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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444302

RESUMO

Literature reports that SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients may be associated with higher severity and mortality, nevertheless the knowledge is limited. We aimed to describe patients' demographic characteristics and COVID-19 disease outcomes in Portuguese cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19. A total of 127 individuals were included: 46.5% males and 53.5% females, with a median age of 72 years. Clinicopathological characteristics were used in univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratios for each variable with outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. Our cohort revealed that 84.3% of patients had more than one risk factor for severe disease rather than cancer. In total, 36.2% of patients were admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine, 14.2% developed severe disease, 1.6% required Intensive Care Unit, and mortality was observed in 11.8%. Severe COVID-19 disease was associated with unfit (ECOG PS > 2) patients (p = 0.009; OR = 6.39; 95% CI: 1.60-25.59), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.004; OR = 20.7; 95% CI: 2.64-162.8), immunosuppression (p < 0.001; OR = 10.3; 95% CI: 2.58-41.2), and presence of respiratory symptoms at diagnosis (p = 0.033; OR = 5.05; 95% CI: 1.14-22.4). Increased risk for mortality was associated with unfit patients (p = 0.036; OR = 4.22; 95% CI: 1.10-16.3), cardiac disease (p = 0.003; OR = 8.26; 95% CI: 2.03-33.6) and immunosuppression (p = 0.022; OR = 5.06; 95% CI: 1.27-20.18). Our results demonstrated that unfit and immunosuppressed patients, with chronic kidney disease and cardiac disease, have, respectively, an increased risk for severe disease and mortality related to COVID-19. Hence, this study provides important information on risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease and associated mortality in a Portuguese cancer population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 230: 105706, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302172

RESUMO

Triclosan, a widely used biocide broadly found in aquatic environments, is cause of concern due to its unknown effects on non-targets organisms. In this study, a multi biomarker approach was used in order to evaluate the 72 h-effect of triclosan on the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Raphidocelis subcapitata). Triclosan, at environmental relevant concentrations (27 and 37 µg L-1), caused a decrease of proliferative capacity, which was accompanied by an increase of cell size and a profound alteration of algae shape. It was found that triclosan promoted the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species, the depletion of non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione and carotenoids) and a decrease of cell metabolic activity. A reduction of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b) was also observed. For the highest concentration tested (37 µg L-1), a decrease of photosynthetic efficiency was detected along with a diminution of the relative transport rate of electrons on the photosynthetic chain. In conclusion, triclosan presents a deep impact on the microalga P. subcapitata morphology and physiology translated by multiple target sites instead of a specific point (cellular membrane) observed in the target organism (bacteria). Additionally, this study contributes to clarify the toxicity mechanisms of triclosan, in green algae, showing the existence of distinct modes of action of the biocide depending on the microalga.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofíceas/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Desinfetantes/metabolismo , Água Doce/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Triclosan/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111264, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911184

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of the herbicide metolachlor (MET) on the redox homeostasis of the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. At low MET concentrations (≤40 µg L-1), no effects on algal cells were detected. The exposure of P. subcapitata to 45-235 µg L-1 MET induced a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The intracellular levels of ROS were particularly increased at high (115 and 235 µg L-1) but environmentally relevant MET concentrations. The exposure of algal cells to 115 and 235 µg L-1 MET originated a decrease in the levels of antioxidants molecules (reduced glutathione and carotenoids) as well as a reduction of the activity of scavenging enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). These results suggest that antioxidant (non-enzymatic and enzymatic) defenses were affected by the excess of MET. As consequence of this imbalance (ROS overproduction and decline of the antioxidant system), ROS inflicted oxidative injury with lipid peroxidation and damage of cell membrane integrity. The results provide further insights about the toxic modes of action of MET on a non-target organism and emphasize the relevance of toxicological studies in the assessment of the impact of herbicides in freshwater environments.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/toxicidade , Clorofíceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofíceas/fisiologia , Água Doce , Glutationa/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 222: 105449, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109756

RESUMO

Metolachlor (MET) is an herbicide widely used and frequently found (at µg L-1) in aquatic systems. This work aimed to study the modes of action of MET on the green microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Algae exposed to 115 or 235 µg L-1 MET, for 48 or 72 h, presented a reduction of metabolic activity, chlorophyll a and b content and photosynthetic efficiency. The exposure to 115 or 235 µg L-1 MET also induced growth yield reduction, mean cell biovolume increase and alteration of the typical algae shape (cells lunate or helically twisted) to "French croissant"-type; at these MET concentrations, algal population was mainly composed by multinucleated cells (≥ 4 nuclei), which suggest that MET impairs the normal progression of the reproductive cycle but did not hinder nuclear division. The accumulation of multinucleated cells seems to be the consequence of the incapacity of the parent cell to release the autospores. In conclusion, MET disrupts the physiology of P. subcapitata cells; the disturbance of the progression of the reproductive cycle should be in the origin of growth slowdown (or even its arrest), increase of mean cell biovolume and modification of algal shape. This work contributed to elucidate, in a systematically and integrated way, the toxic mechanism of MET on the non-target organism, the alga P. subcapitata.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/toxicidade , Clorofíceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Clorofíceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofíceas/fisiologia , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 208: 179-186, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682620

RESUMO

The increasing and indiscriminate use of antibiotics is the origin of their introduction in aquatic systems through domestic and livestock effluents. The occurrence of erythromycin (ERY), a macrolide antibiotic, in water bodies raises serious concerns about its potential toxic effect in aquatic biota (non-target organisms), particularly in microalgae, the first organisms in contact with aquatic contaminants. This study aimed to evaluate the possible toxic effects of ERY on relevant cell targets of the freshwater microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Algal cells incubated with significant environmental ERY concentrations presented disturbance of the photosynthetic apparatus (increased algal autofluorescence and reduction of chlorophyll a content) and mitochondrial function (hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane). These perturbations can apparently be attributed to the similarity of the translational machinery of these organelles (chloroplasts and mitochondria) with the prokaryotic cells. P. subcapitata cells treated with ERY showed a modification of metabolic activity (increased esterase activity) and redox state (alteration of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione content) and an increased biovolume. ERY induced an algistatic effect: reduction of growth rate without loss of cell viability (plasma membrane integrity). The present study shows that chronic exposure (72 h), at low (µg L-1) ERY concentrations (within the range of concentrations detected in surface and ground waters), induce disturbances in the physiological state of the alga P. subcapitata. Additionally, this work alerts to the possible negative impact of the uncontrolled use of ERY on the aquatic systems.


Assuntos
Eritromicina/toxicidade , Água Doce , Microalgas/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Glutationa/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2018: 2732408, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027089

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) remains a public health problem, being the fifth most common cancer worldwide. In the western countries, the majority of patients present with advanced disease. Additionally, 65 to 75% of patients treated with curative intent will relapse and develop systemic disease. In metastatic disease, systemic treatment still represents the state of the art, with less than a year of median overall survival. The new molecular classification of GC was published in 2014, identifying four distinct major subtypes of gastric cancer, and has encouraged the investigation of new and more personalized treatment strategies. This paper will review the current evidence of immunotherapy in advanced gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Gástricas/dietoterapia , Humanos
7.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(5): e180013, 2018 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543932

RESUMO

Importance: Therapeutic options are needed for patients with advanced gastric cancer whose disease has progressed after 2 or more lines of therapy. Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab in a cohort of patients with previously treated gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the phase 2, global, open-label, single-arm, multicohort KEYNOTE-059 study, 259 patients in 16 countries were enrolled in a cohort between March 2, 2015, and May 26, 2016. Median (range) follow-up was 5.8 (0.5-21.6) months. Intervention: Patients received pembrolizumab, 200 mg, intravenously every 3 weeks until disease progression, investigator or patient decision to withdraw, or unacceptable toxic effects. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end points were objective response rate and safety. Objective response rate was assessed by central radiologic review per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, in all patients and those with programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive tumors. Expression of PD-L1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Secondary end points included response duration. Results: Of 259 patients enrolled, most were male (198 [76.4%]) and white (200 [77.2%]); median (range) age was 62 (24-89) years. Objective response rate was 11.6% (95% CI, 8.0%-16.1%; 30 of 259 patients), with complete response in 2.3% (95% CI, 0.9%-5.0%; 6 of 259 patients). Median (range) response duration was 8.4 (1.6+ to 17.3+) months (+ indicates that patients had no progressive disease at their last assessment). Objective response rate and median (range) response duration were 15.5% (95% CI, 10.1%-22.4%; 23 of 148 patients) and 16.3 (1.6+ to 17.3+) months and 6.4% (95% CI, 2.6%-12.8%; 7 of 109 patients) and 6.9 (2.4 to 7.0+) months in patients with PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative tumors, respectively. Forty-six patients (17.8%) experienced 1 or more grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse events. Two patients (0.8%) discontinued because of treatment-related adverse events, and 2 deaths were considered related to treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: Pembrolizumab monotherapy demonstrated promising activity and manageable safety in patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer who had previously received at least 2 lines of treatment. Durable responses were observed in patients with PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative tumors. Further study of pembrolizumab for this group of patients is warranted. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02335411.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Electrophoresis ; 2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518261

RESUMO

Lipids are gaining relevance over the last 20 years, as our knowledge about their role has changed from merely energy/structural molecules to compounds also involved in several biological processes. This led to the creation in 2003 of a new emerging research field: lipidomics. In particular the phospholipids have pharmacological/food applications, participate in cell signalling/homeostatic pathways while their analysis faces some challenges. Their fractionation/purification is, in fact, especially difficult, as they are amphiphilic compounds. Moreover, it usually involves SPE or TLC procedures requiring specific materials hampering their suitableness for routine analysis. Finally, they can interfere with the ionization of other molecules during mass spectrometry analysis. Thus, simple high-throughput reliable methods to selectively isolate these compounds based on the difference between chemical characteristics of lipids would represent valuable tools for their study besides that of other compounds. The current review work aims to describe the state-of-the-art related to the extraction of phospholipids using liquid-liquid methods for their targeted isolation. The technological and biological importance of these compounds and ion suppression phenomena are also reviewed. Methods by precipitation with acetone or isolation using methanol seem to be suitable for selective isolation of phospholipids in both biological and food samples.

9.
Porto Biomed J ; 3(3): e20, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595248

RESUMO

Metastatic rectal cancer requires a multidisciplinary and individualized approach. The authors describe a case report of a 48-year-old man with recurrence of rectal adenocarcinoma that underwent multimodal treatment, which included chemotherapy with biologic agents, cytoreduction surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and radiotherapy with improvement in progression-free survival and overall survival.

10.
J Basic Microbiol ; 56(11): 1244-1251, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27283353

RESUMO

This work aims to examine the influence of the metabolic state of the yeast Pichia kudriavzevii on the susceptibility to a metals mixture (5 mg L-1 Cd, 10 mg L-1 Pb, and 5 mg L-1 Zn). Cells exposed to the metals mixture in the presence of 25 mmol L-1 glucose displayed a higher loss of membrane integrity and proliferation capacity, compared to cells incubated in the absence of glucose. The analysis of the effect of individual metals revealed that glucose increased the toxic effect of Cd marginally, and of Pb significantly. The increased susceptibility to heavy metals due to glucose was attenuated in the simultaneous presence of a mitochondrial respiration inhibitor such as sodium azide (NaN3 ). ATP-depleted yeast cells, resulting from treatment with the non-metabolizable glucose analogue 2-deoxy-d-glucose, showed an increased susceptibility to heavy metals mixture. Pre-incubation of yeast cells with 1 or 1.5 mmol L-1 Ca2+ reduced significantly (P < 0.05) the loss of membrane integrity induced by the metals mixture. These findings contribute to the understanding of metals mechanisms of toxicity in the non-conventional yeast P. kudriavzevii.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Pichia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pichia/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Desoxiglucose/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Pichia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Azida Sódica/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 296: 82-92, 2015 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25913674

RESUMO

The green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata has been widely used in ecological risk assessment, usually based on the impact of the toxicants in the alga growth. However, the physiological causes that lead algal growth inhibition are not completely understood. This work aimed to evaluate the biochemical and structural modifications in P. subcapitata after exposure, for 72 h, to three nominal concentrations of Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Zn(II), corresponding approximately to 72 h-EC10 and 72 h-EC50 values and a high concentration (above 72 h-EC90 values). The incubation of algal cells with the highest concentration of Cd(II), Cr(VI) or Cu(II) resulted in a loss of membrane integrity of ~16, 38 and 55%, respectively. For all metals tested, an inhibition of esterase activity, in a dose-dependent manner, was observed. Reduction of chlorophyll a content, decrease of maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and modification of mitochondrial membrane potential was also verified. In conclusion, the exposure of P. subcapitata to metals resulted in a perturbation of the cell physiological status. Principal component analysis revealed that the impairment of esterase activity combined with the reduction of chlorophyll a content were related with the inhibition of growth caused by a prolonged exposure to the heavy metals.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Clorófitas/enzimologia , Clorófitas/ultraestrutura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Esterases/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(14): 11127-36, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25794581

RESUMO

Metal contamination of the environment is frequently associated to the presence of two or more metals. This work aimed to study the impact of a mixture of metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) on the physiology of the non-conventional yeast Pichia kudriavzevii. The incubation of yeast cells with 5 mg/l Cd, 10 mg/l Pb and 5 mg/l Zn, for 6 h, induced a loss of metabolic activity (assessed by FUN-1 staining) and proliferation capacity (evaluated by a clonogenic assay), with a small loss of membrane integrity (measured by trypan blue exclusion assay). The staining of yeast cells with calcofluor white revealed that no modification of chitin deposition pattern occurred during the exposure to metal mixture. Extending for 24 h, the exposure of yeast cells to metal mixture provoked a loss of membrane integrity, which was accompanied by the leakage of intracellular components. A marked loss of the metabolic activity and the loss of proliferation capacity were also observed. The analysis of the impact of a single metal has shown that, under the conditions studied, Pb was the metal responsible for the toxic effect observed in the metal mixture. Intracellular accumulation of Pb seems to be correlated with the metals' toxic effects observed.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Pichia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pichia/metabolismo , Zinco/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Chumbo/análise , Pichia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zinco/análise
13.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 172(1): 549-60, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24101562

RESUMO

Siderophore production by Bacillus megaterium was detected, in an iron-deficient culture medium, during the exponential growth phase, prior to the sporulation, in the presence of glucose; these results suggested that the onset of siderophore production did not require glucose depletion and was not related with the sporulation. The siderophore production by B. megaterium was affected by the carbon source used. The growth on glycerol promoted the very high siderophore production (1,182 µmol g(-1) dry weight biomass); the opposite effect was observed in the presence of mannose (251 µmol g(-1) dry weight biomass). The growth in the presence of fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, maltose or sucrose, originated similar concentrations of siderophore (546-842 µmol g(-1) dry weight biomass). Aeration had a positive effect on the production of siderophore. Incubation of B. megaterium under static conditions delayed and reduced the growth and the production of siderophore, compared with the incubation in stirred conditions.


Assuntos
Bacillus megaterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus megaterium/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Sideróforos/biossíntese , Arginina/farmacologia , Bacillus megaterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus megaterium/fisiologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Movimento (Física) , Esporos Bacterianos
14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 147: 1-6, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24342441

RESUMO

The impact of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn) on growth, cell volume and cell division of the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata exposed over a period of 72 h was investigated. The algal cells were exposed to three nominal concentrations of each metal: low (closed to 72 h-EC10 values), intermediate (closed to 72 h-EC50 values) and high (upper than 72 h-EC90 values). The exposure to low metal concentrations resulted in a decrease of cell volume. On the contrary, for the highest metal concentrations an increase of cell volume was observed; this effect was particularly notorious for Cd and less pronounced for Zn. Two behaviours were found when algal cells were exposed to intermediate concentrations of metals: Cu(II) and Cr(VI) induced a reduction of cell volume, while Cd(II) and Zn(II) provoked an opposite effect. The simultaneous nucleus staining and cell image analysis, allowed distinguishing three phases in P. subcapitata cell cycle: growth of mother cell; cell division, which includes two divisions of the nucleus; and, release of four autospores. The exposure of P. subcapitata cells to the highest metal concentrations resulted in the arrest of cell growth before the first nucleus division [for Cr(VI) and Cu(II)] or after the second nucleus division but before the cytokinesis (release of autospores) when exposed to Cd(II). The different impact of metals on algal cell volume and cell-cycle progression, suggests that different toxicity mechanisms underlie the action of different metals studied. The simultaneous nucleus staining and cell image analysis, used in the present work, can be a useful tool in the analysis of the toxicity of the pollutants, in P. subcapitata, and help in the elucidation of their different modes of action.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorófitas/citologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 35(4): 279-288, out.-dez. 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-697088

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A Doença Renal Crônica (DRC) e a hemodiálise (HD) provocam limitações na vida dos pacientes, interferindo na qualidade de vida e o cuidado nutricional é fundamental para no tratamento da doença. OBJETIVO: O objetivo da pesquisa é analisar a associação entre qualidade de vida com o uso do instrumento SF-36 com consumo alimentar, estado nutricional em pacientes com DRC em HD por meio de pesquisa quantitativa e transversal. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se avaliação antropométrica, coleta dos resultados de exames bioquímicos, aplicação do questionário SF-36 e anamnese alimentar (recordatório alimentar de 24h). RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 30 pacientes adultos com idade entre 28 a 76 anos. A doença relacionada com DRC mais encontrada foi hipertensão arterial sistêmica (53,3%), a média do Índice de Massa Corporal foi 25,04 ± 4,50 kg/m². Pela dobra cutânea do braço, 73,3% estavam em desnutrição. O diagnóstico nutricional final foi 80% de desnutrição entre os pacientes estudados. O tempo de diagnóstico de doença renal teve média de 4,84 ± 3,51 anos. Pela média dos exames bioquímicos, somente fósforo 5,51 ± 1,61 mg/dl e creatinina 10,84 ± 3,33 mg/dl estavam adequados. Nas médias das pontuações do SF-36, o menor valor encontrado foi para limitação por aspectos físicos (16,67 ± 29,60) e o maior para aspectos sociais (68,17 ± 33,67). CONCLUSÃO: O consumo energético e proteico médio esteve abaixo do recomendado. Obteve-se correlação positiva do consumo calórico, proteico, fibra, cálcio e carboidrato com qualidade de vida. Conclui-se, então, que a alimentação está associada à qualidade de vida do paciente renal hemodialítico.


INTRODUCTION: The chronic kidney disease and undergoing hemodialysis (HD) cause limitation in patients' life interfering in their life's quality and the nutritional care is fundamental to the disease treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective is the goal is to analyze the association between quality of life through the instrument (SF-36) with dietary intake, nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease in HD through quantitative research and transversal. METHODS: Realized valuation anthropometric, collection of the results of biochemical tests, application of the questionnaire SF-36 and dietary anamnesis (food recall of 24h). RESULTS: The sample consisted of thirty adult patients with age between 28 to 76 years. The disease related with chronic kidney disease was found more hypertension systemic arterial (53.3%) The average body mass index was 25.04 ± 4.50 kg/m². By fold cutaneous arm, 73.3% were in malnutrition. The end nutritional diagnosis of malnutrition was 80% among the patients studied. The time of diagnosis of renal disease had a mean of 4.84 ± 3.51 years. By the middle of biochemical tests only phosphorus creatinine were adequate. In the mean the scores of SF-36 the lowest value found was limited to physical aspects (16.67 ± 29.60) and the largest for the social aspect (68.17 ± 33.67). CONCLUSION: The average energy consumption and protein was below the recommended. Got positive correlation of calories, protein, fiber, calcium and carbohydrate, with quality of life. It was concluded that feeding is associated with quality of life of renal patients undergoing hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ingestão de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal
16.
BMC Cancer ; 13: 169, 2013 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23548132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: KRAS is an EGFR effector in the RAS/RAF/ERK cascade that is mutated in about 40% of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Activating mutations in codons 12 and 13 of the KRAS gene are the only established negative predictors of response to anti-EGFR therapy and patients whose tumors harbor such mutations are not candidates for therapy. However, 40 to 60% of wild-type cases do not respond to anti-EGFR therapy, suggesting the involvement of other genes that act downstream of EGFR in the RAS-RAF-MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways or activating KRAS mutations at other locations of the gene. METHODS: DNA was obtained from a consecutive series of 201 mCRC cases (FFPE tissue), wild-type for KRAS exon 2 (codons 12 and 13). Mutational analysis of KRAS (exons 3 and 4), BRAF (exons 11 and 15), and PIK3CA (exons 9 and 20) was performed by high resolution melting (HRM) and positive cases were then sequenced. RESULTS: One mutation was present in 23.4% (47/201) of the cases and 3.0% additional cases (6/201) had two concomitant mutations. A total of 53 cases showed 59 mutations, with the following distribution: 44.1% (26/59) in KRAS (13 in exon 3 and 13 in exon 4), 18.6% (11/59) in BRAF (two in exon 11 and nine in exon 15) and 37.3% (22/59) in PIK3CA (16 in exon 9 and six in exon 20). In total, 26.4% (53/201) of the cases had at least one mutation and the remaining 73.6% (148/201) were wild-type for all regions studied. Five of the mutations we report, four in KRAS and one in BRAF, have not previously been described in CRC. BRAF and PIK3CA mutations were more frequent in the colon than in the sigmoid or rectum: 20.8% vs. 1.6% vs. 0.0% (P=0.000) for BRAF and 23.4% vs. 12.1% vs. 5.4% (P=0.011) for PIK3CA mutations. CONCLUSIONS: About one fourth of mCRC cases wild-type for KRAS codons 12 and 13 present other mutations either in KRAS, BRAF, or PIK3CA, many of which may explain the lack of response to anti-EGFR therapy observed in a significant proportion of these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Éxons , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas ras/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Taxa de Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Temperatura de Transição , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Curr Microbiol ; 67(3): 300-5, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23591476

RESUMO

The effect of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) in the lead stress response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Yeast cells exposed to Pb, for 3 h, lost the cell proliferation capacity (viability) and decreased intracellular GSH level. The Pb-induced loss of cell viability was compared among yeast cells deficient in GSH1 (∆gsh1) or GSH2 (∆gsh2) genes and wild-type (WT) cells. When exposed to Pb, ∆gsh1 and ∆gsh2 cells did not display an increased loss of viability, compared with WT cells. However, the depletion of cellular thiols, including GSH, by treatment of WT cells with iodoacetamide (an alkylating agent, which binds covalently to thiol group), increased the loss of viability in Pb-treated cells. In contrast, GSH enrichment, due to the incubation of WT cells with amino acids mixture constituting GSH (L-glutamic acid, L-cysteine and glycine), reduced the Pb-induced loss of proliferation capacity. The obtained results suggest that intracellular GSH is involved in the defence against the Pb-induced toxicity; however, at physiological concentration, GSH seems not to be sufficient to prevent the Pb-induced loss of cell viability.


Assuntos
Glutationa/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
J Bras Nefrol ; 35(4): 279-88, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24402108

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The chronic kidney disease and undergoing hemodialysis (HD) cause limitation in patients' life interfering in their life's quality and the nutritional care is fundamental to the disease treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective is the goal is to analyze the association between quality of life through the instrument (SF-36) with dietary intake, nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease in HD through quantitative research and transversal. METHODS: Realized valuation anthropometric, collection of the results of biochemical tests, application of the questionnaire SF-36 and dietary anamnesis (food recall of 24h). RESULTS: The sample consisted of thirty adult patients with age between 28 to 76 years. The disease related with chronic kidney disease was found more hypertension systemic arterial (53.3%) The average body mass index was 25.04 ± 4.50 kg/m². By fold cutaneous arm, 73.3% were in malnutrition. The end nutritional diagnosis of malnutrition was 80% among the patients studied. The time of diagnosis of renal disease had a mean of 4.84 ± 3.51 years. By the middle of biochemical tests only phosphorus creatinine were adequate. In the mean the scores of SF-36 the lowest value found was limited to physical aspects (16.67 ± 29.60) and the largest for the social aspect (68.17 ± 33.67). CONCLUSION: The average energy consumption and protein was below the recommended. Got positive correlation of calories, protein, fiber, calcium and carbohydrate, with quality of life. It was concluded that feeding is associated with quality of life of renal patients undergoing hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 95(4): 1035-42, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22660770

RESUMO

Membrane integrity has been used as a criterion for the definition of cell viability. In the present work, staining conditions (time and dye concentration) for the evaluation of membrane integrity in a fluorescence microplate reader, using the membrane-impermeant nucleic-acid dye SYTOX Green, were optimized. Incubating Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algal cells with 0.5 µmol/l SYTOX Green for 40 min allowed a clear discrimination between live (intact plasma membrane) and dead cells (with compromised plasma membrane). Algal cell suspensions, labelled with SYTOX Green, exhibited a green fluorescence proportional to the fraction of the cells with a permeabilized plasma membrane. The optimized staining conditions were used to assess the toxicity of 1-pentanol on P. subcapitata in a short-term exposure (6 h) assay. The loss of membrane integrity in the cell population increased with the concentration of 1-pentanol. The 6-h EC(10) and EC(50) values were 7,617 mg/l 1-pentanol (95 % confidence limits 4,670-9,327) and 12,818 mg/l 1-pentanol (95 % confidence limits 10,929-15,183), respectively. The developed microplate-based short-term assay can be useful in the high-throughput screening of toxics or environmental samples using the alga P. subcapitata.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 93(3): 1221-9, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21814806

RESUMO

Flocculation is an eco-friendly process of cell separation, which has been traditionally exploited by the brewing industry. Cell surface charge (CSC), cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and the presence of active flocculins, during the growth of two (NCYC 1195 and NCYC 1214) ale brewing flocculent strains, belonging to the NewFlo phenotype, were examined. Ale strains, in exponential phase of growth, were not flocculent and did not present active flocculent lectins on the cell surface; in contrast, the same strains, in stationary phase of growth, were highly flocculent (>98%) and presented a hydrophobicity of approximately three to seven times higher than in exponential phase. No relationship between growth phase, flocculation and CSC was observed. For comparative purposes, a constitutively flocculent strain (S646-1B) and its isogenic non-flocculent strain (S646-8D) were also used. The treatment of ale brewing and S646-1B strains with pronase E originated a loss of flocculation and a strong reduction of CSH; S646-1B pronase E-treated cells displayed a similar CSH as the non-treated S646-8D cells. The treatment of the S646-8D strain with protease did not reduce CSH. In conclusion, the increase of CSH observed at the onset of flocculation of ale strains is a consequence of the presence of flocculins on the yeast cell surface and not the cause of yeast flocculation. CSH and CSC play a minor role in the auto-aggregation of the ale strains since the degree of flocculation is defined, primarily, by the presence of active flocculins on the yeast cell wall.


Assuntos
Cerveja/microbiologia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Adesão Celular , Floculação , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície
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