-duration intervention benefits persons at risk of CWP. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT02668003).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with fibromyalgia (FM) development and recovery in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). METHODS: The British Society of Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR-AS) recruited patients with axSpA from 83 centres, in a prospective study. FM was diagnosed using the self-reported Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria (FM-criteria) from 2015. Measures of axSpA disease activity and clinical findings were recorded at regular intervals. We identified predictors for FM development and recovery between yearly visits using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Eight hundred and one participants, 247 (30.8%) female, had two or more visits and were eligible for inclusion. 686 participants did not have FM at baseline, of whom 45 had developed FM at follow-up. 115 participants had FM at baseline, of whom 77 had recovered at follow-up. High baseline Bath Ankylosing Disease activity Index (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.08-1.49) and Widespread pain index (WPI) (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28) were significantly associated withFM development in the final multivariable model. Low baseline Bath Ankylosing Function Index (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.86), WPI (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.720 to 0.97) and starting a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor(OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.54-9.71) were significantly associated with FM recovery. CONCLUSION: High levels of disease activity and presence of widespread pain is associated with the development of FM in patients with axSpA, while low levels of the same variables and starting a TNF-inhibitor are associated with recovery from FM. The presence of co-morbid FM should be considered in patients with persistent high axSpA disease activity and wide spread pain.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether comorbidities influence disease activity assessment in axial SpA (axSpA) is unclear. Comorbidities inflate DAS28 in rheumatoid arthritis through the patient global score. We examined whether axSpA disease activity measures are differentially affected, and whether comorbidities inflate the AS disease activity score (ASDAS) through the patient global component. METHODS: We used baseline data from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for AS, including 14 physician diagnosed comorbidities. Linear models were used to compare disease activity (BASDAI, spinal pain, ASDAS) and ESR/CRP according to comorbidity count, adjusted for age, gender, BMI, smoking, socioeconomic status, and education. The same models were used to examine whether the patient global score was associated with comorbidities, additionally adjusting for other ASDAS components. RESULTS: The number of participants eligible for analysis was 2043 (67% male, mean age 49 years); 44% had at least one comorbidity. Each additional comorbidity was associated with higher BASDAI by 0.40 units (95% CI: 0.27, 0.52) and spinal pain by 0.53 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.68). Effect size for ASDAS (0.09 units; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.15) was not clinically significant. ESR and CRP were not associated with comorbidity count. Depression, heart failure and peptic ulcer were consistently associated with higher disease activity measures, but not CRP/ESR. Patient global was associated with comorbidity count, but not independently of other ASDAS components (P = 0.75). CONCLUSION: Comorbidities were associated with higher patient reported disease activity in axSpA. Clinicians should be mindful of the potential impact of comorbidities on patient reported outcome measures and consider additionally collecting ASDAS when comorbidities are present.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comorbidities influence disease assessment in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), but their association with response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi) is unclear. We examined associations between comorbidity history at TNFi initiation and: 1) change in disease indices over time; 2) binary response definitions; 3) time-to-treatment-discontinuation. METHODS: We studied participants starting their first TNFi from a national axSpA register. Comorbidity categories were created from 14 physician-diagnosed conditions and compared against: change in disease indices over time using linear mixed effects models; BASDAI50/2 (50% or 2-unit reduction) and BASDAI<4 at 6 months using logistic models; and time-to-treatment-discontinuation using Cox models. Models were adjusted for age, gender, BMI, deprivation and education. RESULTS: 994 were eligible for analysis (68% male, mean age 45 years); 21% had one comorbidity and 11% had ≥2. Baseline disease severity was higher in those with comorbidities across all indices, but absolute improvement over time was comparable for BASDAI and spinal pain. Participants with ≥2 comorbidities had smaller absolute improvement in BASFI and quality of life. This group also had numerically reduced odds of achieving BASDAI50/2 (OR 0.81; 95%CI 0.45, 1.45) and BASDAI<4 (OR 0.57; 95%CI 0.32, 1.04). Treatment discontinuation was increased in those with 2 comorbidities (HR 1.32; 95%CI 0.88, 2.00) and ≥3 comorbidities (HR 2.18; 95%CI 1.20, 3.93) compared to none. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with multiple comorbidities had poorer treatment outcomes, particularly increased treatment discontinuation and poorer improvements in function and quality of life. These results inform clinicians and educate patients about response to the first TNFi given comorbidity burden.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine amongst patients with axSpA 1) factors associated with decreased spinal mobility and 2) whether poor mobility is a predictor of response to anti-TNFα therapy. METHODS: A prospective UK cohort study of persons meeting ASAS criteria for axial spondyloarthritis. At recruitment, clinical and patient-reported factors independently associated with spinal mobility (measured by BASMI) were determined. Amongst those commencing anti-TNFα therapy, factors which were independent predictors of response was determined using ASAS, quality of life and ASDAS response criteria. RESULTS: 1,960 participants were eligible; 70% male, median age 48 years (inter-quartile range 37,59), median BASMI score 3.6(2.2,5.3). Factors independently associated with poor spinal mobility were: poorer function; meeting x-ray criteria for AS; longer symptom duration; higher levels of inflammation (measured by CRP); older age; male gender; not being currently employed and lower levels of education. For 51% of participants, measured BASMI was within 1 of that estimated. Poorer mobility (higher BASMI) was an independent predictor of not meeting response criteria for ASAS20 (OR per increasing score 0.80(0.66, 0.98)), ASAS40 (0.69(0.50, 0.95)), quality of life (measured by ASQoL) (ß 0.64(0.26, 1.02)), but was not related to meeting ASDAS response criteria. CONCLUSIONS: BASMI was estimated moderately well by other routinely measured factors in patients with axSpA and was an independent predictor of response to biologic therapy for some, but not all, commonly used measures. Consensus around its role in disease monitoring and clinical decisions, particularly in the likely context of face to face consultations becoming less frequent, remains to be established.

9.
BMJ ; 371: m3576, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a progressive course of outpatient physiotherapy offers superior outcomes to a single physiotherapy review and home exercise based intervention when targeted at patients with a predicted poor outcome after total knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: Parallel group randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 13 secondary and tertiary care centres in the UK providing postoperative physiotherapy. PARTICIPANTS: 334 participants with knee osteoarthritis who were defined as at risk of a poor outcome after total knee arthroplasty, based on the Oxford knee score, at six weeks postoperatively. 163 were allocated to therapist led outpatient rehabilitation and 171 to a home exercise based protocol. INTERVENTIONS: All participants were reviewed by a physiotherapist and commenced 18 sessions of rehabilitation over six weeks, either as therapist led outpatient rehabilitation (progressive goal oriented functional rehabilitation protocol, modified weekly in one-one contact sessions) or as physiotherapy review followed by a home exercise based regimen (without progressive input from a physiotherapist). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was Oxford knee score at 52 weeks, with a 4 point difference between groups considered to be clinically meaningful. Secondary outcomes included additional patient reported outcome measures of pain and function at 14, 26, and 52 weeks post-surgery. RESULTS: 334 patients were randomised. Eight were lost to follow-up. Intervention compliance was more than 85%. The between group difference in Oxford knee score at 52 weeks was 1.91 (95% confidence interval -0.18 to 3.99) points, favouring the outpatient rehabilitation arm (P=0.07). When all time point data were analysed, the between group difference in Oxford knee score was a non-clinically meaningful 2.25 points (0.61 to 3.90, P=0.01). No between group differences were found for secondary outcomes of average pain (0.25 points, -0.78 to 0.28, P=0.36) or worst pain (0.22 points, -0.71 to 0.41, P=0.50) at 52 weeks or earlier time points, or of satisfaction with outcome (odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.62, P=0.75) or post-intervention function (4.64 seconds, 95% confidence interval -14.25 to 4.96, P=0.34). CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient therapist led rehabilitation was not superior to a single physiotherapist review and home exercise based regimen in patients at risk of poor outcomes after total knee arthroplasty. No clinically relevant differences were observed across primary or secondary outcome measures. TRIALS REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN23357609 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01849445.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/reabilitação , Dor Pós-Operatória/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1456-1463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. METHODS: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking. RESULTS: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx). CONCLUSIONS: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.

11.
Pain ; 161(8): 1716-1725, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701832

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia is a common and complex long-term pain condition. Despite advancements in our understanding and treatment of fibromyalgia, patients report patchy health care provision and frustrating journeys through the health care system. To inform how best to deliver care, we undertook 2 narrative reviews examining existing evidence on (1) models of care for fibromyalgia and (2) patients' experiences, preferences, and unmet needs regarding their health care. Seven databases were systematically searched. Quantitative data was narratively synthesised and qualitative data thematically analysed. No evidence-based model of care covering the patient journey through the entire health care system was identified. Limited evidence suggests no clear benefit for ongoing care in secondary care settings. Patients with fibromyalgia report difficult interactions with the health care system that might equally be expressed by those with other long-term conditions, such as inconsistent and poorly coordinated care. However, they also face unique problems; fibromyalgia was often not viewed as a real condition, resulting in difficult encounters with health care staff, in particular not feeling believed or listened to. Significant delays in diagnosis were commonplace. Positive care experiences such as being listened to and shared decision-making made patients feeling better informed, well supported, and more satisfied. There is little evidence to inform how best to organise health care for patients with fibromyalgia and ensure care is delivered in a coordinated and consistent way. These findings provide a strong rationale for developing a new model of care for fibromyalgia.

12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(8): 1055-1062, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in clinical and patient-reported outcomes, including work, in individuals with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) living in rural and urban settings. METHODS: Using a sequential, explanatory mixed-method design, data from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Ankylosing Spondylitis were used to (1) characterise participants with axSpA living in rural and urban areas and (b) assess any differences in outcome after commencement of biologic therapy (phase 1). Semistructured interviews (phase 2) further explored the results from phase 1. RESULTS: Patients with axSpA living in rural areas were older and more likely to work in a physical job. Among patients prescribed biologics, there were no differences in response to biologics, but after adjustment for age, sex and local area deprivation rural dwellers reported more presenteeism and overall work impairment. Work effects could be explained by accounting for individual differences in disease activity, fatigue, physical function and job type. Interviews highlighted the complex relationship between clinical factors, contextual factors (work environment, job demands) and work disability. The ability to work and flexibility in terms of what, when and how tasks are undertaken were important. Support from employers was variable and healthcare professionals were often perceived as unsupportive. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with axSpA living in rural areas report a greater impact of their disease on work productivity. New measures are needed to capture important contextual factors and comprehensively determine the impact of long-term conditions on work. Future European League Against Rheumatism axSpA recommendations should include support to work as a target to optimise quality of life in patients with axSpA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Eficiência/efeitos dos fármacos , Espondilartrite/complicações , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Presenteísmo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , População Rural , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , População Urbana
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(6): 3, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492107

RESUMO

Purpose: Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) is a common intraocular inflammatory disease. AAU occurs in 30% to 50% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and both conditions are strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27, implying a shared etiology. This study aims to apply genomewide association study (GWAS) to characterize the genetic associations of AAU and their relationship to the genetics of AS. Methods: We undertook the GWAS analyses in 2752 patients with AS with AAU (cases) and 3836 patients with AS without AAU (controls). There were 7,436,415 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) available after SNP microarray genotyping, imputation, and quality-control filtering. Results: We identified one locus associated with AAU at genomewide significance: rs9378248 (P = 2.69 × 10-8, odds ratio [OR] = 0.78), lying close to HLA-B. Suggestive association was observed at 11 additional loci, including previously reported AS loci ERAP1 (rs27529, P = 2.19 × 10-7, OR = 1.22) and NOS2 (rs2274894, P = 8.22 × 10-7, OR = 0.83). Multiple novel suggestive associations were also identified, including MERTK (rs10171979, P = 2.56 × 10-6, OR = 1.20), KIFAP3 (rs508063, P = 5.64 × 10-7, OR = 1.20), CLCN7 (rs67412457, P = 1.33 × 10-6, OR = 1.25), ACAA2 (rs9947182, P = 9.70 × 10-7, OR = 1.37), and 5 intergenic loci. The SNP-based heritability is approximately 0.5 for AS alone, and is much higher (approximately 0.7) for AS with AAU. Consistent with the high heritability, a genomewide polygenic risk score shows strong power in identifying individuals at high risk of either AS with AAU or AS alone. Conclusions: We report here the first GWAS for AAU and identify new susceptibility loci. Our findings confirm the strong overlap in etiopathogenesis of AAU with AS, and also provide new insights into the genetic basis of AAU.

14.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(10): 1581-1591, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556474

RESUMO

Comorbid fibromyalgia, in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) has been shown to influence disease activity and function, and quality of life. Although several papers exist, there is no comprehensive and robust systematic review to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia in this patient group. Thus, the aim of the current study was to provide a definitive estimate of prevalence of fibromyalgia in axSpA, and in axSpA sub-classifications. A systematic literature search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), and Cochrane Library, updated to April 2020, combining keywords and relevant MeSH headings, to identify papers reporting the prevalence of fibromyalgia in axSpA, or data from which this could be computed. This was then combined in a meta-analysis with data from the Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis (SIRAS), a national axSpA register in Scotland. Data was pooled using random or fixed effects models where heterogeneity was greater or lesser than 75%. From 3401 manuscripts initially identified, 15 papers were included in the final review, plus SIRAS, giving data from 16 separate sources. The prevalence of fibromyalgia, among a total of 5214 patients, was 16.4% (95% CI 12.3-20.5%). Prevalence varied with axSpA sub-classification: ankylosing spondylitis: 13.8% (9.1-18.6%); MRI positive non-radiographic axSpA 20.3% (6.5-34.1%); and 'clinical' disease: 11.1% (6.0-16.2%). Overall, around 1 in 6 patients with axSpA also meet criteria for fibromyalgia. While estimates from individual studies vary, comorbid fibromyalgia represents a considerable burden across all sub-classifications of axSpA. This emphasises that focusing management solely on inflammatory disease in this patient group is unlikely to yield optimal improvements in quality of life.

15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 21: 100321, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322808

RESUMO

Background: Opioids have, at most, small benefits for non-cancer pain in the medium and long-term but there is good evidence that they cause harm. The current study describes the characteristics and clinical status of people taking regular opioids in Great Britain and determines whether use is associated with mortality risk. Methods: An analysis of participants in UK Biobank, a prospective population-based study. At recruitment (2006-10) participants reported medicines which they regularly used in addition to lifestyle and health-related factors. Information was available on deaths until October 2016. Findings: There were 466 486 participants (54% women) aged 40-69 years and without a prior history of cancer of whom 5.5% were regularly using opioids. Use increased with age-group, was more common in females (6.3% v. 4.6%) and 87% of persons using them reported chronic pain. The highest rates of use (~1 in 9) were in people with low household income, who left school <16 years and lived in areas with high deprivation. Amongst 15,032 people who could not work because of ill-health, 1 in 3 were regularly taking opioids. Regular users reported insomnia (88.7%), a recent major recent life event (57.3%) and were much more likely than non-users to rate their health as poor (RR 5.5, 99% CI (4.9, 6.1)). Those taking weak (4.2% of participants) or strong (1.4%) opioids were more likely to die during follow-up (6.9% and 9.1% respectively v. 3.3% in non-users) an excess which remained after adjustment for demographic, socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors (MRR 1.18 99% CI (1.06, 1.32) and 1.20 99% CI (1.01, 1.43)) respectively. Interpretation: Regular use of opioids is common in Great Britain, particularly in groups of low socio-economic status. Most users still report chronic pain, poor health generally and are at increased risk of premature death although it is not established that this relationship is causal. Funding: There were no external sources of funding obtained for the current analyses.

16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 914-919, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327428

RESUMO

Management guidelines assume that results from clinical trials can be generalised, although seldom is data available to test this assumption. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients commencing tumour necrosis factor inhibition (TNFi) who would have been eligible for relevant clinical trials, and whether treatment response differs between these groups and the trials themselves. The British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Ankylosing Spondylitis (BSRBR-AS) recruited a real-world cohort of TNFi-naïve spondyloarthritis patients with data collection from clinical records and patient questionnaires. Participant characteristics were extracted from trials identified from a recent Health Technology Assessment of TNFi for ankylosing spondylitis/non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the differences, including treatment response, between BSRBR-AS participants who would/would not have been eligible for the clinical trials and with trial participants. Among 2420 BSRBR-AS participants, those commencing TNFi (34%) had shorter symptom duration (15 vs 22 years) but more active disease (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) 6.4 vs 4.0; Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Functional Index (BASFI) 6.2 vs 3.8). Of those commencing TNFi, 41% met eligibility criteria for ≥1 of fourteen relevant trials; they reported higher disease activity (BASDAI 6.9 vs 6.1) and poorer function (BASFI 6.6 vs 6.0). 61.7% of trial participants reported a positive treatment response, vs 51.3% of BSRBR-AS patients (difference: 10.4%; 95% CI 4.4% to 16.5%). Potential eligibility for trials did not influence treatment response (difference 2.0%; -9.4% to 13.4%). Fewer patients in the real world respond to TNFi than is reported in the trial literature. This has important implications for the generalisability of trial results, and the cost-effectiveness of TNFi agents.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Definição da Elegibilidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(11): 3408-3414, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Effective management of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA)-related fatigue is a major unmet clinical need. Anti-TNF therapy may reduce fatigue levels, although any effect has yet to be definitively quantified and predictors of any such improvements are unknown. METHODS: The British Society of Rheumatology Register in Axial Spondyloarthritis (BSRBR-AS) prospectively recruited axSpA patients across the UK. Changes in fatigue levels (measured using the Chalder Fatigue Scale) >1 year were compared between those starting anti-TNF therapy at the time of recruitment and those not. Differences between treatment groups were adjusted using propensity score matching. Results were meta-analysed with the extant literature to calculate pooled estimates. Then, among those BSRBR-AS anti-TNF commencers with clinically relevant fatigue, baseline predictors of response were investigated. RESULTS: Of the 998 BSRBR-AS recruits with complete fatigue data, 310 were anti-TNF commencers. At 1-year follow-up, the former group reported a mean fatigue change of -2.6 (95% CI -4.1, -1.9) points while the latter reported a mean worsening of fatigue by 0.2 points. Following propensity score adjustment, those commencing anti-TNF therapy reduced fatigue by 3.0 points compared with those not. Of those with significant fatigue and commencing anti-TNF, poor sleep quality at baseline predicted fatigue improvement. In the meta-analysis, including 1109 subjects, treatment with anti-TNF therapy resulted in a significant improvement in fatigue [Standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.36, 95% CI 0.15, 1.56]. CONCLUSION: Anti-TNF therapy results in a significant but modest reduction in fatigue amongst axSpA patients, with those reporting poor sleep quality most likely to report improvement. Effective management will likely require additional approaches.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether clinical and patient-reported outcomes are poorer for people with inflammatory and non-inflammatory rheumatic diseases living in rural locations. METHODS: We searched six databases for articles which were primary peer-reviewed research, published in English 1990-2019, which focussed on selected rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) or osteoarthritis (OA)), and quantified either patient-reported or clinically measured outcomes by a measure of rurality or remoteness. Selected articles were synthesised narratively. RESULTS: Eight eligible publications, including 753 rural and 929 urban patients, evaluated outcomes in RA (5 studies) and OA (3 studies). Studies were small, single centre, and rarely provided a definition of rurality. Aspects relating to rurality, such as access to services, were not measured. In RA some studies suggested greater functional disability and disease activity in rural dwellers. In OA, there was some evidence to suggest that rural dwellers presented with more advanced degenerative hip changes, and that illness perceptions and coping differed between rural and urban dwellers. No studies examined work outcomes. Potentially important confounding factors such as socio-economic status were rarely considered. CONCLUSION: There remains considerable uncertainty whether outcomes differ for rheumatic disease patients in rural settings. There is a need for larger-scale studies characterising participants in relation to place of residence, in order to determine whether rurality is an independent predictor of outcome or a surrogate marker for socioeconomic factors.

19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(9): 2481-2490, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While many axSpA patients, eligible to receive anti-TNFα therapy, derive benefit when prescribed them, some patients do not. The current study aims to identify modifiable targets to improve outcome as well as non-modifiable targets that identify groups less likely to derive benefit. METHODS: The BSRBR-AS is a prospective cohort study of axSpA patients who, at recruitment, were naïve to biologic therapy. Those in the 'biologic' sub-cohort commenced their first anti-TNFα therapy at recruitment or during follow-up. Prior to commencement, information was collected on socio-economic, clinical and patient-reported factors. Outcome was assessed according to ASAS20, ASAS40, ASDAS reduction and achieving a moderate/inactive ASDAS disease state. RESULTS: 335 participants commenced their first anti-TNFα therapy and were followed up at a median of 14 (inter-quartile range 12-17) weeks. Response varied between 33% and 52% according to criteria used. Adverse socio-economic factors, fewer years in education predicted lower likelihood of response across outcome measures as did not working full-time. Co-morbidities and poor mental health were clinical and patient-reported factors, respectively, associated with lack of response. The models, particularly those using ASDAS, were good at predicting those who did not respond (negative predictive value (NPV) 77%). CONCLUSION: Some factors predicting non-response (such as mental health) are modifiable but many (such as social/economic factors) are not modifiable in clinic. They do, however, identify patients who are unlikely to benefit from biologic therapy alone. Priority should focus on how these patients receive the benefits that many derive from such therapies.

20.
Epidemiology ; 31(1): 145-154, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Various established occupational lung carcinogens are also suspected risk factors for laryngeal cancer. However, individual studies are often inadequate in size to investigate this relatively rare outcome. Other limitations include imprecise exposure assessment and inadequate adjustment for confounders. METHODS: This study applied a quantitative job exposure matrix (SYN-JEM) for four established occupational lung carcinogens to five case-control studies within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. We used occupational histories for 2256 laryngeal cancer cases and 7857 controls recruited from 1989 to 2007. We assigned quantitative exposure levels for asbestos, respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and chromium-VI and nickel combined (to address highly correlated exposures) via SYN-JEM. We assessed effects of occupational exposure on cancer risk for males (asbestos, respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and chromium-VI and nickel combined) and females (asbestos and respirable crystalline silica), adjusting for age, study, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and asbestos exposure where relevant. RESULTS: Among females, odds ratios (ORs) were increased for ever versus never exposed. Among males, P values for linear trend were <0.05 for estimated cumulative exposure (all agents) and <0.05 for exposure duration (respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and chromium-VI and nickel combined); strongest associations were for asbestos at >90th percentile cumulative exposure (OR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 1.6), respirable crystalline silica at 30+ years duration (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.7) and 75th-90th percentile cumulative exposure (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8), chromium-VI at >75th percentile cumulative exposure (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.0), and chromium-VI and nickel combined at 20-29 years duration (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.2). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support hypotheses of causal links between four lung carcinogens (asbestos, respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and nickel) and laryngeal cancer.

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