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1.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977985

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de incapacidades físicas, cognitivas e psiquiátricas, fatores associados e sua relação com qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico está sendo conduzido em dez unidades de terapia intensiva adulto clínico-cirúrgicas representativas das cinco regiões geopolíticas do Brasil. Pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos que receberam alta das unidades de terapia intensiva participantes e permaneceram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação clínica ou cirúrgica de urgência, e por 120 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação cirúrgica eletiva, serão incluídos de forma consecutiva. Estes pacientes serão seguidos por 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas 3, 6 e 12 meses pós-alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. Dependência funcional, disfunção cognitiva, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sintomas de estresse pós-traumático, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, re-hospitalizações e mortalidade em longo prazo serão avaliados como desfechos. Discussão: O presente estudo tem o potencial de contribuir para o conhecimento a respeito da prevalência e dos fatores associados à síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos na população de pacientes adultos sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Ademais, a associação entre síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde poderá ser estabelecida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. Discussion: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.

2.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, 2018 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. DISCUSSION: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Respir Care ; 59(4): 479-84, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24003242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been few reports of factors affecting aerosol delivery during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Nebulization is a standard practice, and our objective was to determine the effect of spontaneous breathing (SB) and NIV mode on lung technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) deposition in subjects with normal lungs. METHODS: Thirteen health care volunteers were submitted to a randomized radioaerosol nebulization with (99m)Tc during SB, CPAP (10 cm H2O), and bi-level positive-pressure ventilation (bi-level; inspiratory-expiratory pressures of 15/5 cm H2O). NIV was performed via a ventilator (VPAP II ST-A, ResMed, Sydney, Australia). The radioaerosol deposition was evaluated by pulmonary scintigraphy after 10 min of inhalation. Regions of interest (ROIs) were outlined on the left lung (LL), right lung (RL), and trachea (TRQ). The average number of counts/pixel in each ROI was determined, and the ratio of lung and trachea was calculated. RESULTS: The three techniques showed comparable lung deposition. Analysis of radioaerosol deposition in the lungs showed a mean count at RL of 108.7 ± 40 with CPAP, 111.5 ± 15 with bi-level, and 196.6 ± 167 with SB. At LL, the values were 92.7 ± 15 with CPAP, 98.4 ± 14 with bi-level, and 225.0 ± 293 with SB. There was no difference between the means of radioaerosol deposition in RL, LL, or TRQ, as well as the lung calculated ratio (LCR = [RL + LL]/TRQ), which was similar in comparing ventilatory strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our data, there is an equivalent deposition of inhaled substances in individuals with healthy lungs when SB, CPAP, and bi-level are compared.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Pulmão/metabolismo , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Tecnécio/farmacocinética , Adulto , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Boca/diagnóstico por imagem , Boca/metabolismo , Ventilação não Invasiva , Cintilografia , Distribuição Aleatória , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Traqueia/metabolismo
4.
J Bras Pneumol ; 38(3): 364-71, 2012 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22782607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the predictive accuracy of clinical judgment alone can be improved by supplementing it with an objective weaning protocol as a decision support tool. METHODS: This was a multicenter prospective cohort study carried out at three medical/surgical ICUs. The study involved all consecutive difficult-to-wean ICU patients (failure in the first spontaneous breathing trial [SBT]), on mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 48 h, admitted between January of 2002 and December of 2005. The patients in the protocol group (PG) were extubated after a T-piece weaning trial and were compared with patients who were otherwise extubated (non-protocol group, NPG). The primary outcome measure was reintubation within 48 h after extubation. RESULTS: We included 731 patients-533 (72.9%) and 198 (27.1%) in the PG and NPG, respectively. The overall reintubation rate was 17.9%. The extubation success rates in the PG and NPG were 86.7% and 69.6%, respectively (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age, gender, severity score, or pre-inclusion time on MV. However, COPD was more common in the NPG than in the PG (44.4% vs. 17.6%; p < 0.001), whereas sepsis and being a post-operative patient were more common in the PG (23.8% vs. 11.6% and 42.4% vs. 26.4%, respectively; p < 0.001 for both). The time on MV after the failure in the first SBT was higher in the PG than in the NPG (9 ± 5 days vs. 7 ± 2 days; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of difficult-to-wean patients, the use of a weaning protocol improved the decision-making process, decreasing the possibility of extubation failure.


Assuntos
Extubação/efeitos adversos , Extubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Extubação/métodos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(3): 364-371, maio-jun. 2012. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-640760

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar se a acurácia preditiva do julgamento clínico isolado pode ser melhorada com o uso suplementar de um protocolo de desmame objetivo como ferramenta de suporte para a tomada de decisão. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo multicêntrico de coorte realizado em três UTIs clínicas/cirúrgicas. Foram incluídos no estudo todos os pacientes de difícil desmame (falha no primeiro teste de ventilação espontânea [TVE]), sob ventilação mecânica (VM) por mais de 48 h, admitidos em uma das UTIs entre janeiro de 2002 e dezembro de 2005. Os pacientes do grupo protocolo (GP) foram extubados após teste de tubo T de acordo com um protocolo de desmame e comparados com o grupo de pacientes extubados sem o uso do protocolo (GNP). O desfecho primário foi a taxa de reintubação em até 48 h após a extubação. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 731 pacientes - 533 (72,9%) no GP e 198 (27,1%) no GNP. A taxa global de reintubação foi de 17,9%. As taxas de sucesso da extubação no GP e no GNP foram 86,7% e 69,6%, respectivamente (p < 0,001). Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos quanto a idade, gênero, escore de gravidade e tempo de VM antes da inclusão. Entretanto, DPOC foi mais frequente no GNP que no GP (44,4% vs. 17,6%; p < 0,001), ao passo que pacientes sépticos e em pós-operatório foram mais comuns no GP (23,8% vs. 11,6% e 42,4% vs. 26,4%, respectivamente; p < 0,001 para ambos). O tempo de VM após a falha no primeiro TVE foi maior no GP que no GNP (9 ± 5 dias vs. 7 ± 2 dias; p < 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Nesta amostra de pacientes de difícil desmame, o uso de um protocolo de desmame melhorou o processo decisório, reduzindo a possibilidade de falha na extubação.


OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the predictive accuracy of clinical judgment alone can be improved by supplementing it with an objective weaning protocol as a decision support tool. METHODS: This was a multicenter prospective cohort study carried out at three medical/surgical ICUs. The study involved all consecutive difficult-to-wean ICU patients (failure in the first spontaneous breathing trial [SBT]), on mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 48 h, admitted between January of 2002 and December of 2005. The patients in the protocol group (PG) were extubated after a T-piece weaning trial and were compared with patients who were otherwise extubated (non-protocol group, NPG). The primary outcome measure was reintubation within 48 h after extubation. RESULTS: We included 731 patients-533 (72.9%) and 198 (27.1%) in the PG and NPG, respectively. The overall reintubation rate was 17.9%. The extubation success rates in the PG and NPG were 86.7% and 69.6%, respectively (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age, gender, severity score, or pre-inclusion time on MV. However, COPD was more common in the NPG than in the PG (44.4% vs. 17.6%; p < 0.001), whereas sepsis and being a post-operative patient were more common in the PG (23.8% vs. 11.6% and 42.4% vs. 26.4%, respectively; p < 0.001 for both). The time on MV after the failure in the first SBT was higher in the PG than in the NPG (9 ± 5 days vs. 7 ± 2 days; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of difficult-to-wean patients, the use of a weaning protocol improved the decision-making process, decreasing the possibility of extubation failure.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extubação/efeitos adversos , Extubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Extubação/métodos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Respir Care ; 57(10): 1594-601, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22417531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critical illness myopathy and/or neuropathy (CRIMYNE) is a common alteration seen in the ICU. The currently available bedside methods of measuring respiratory and peripheral muscle function in critically ill patients are somewhat inadequate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of diaphragmatic and peripheral CRIMYNE in septic patients with prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: Cohort prospective study with an entry period of 6 months. In 2 Brazilian medical-surgical ICUs, septic patients ≥ 18 years of age, dependent on MV ≥ 14 days, requiring prolonged weaning from MV, awake (Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale ≥ -2), and with no previous history of polyneuropathy or myopathy were included. Electrophysiological studies of the limbs and also of the respiratory system by phrenic nerve conduction and needle electromyography of the diaphragm were performed in all subjects. RESULTS: Twelve subjects were enrolled during 6 months of study. The electrophysiological signs of peripheral CRIMYNE occurred in 9 subjects, 7 of whom died in the ICU. Three subjects developed critical illness polyneuropathy, 4 critical illness myopathy, and 2 both. Only one subject who developed peripheral CRIMYNE did not present diaphragmatic involvement, whereas no subject developed diaphragm involvement alone. Thus, electrophysiological signs of diaphragmatic CRIMYNE occurred in 8 of the 9 subjects with peripheral CRIMYNE. Upon clinical examination, 8 subjects were not able to moves their limbs against gravity, and these findings were related to the presence of peripheral and diaphragmatic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot findings suggested that CRIMYNE is common in septic patients with prolonged weaning from MV (MV ≥ 14 d). The inability to move limbs against gravity is frequently associated with peripheral and diaphragmatic CRIMYNE, and the findings of CRIMYNE in peripheral electrophysiological tests are associated with diaphragmatic involvement.


Assuntos
Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Nervo Frênico/fisiopatologia , Polineuropatias/fisiopatologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Desmame do Respirador/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estado Terminal , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Condução Nervosa , Projetos Piloto , Polineuropatias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/complicações , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia
7.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 18(3): 229-233, jul.-set. 2006. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-481511

RESUMO

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O sangramento digestivo por úlcera de estresse (SDUE) é uma complicação grave dos pacientes criticamente doentes e com necessidade de profilaxia baseada em critérios literários definidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o uso de profilaxia para SDUE em UTI do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, comparando os resultados com as evidências atuais da literatura. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal realizado em um único dia, com coleta de dados de todos os pacientes internados em 21 unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI). Para análise dos dados, os pacientes foram distribuídos em três subgrupos (alto, médio e baixo risco de SDUE). RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 235 pacientes internados, com média de idade de 57,7 ± 19,5 anos e tempo médio de internação em UTI de 13 ± 19,7 dias. Os motivos de internação mais freqüentes foram sepse (26 por cento) e pós-operatório de grandes cirurgias (16,2 por cento). Da totalidade, 73 por cento eram de alto risco para SDUE, 21,5 por cento de risco intermediário e 5,5 por cento de baixo risco. Dos 187 pacientes de alto risco, 139 estavam usando bloqueadores para SDUE (60 por cento com bloqueadores histaminérgicos (BH2) e 39 por cento com inibidor de bomba de prótons (IBP) para profilaxia (60 por cento). Não recebiam profilaxia, apesar de indicada, 25,7 por cento destes pacientes de alto risco. Dos 55 pacientes de risco intermediário para SDUE, 70,9 por cento recebiam profilaxia (22 com BH2 e 17 com IBP) e dos 14 pacientes de baixo risco, 71 por cento recebiam profilaxia (6 com BH2 e 4 com IBP). CONCLUSÕES: Este artigo traduziu a ausência de estratificação de risco para SDUE nas UTI do Estado, além da indicação de fármacos gastro-protetores sem critérios precisos para o seu emprego.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal bleeding due to stress ulcer (GB) complicates critical disease, and must be received prophylaxis based on defined criteria. To evaluate the GB prophylaxis in Intensive Care Units (ICU), and to compare with the guidelines. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional multicenter study in 21 medical-surgical ICU in Brazil to investigate this issue. For data analysis, these were distributed in 3 sub-groups (high, moderate and low risk for GB). RESULTS: 235 patients were evaluated, with mean age of 57.7 ± 19.5 years and days on ICU 13 ± 19.7. The more common admission ICU diagnoses were sepsis (26 percent) and postoperative (16.2 percent) patients. Seventy-three (73 percent) of the patients were GB high risk, 21.5 percent moderate and 5.5 percent low risk. Of the 187 high risk patients, 139 were receiving GB prophylaxis (60 percent with histamine blockers (HB2) and 39 percent with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Of these patients, 25.7 percent did not receive GU prophylaxis, although indicated it. Of the 55 moderate risk patients, 70.9 percent wer e receiving GU prophylaxis (22 with HB2 and 17 with PPI). Of the 14 low risk patients, 71 percent were using GU prophylaxis (6 with HB2 and 4 with PPI). CONCLUSIONS: Almost 80 percent of the patients made use of GB prophylactic drugs, with no agreement GU risk stratification. This study demonstrated the no adequate GU prophylaxis in the Brazilian ICU.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Úlcera Péptica , Úlcera/prevenção & controle , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 18(3): 229-33, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25310435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal bleeding due to stress ulcer (GB) complicates critical disease, and must be received prophylaxis based on defined criteria. To evaluate the GB prophylaxis in Intensive Care Units (ICU), and to compare with the guidelines. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional multicenter study in 21 medical-surgical ICU in Brazil to investigate this issue. For data analysis, these were distributed in 3 sub-groups (high, moderate and low risk for GB). RESULTS: 235 patients were evaluated, with mean age of 57.7 ± 19.5 years and days on ICU 13 ± 19.7. The more common admission ICU diagnoses were sepsis (26%) and postoperative (16.2%) patients. Seventy-three (73%) of the patients were GB high risk, 21.5% moderate and 5.5% low risk. Of the 187 high risk patients, 139 were receiving GB prophylaxis (60% with histamine blockers (HB2) and 39% with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Of these patients, 25.7% did not receive GU prophylaxis, although indicated it. Of the 55 moderate risk patients, 70.9% wer e receiving GU prophylaxis (22 with HB2 and 17 with PPI). Of the 14 low risk patients, 71% were using GU prophylaxis (6 with HB2 and 4 with PPI). CONCLUSIONS: Almost 80% of the patients made use of GB prophylactic drugs, with no agreement GU risk stratification. This study demonstrated the no adequate GU prophylaxis in the Brazilian ICU.

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