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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(1): e0011029, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment guidance for children and older adult patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is unclear due to limited representation of these groups in clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a collaborative retrospective study to describe the effectiveness and safety of antileishmanial treatments in children ≤ 10 and adults ≥ 60 years of age, treated between 2014 and 2018 in ten CL referral centers in Latin America. RESULTS: 2,037 clinical records were assessed for eligibility. Of them, the main reason for non-inclusion was lack of data on treatment follow-up and therapeutic response (182/242, 75% of children and 179/468, 38% of adults). Data on 1,325 eligible CL patients (736 children and 589 older adults) were analyzed. In both age groups, disease presentation was mild, with a median number of lesions of one (IQR: 1-2) and median lesion diameter of less than 3 cm. Less than 50% of the patients had data for two or more follow-up visits post-treatment (being only 28% in pediatric patients). Systemic antimonials were the most common monotherapy regimen in both age groups (590/736, 80.2% of children and 308/589, 52.3% of older adults) with overall cure rates of 54.6% (95% CI: 50.5-58.6%) and 68.2% (95% CI: 62.6-73.4%), respectively. Other treatments used include miltefosine, amphotericin B, intralesional antimonials, and pentamidine. Adverse reactions related to the main treatment were experienced in 11.9% (86/722) of children versus 38.4% (206/537) of older adults. Most adverse reactions were of mild intensity. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the need for greater availability and use of alternatives to systemic antimonials, particularly local therapies, and development of strategies to improve patient follow-up across the region, with special attention to pediatric populations.

2.
Int J Biometeorol ; 67(2): 347-354, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580141

RESUMO

Due to the high milk production of Holstein cows, many countries have chosen to import semen to improve local dairy herds. This strategy would be more effective if this semen was used in the same environment conditions in which the bulls were selected. If the effect of genotype by environment (G × E) interaction is not considered, the estimated breeding values (EBVs) may vary, potentially reducing the selection response. We evaluate the impact of heat stress on selection for milk yield and composition of Holstein cows using random regression models. To verify the interference of heat stress in milk yield (MY) and composition traits (fat, protein, total saturated, and total unsaturated fatty acids content in milk), temperature-humidity index (THI) on test-day milk records was used. The threshold value to divide the environments using test-day information from Brazilian Holstein cows was 72 units of THI, i.e., < 72 represented no heat stress and > 72 represented heat stress. Legendre polynomials of second-order (Leg 2) model and two lactation points (33 and 122 DIM) were used to estimate heritabilities and EBVs for five important dairy traits. The heritabilities of milk components and fatty acids were low (0.09-0.29), regardless of lactation period and degree of heat stress, with the exception of protein content (0.30-0.35). Fat content was the only milk component that was reduced according to the degree of heat stress and lactation period. The EBVs tended to decrease in heat stress conditions, thus animals with high genetic potential demonstrated evidence of G × E interaction. However, acclimatization of dairy cows to heat stress in the farm production systems may have been responsible for the low differences among genetic parameters and EBVs with and without heat stress found in this study.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010621, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML), a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania parasites, impairs the quality of life of under-resourced populations in South America. If not treated promptly, this disease progresses to facial deformities and death. The low sensitivity of microscopy results and the unavailability of other accurate tests hamper the diagnosis. As clinical criteria are readily available in any setting, these may be combined in a syndromic algorithm, which in turn can be used as a diagnostic tool. We explore potential clinical criteria for a syndromic diagnostic algorithm for ML in rural healthcare settings in South America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The protocol for this systematic review was pre-registered in PROSPERO with the number: CRD42017074148. In patients with ML, described in case series identified through a systematic retrieval process, we explored the cumulative ML detection rates of clinical criteria. Participants: all patients with active mucosal disease from an endemic area in South America. Any original, non-treatment study was eligible, and case reports were excluded. PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCIELO, and LILACS databases were searched without restrictions. The risk of bias was assessed with the JBI checklist for case series. We included 10 full texts describing 192 ML patients. Male gender had the highest detection rate (88%), followed by ulcer of the nasal mucosa (77%), age >15 (69%), and symptom duration >4 months (63%). SIGNIFICANCE: Within this selection of patients, we found that the male gender, ulcer of the nasal mucosa, age >15, and symptom duration >4 months lead to the highest detection rates. However, higher detection comes -naturally- with a higher rate of false positives as well. As we only included ML patients, this could not be verified. Therefore, the criteria that we found to be most promising should be validated in a well-designed prospective study.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Humanos , Lactente , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Úlcera
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010390, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases that inflict great burden to poor areas of the globe. Intense research has aimed to identify parasite genetic signatures predictive of infection outcomes. Consistency of diagnostic tools based on these markers would greatly benefit from accurate understanding of Leishmania spp. population genetics. We explored two chromosomal loci to characterize a population of L. braziliensis causing human disease in Northeast Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two temporally distinct samples of L. braziliensis were obtained from patients attending the leishmaniasis clinic at the village of Corte de Pedra: (2008-2011) primary sample, N = 120; (1999-2001) validation sample, N = 35. Parasites were genotyped by Sanger's sequencing of two 600 base pairs loci starting at nucleotide positions 3,074 and 425,451 of chromosomes 24 and 28, respectively. Genotypes based on haplotypes of biallelic positions in each locus were tested for several population genetic parameters as well as for geographic clustering within the region. Ample geographic overlap of genotypes at the two loci was observed as indicated by non-significant Cusick and Edward's comparisons. No linkage disequilibrium was detected among combinations of haplotypes for both parasite samples. Homozygous and heterozygous genotypes displayed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) at both loci in the two samples when straight observed and expected counts were compared by Chi-square (p>0.5). However, Bayesian statistics using one million Monte-Carlo randomizations disclosed a less robust HWE for chromosome 24 genotypes, particularly in the primary sample (p = 0.04). Fixation indices (Fst) were consistently lower than 0.05 among individuals of the two samples at both tested loci, and no intra-populational structuralization could be detected using STRUCTURE software. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that L. braziliensis can maintain stable populations in foci of human leishmaniasis and are capable of robust genetic recombination possibly due to events of sexual reproduction during the parasite's lifecycle.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia
5.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 30(6): 760-771, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Difficulties in emotion regulation are thought to play a transdiagnostic role across eating disorders (ED). In the current study, we explored with a path analysis the mediating role of self-criticism, experiential avoidance and negative urgency on the relationship between ED-related symptoms and dimensions of difficulties in emotion regulation. METHOD: Participants were 103 female outpatients recruited at a Portuguese ED hospital unit, diagnosed with an ED, aged 14-60 years old (M = 28.0, SD = 10.5), body mass index (BMI) ranging from 11.72 to 39.44 (M = 20.1, SD = 5.4). RESULTS: The path analysis resulted in a model with an adequate fit to the data (SRMR = 0.05; RMSEA = 0.07 [0.00, 0.12], PCLOSE = 0.269; TLI = 0.97; IFI = 0.99; GFI = 0.95). A final model in which the relationship between ED-related symptoms and dimensions of difficulties in emotion regulation was mediated by self-criticism, experiential avoidance and negative urgency, accounted for a variance of 71% for strategies, 57% for non-acceptance, 62% for impulses, 56% for goals and 20% for clarity. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that self-criticism, experiential avoidance and negative urgency, combined, are relevant in the relationship between ED-related symptoms and difficulties in emotion regulation. ED treatment and emotion regulation skills may be enhanced through the inclusion of specific components that target self-criticism, experiential avoidance and negative urgency, as they become prominent during the therapeutic process.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Adulto Jovem
6.
Front Nutr ; 9: 867401, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419398

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess differences in eating attitudes, impairment, and related psychopathology at treatment presentation for patients with "Non-severe and enduring Anorexia Nervosa" (illness duration of <7 years) and patients with "severe and enduring Anorexia Nervosa" (illness duration of 7 years or more). One hundred and thirty-nine patients diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa participated in this study. Participants were interviewed with the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and asked to complete several questionnaires at the end of the first treatment appointment. We also explored differences at treatment presentation by considering alternative criteria to define groups, namely a composite of illness duration and clinical impairment (≥16 CIA total score). No differences were found when comparing participants based on illness duration. However, when participants were classified into a different classification scheme: "Non-severe and enduring Anorexia Nervosa" (illness duration <7 years and a CIA total score <16) vs. "severe and enduring Anorexia Nervosa" (illness duration ≥7 years and CIA total score ≥16), significant differences were found in terms of eating pathology, depressive symptomatology, psychological distress, and emotion dysregulation. Further research is needed to better understand the role of illness duration and clinical impairment in informing the course of AN.

7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 89-92, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360083

RESUMO

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem that affects 85 countries. It is an endemic disease in Brazil, having an important socioeconomic impact. An exuberant case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is reported herein. A 28-year-old male patient with Down syndrome had had verrucous plaques on the back for over a year, with progressive growth. PCR of a lesion sample was positive for Leishmania braziliensis. The patient's condition was classified as atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis. He was successfully treated with amphotericin B and miltefosine. The treatment remains a challenge, given the toxicity and low cure rate of the currently recommended drugs.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Doenças Endêmicas
8.
J Health Psychol ; 27(7): 1535-1546, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406896

RESUMO

This study explored the associations between individuals presenting different problematic eating behaviors (Objective/Subjective binge-eating-OBE/SBE-and Compulsive/Non-compulsive grazing-C_Grazing/NC_Grazing) and eating disorder related symptoms. About 163 pre- and 131 post-bariatric patients were assessed. Assessment included: Face-to-face clinical interview to assess binge-eating and grazing episodes, and self-report measures to assess eating disorder symptomatology, psychological distress, and negative urgency. OBE and NC_Grazing were the problematic eating behaviors most and least associated with psychopathology, respectively. OBE and C_Grazing uniquely accounted for the significant variance in the most disordered eating variables. Our findings emphasize the need for the conceptualization of grazing behavior in the spectrum of disordered eating.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Obesidade Mórbida , Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia
9.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 36(1): 90-99, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599996

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Self-Care Dependency Evaluation Form assesses dependency in performing self-care activities, but its original version is extensive and provides redundant information. The present study aims to scrutinise the items of the scale with the purpose of creating a revised version and to evaluate its psychometric properties. METHODS: The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, an exploratory and correctional analysis of the items of the original form was performed from a database with 282 participants, followed by a review by a panel of experts who analysed the discriminatory ability and the contribution and relevance of each item, which resulted in the revised version. In the second phase, a new study with a sample comprising 150 participants was conducted to test the psychometric properties of the revised version. All ethical aspects and matters of confidentiality and privacy were assured. RESULTS: The scale with 27 items shows good internal consistency, ranging from 0.67 (taking medication) to 0.96 (walking). It was moderately correlated with the Barthel Index and the Lawton and Brody Scale, proven to be a discriminatory measurement instrument. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This measure will enable health professionals to better evaluate self-care activities and provide more efficient, simple and effective prescriptions.


Assuntos
Autocuidado , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 29(1): 222-229, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048623

RESUMO

The Committed Action Questionnaire (CAQ-8) is an instrument developed to measure committed action, an adaptive psychological process. The main goal in the current study was to confirm the factorial structure of the Portuguese version of the CAQ-8 in a transdiagnostic clinical sample of participants diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED). Participants were 102 female outpatients (Mage = 28.1, SD = 10.6; MBMI = 20.0, SD = 5.5) recruited from a clinical setting specialized in the treatment of ED. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the CAQ-8's factorial structure. Both first- and second-order models revealed adequate goodness-of-fit indices (e.g. χ2 /df = 1.545, p = .06; SRMR = 0.049; RMSEA = 0.073; CFI/TLI > 0.95). A moderation model revealed that the conditional effect of weight, shape and eating concerns on experiential avoidance was significantly moderated by increased levels of committed action, F(3, 97) = 23.79, p < .001, accounting for 42% of the final variance. The present study supports the usefulness of the CAQ-8 as a measure of levels of committed action with patients diagnosed with an ED.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Portugal , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Eat Weight Disord ; 27(1): 179-188, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713336

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the early associations between the experienced psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis during lockdown, depressive symptomatology, anxiety/stress levels, and disordered eating behaviors in adults during a first COVID-19 lockdown period. METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional study assessing 254 Portuguese adults (82.7% women; 35.82 ± 11.82 years) 1 week after the end of the first mandatory COVID-19 lockdown in Portugal. An online survey was conducted to evaluate psychological distress, disordered eating, and psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Pearson correlations and Structural Equation Modeling were performed. RESULTS: Participants reported the presence of meal skipping (52.8%), grazing eating behavior (80.9%), overeating (81.0%), loss of control over eating (47.2%), and binge eating episodes (39.2%) during lockdown. Structural equation modeling analyses, controlling for age and sex, indicated that there was a significant indirect effect of the experienced psychosocial impact of COVID-19 pandemic on disordered eating behaviors mediated through psychological distress. CONCLUSION: The psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis may lead to disordered eating, and this relation may occur through the elevation of psychological distress. These findings can be used to inform interventions, to enhance mental health and manage disordered eating during similar future situations. Level of evidence V: cross-sectional descriptive study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106192, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662548

RESUMO

The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Brazil using pentavalent antimony (Sbv) is associated with a high failure rate and long time to heal. Moreover, standard Sbv treatment cures only 50-60% of the cases. In this pilot clinical trial, we evaluated the topical use of bacterial cellulose (BC) bio-curatives + Sbv in the treatment of CL caused by L. braziliensis, in Bahia, Brazil. A total of 20 patients were randomized in two groups assigned to receive either parenteral Sbv alone or parenteral Sbv plus topically applied BC bio-curatives. CL patients treated with Sbv + topical BC bio-curatives had a significantly higher cure rate at 60 days post initiation of treatment compared to CL patients treated with Sbv alone (P=0.01). At day 90 post initiation of treatment, cure rate was similar in the two groups as was overall healing time. Adverse effects or local reactions to topical BC application were not observed. This pilot trial shows that the potential use of a combined therapy consisting of topical BC bio-curatives and parenteral Sbv in favoring healing of CL lesions caused by L. braziliensis, at an early time point.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Administração Tópica , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Celulose/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 39(1): 20-26, 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839672

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Introduction: patients with COVID-19 undergo changes in leukocyte count, respiratory disorders, and an increase in inflammatory substances. To improve the inflammatory condition, some nutrients can be used, including arginine, omega-3 fatty acids and nucleotides. This study aims to evaluate how oral immunonutrient supplements affects serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lymphocyte count in patients with COVID-19. Methods: in this double-blind clinical trial, we randomized 43 adult patients with COVID-19 to receive a standard high-protein normocaloric supplement (control) or an immunonutrient-enriched supplement (experiment) for 7 days. The primary outcome was to evaluate changes in total lymphocyte count and serum level of CRP. The assessment of risk and nutritional status of these patients was also performed. Results: forty-three patients with mean age of 41.5 (± 1.8) years were followed up, 39.5 % of them women. The mean body mass index was 27.6 (± 0.8) kg/m² and 58.1 % had low nutritional risk. In the experiment group, there was a CRP reduction of 23.6 (± 7.5) mg/L, while in the control branch the decrease was 14.8 (± 12.1) mg/L (p = 0.002). There was an increase in lymphocytes in the experiment group (+367.5 ± 401.8 cells/mm³) and a reduction in the control group (-282.8 ± 327.8 cells/mm³), although there was no statistical significance (p = 0.369). Relative risk (RR) of treatment in reducing CRP by 30 % or more was 4.45 (p < 0.001; 95 % CI, 1.79-11.07). RR in increasing lymphocyte count by 30 % or more was 1.28 (p = 0.327; 95 % CI, 0.67-2.45). Conclusion: we conclude that immunonutrient supplements seem to reduce CRP levels more than standard high-protein normocaloric supplements.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Introducción: los pacientes con COVID-19 sufren cambios en el recuento de leucocitos, trastornos respiratorios y aumento de sustancias inflamatorias. Para mejorar la condición inflamatoria se pueden usar algunos nutrientes, como la arginina, los ácidos grasos omega-3 y los nucleótidos. Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar cómo los suplementos de inmunonutrientes orales afectan a los niveles séricos de proteína C-reactiva (PCR) y al recuento de linfocitos en pacientes con COVID-19. Métodos: en este ensayo clínico doble ciego, aleatorizamos a 43 pacientes adultos con COVID-19 para recibir un suplemento normocalórico estándar alto en proteínas (control) o un suplemento enriquecido con inmunonutrientes (experimento) durante 7 días. El resultado primario fue evaluar los cambios en el recuento total de linfocitos y el nivel sérico de PCR. También se realizó la evaluación del riesgo y el estado nutricional de estos pacientes. Resultados: cuarenta y tres pacientes con edad media de 41,5 (± 1,8) años fueron seguidos, el 39,5 % de ellos mujeres. El índice de masa corporal medio fue de 27,6 (± 0,8) kg/m² y el 58,1 % tenían bajo riesgo nutricional. En el grupo experimental hubo una reducción de la PCR de 23,6 (± 7,5) mg/L, mientras que en la rama de control la disminución fue de 14,8 (± 12,1) mg/L (p = 0,002). Hubo un aumento de linfocitos en el grupo experimental (+367,5 ± 401,8 células/mm³) y una reducción en el grupo de control (-282,8 ± 327,8 células/mm³), aunque no hubo significación estadística (p = 0,369). El riesgo relativo (RR) del tratamiento para reducir la PCR en un 30 % o más fue de 4,45 (p < 0,001; IC 95 %: 1,79-11,07). El RR en el aumento del recuento de linfocitos en un 30 % o más fue de 1,28 (p = 0,327; IC 95 %: 0,67-2,45). Conclusión: se concluye que los suplementos de inmunonutrientes parecen reducir los niveles de PCR más que los suplementos normocalóricos estándar altos en proteína.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , COVID-19 , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
An Bras Dermatol ; 97(1): 89-92, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839986

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem that affects 85 countries. It is an endemic disease in Brazil, having an important socioeconomic impact. An exuberant case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is reported herein. A 28-year-old male patient with Down syndrome had had verrucous plaques on the back for over a year, with progressive growth. PCR of a lesion sample was positive for Leishmania braziliensis. The patient's condition was classified as atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis. He was successfully treated with amphotericin B and miltefosine. The treatment remains a challenge, given the toxicity and low cure rate of the currently recommended drugs.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Masculino
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672758

RESUMO

Genomic tools can help in the selection of animals genetically resistant to heat stress, especially the genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The objective of this study was to compare the variance explained by SNPs and direct genomic breeding values (DGVs) at two levels of a temperature and humidity index (THI). Records of milk yield (MY), somatic cell score (SCS), and percentages of casein (CAS), saturated fatty acids (SFA), and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in milk from 1157 Holstein cows were used. Traditional breeding values (EBV) were determined in a previous study and used as pseudo-phenotypes. Two levels of THI (heat comfort zone and heat stress zone) were used as environments and were treated as "traits" in a bi-trait model. The GWAS was performed using the genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) method. Considering the top 50 SNPs, a total of 36 SNPs were not common between environments, eight of which were located in gene regions related to the evaluated traits. Even for those SNPs that had differences in their explained variances between the two environments, the differences were very small. The animals showed virtually no rank order, with rank correlation values of 0.90, 0.88, 1.00, 0.88, and 0.97 for MY, CAS, SCS, SFA, and UFA, respectively. The small difference between the environments studied can be attributed to the small difference in the pseudo-phenotypes used between the environments, on-farm acclimation, the polygenic nature of the traits, and the THI values studied near the threshold between comfort and heat stress. It is recommended that future studies be conducted with a larger number of animals and at more extreme THI levels.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos/genética , Umidade , Temperatura , Lactação/genética , Brasil , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Temperatura Alta , Fenótipo , Caseínas/genética
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that ketamine's influence on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) might be involved in its mechanism of rapid antidepressant action. We aimed to evaluate the differential impact of ketamine and esketamine on serum BDNF levels and its association with response patterns in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS: Participants (n=53) are from a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial comparing the efficacy of single-dose ketamine (0.5mg/kg, n=27) and esketamine (0.25mg/kg, n=26) in TRD. Depression severity was assessed before, 24 hours, 72 hours, and 7 days after the intervention, using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Blood samples were collected before infusion, 24 hours, and 7 days afterwards. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in BDNF levels at post-infusion evaluation points, and no difference in BDNF levels comparing ketamine and esketamine. Both drugs exhibited similar therapeutic effect. There was no association between BDNF levels and response to treatment or severity of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: There was no significant treatment impact - neither with ketamine nor esketamine - in BDNF serum levels, despite therapeutic response. These results suggest that ketamine or esketamine intervention for TRD has no impact on BDNF levels measured at 24 hours and 7 days after the infusion. This clinical trial is registered on the Japan Primary Registries Network: UMIN000032355.

17.
AMB Express ; 11(1): 152, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792664

RESUMO

Leprosy reactions are immune processes that cause neural damage in individuals with leprosy. As periodontitis is an infectious disease related to its development, specific antibodies to periodontal pathogens must be evaluated to better understand the humoral mechanisms underlying this relationship. Therefore, the objective of this study was to standardize an immunoassay to measure IgA specific to P. gingivalis antigens in the saliva of individuals with leprosy. An ELISA checkerboard titration was performed. A validation test involving 53 individuals with leprosy, 24 with and 19 without periodontitis, was conducted and a ROC curve constructed to calculate sensitivity and specificity. The coefficient of the optical densities was 2.21 and 2.66 for P. gingivalis crude extract and the recombinant protein HmuY, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for the P. gingivalis crude extract were 66.7% and 73.7%, respectively, and for HmuY, were 62.5% and 52.6%, respectively. Specific recognition of P. gingivalis occurred predominantly in individuals with periodontitis, which validates the use of this test for studying periodontitis in individuals with leprosy.Trial registration CAEE 64476117.3.0000.0049, 21/07/2017, retrospectively registered.

18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(5): 544-550, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345153

RESUMO

Abstract Background: The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is a challenge. A better understanding of the in situ mechanisms involved in the evolution and cure of the disease is essential for the development of new therapies. Objective: Correlate histopathological and immunological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions with clinical outcome after different treatment regimens. Methods: The authors analyzed cellular infiltration and immunohistochemistry staining for CD4, CD8 and IL-17 in biopsy samples from 33 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis before treatment. All patients were recruited in a randomized clinical trial at Corte de Pedra (Bahia-Brazil) and assigned to receive Glucantime®, Glucantime® + Oral Tamoxifen or Glucantime® + Topical Tamoxifen. Patients were followed for 2 to 6 months to define disease outcome. Results: A similar expression of CD4, CD8 and IL-17 was observed in lesion samples regardless of clinical outcome. In general, a higher amount of CD8 cells were observed compared with CD4 cells. An important observation was that all patients whose cellular infiltrate did not contain plasma cells were cured after treatment. Study limitations: Isolated quantification of TCD8 and IL-17 using immunohistochemistry is insufficient to analyze the role of these molecules in the immunopathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In addition, the expansion of the immunohistochemistry panel would allow a more complete analysis of the immune response in situ. Conclusions: The absence of plasma cells in cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was related to a favorable therapeutic outcome.


Assuntos
Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Antimoniato de Meglumina
19.
An Bras Dermatol ; 96(5): 544-550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is a challenge. A better understanding of the in situ mechanisms involved in the evolution and cure of the disease is essential for the development of new therapies. OBJECTIVE: Correlate histopathological and immunological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions with clinical outcome after different treatment regimens. METHODS: The authors analyzed cellular infiltration and immunohistochemistry staining for CD4, CD8 and IL-17 in biopsy samples from 33 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis before treatment. All patients were recruited in a randomized clinical trial at Corte de Pedra (Bahia-Brazil) and assigned to receive Glucantime®, Glucantime® + Oral Tamoxifen or Glucantime® + Topical Tamoxifen. Patients were followed for 2 to 6 months to define disease outcome. RESULTS: A similar expression of CD4, CD8 and IL-17 was observed in lesion samples regardless of clinical outcome. In general, a higher amount of CD8 cells were observed compared with CD4 cells. An important observation was that all patients whose cellular infiltrate did not contain plasma cells were cured after treatment. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Isolated quantification of TCD8 and IL-17 using immunohistochemistry is insufficient to analyze the role of these molecules in the immunopathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In addition, the expansion of the immunohistochemistry panel would allow a more complete analysis of the immune response in situ. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of plasma cells in cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was related to a favorable therapeutic outcome.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Antimoniato de Meglumina , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 138(6): 643-654, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184799

RESUMO

Measurements of milk yield (MY), somatic cell score (SCS), percentage of fat (FP), protein (PP), lactose (LP), casein (CP) and percentage of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), total saturated (SFA), unsaturated (UFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids in milk from 5,224 Holstein cows were evaluated as a function of a temperature and humidity index (THI). Legendre orthogonal polynomials from second to seventh order were tested. The best fit order for MY, PP and C18:0 was the third, whereas the second for all other traits. The heritability estimates decreased for MY (0.31 to 0.14), FP (0.28 to 0.16), LP (0.43 to 0.30), SCS (0.14 to 0.09), SFA (0.33 to 0.22) and C16:0 (0.31 to 0.26), whereas increased for CP (0.32 to 0.42), MUFA (0.08 to 0.13), UFA (0.07 to 0.11) and C18:1 (0.07 to 0.11) as the THI level increased. For PP, heritabilities (0.26 to 0.39) presented larger values in intermediate THI. For PUFA and C18:0, heritabilities were approximately constant (0.13 to 0.14 and 0.15, respectively). However, the greatest variations may have been the result of the limitations of Legendre polynomials at the extreme points of the curve, and the pattern of heritabilities curves was approximately constant for the evaluated traits. Spearman's rank correlations between breeding values in extreme THI levels were greater than 0.80 for all traits considering all animals, only cows and only bulls. When considering the top 1% and the top 50% animals (only cows, only bulls and all), Spearman correlations smaller than 0.70 were found, suggesting reranking of the animals. Although there was little variation in the variance components over THI, it is possible that there is no heat stress in the animals studied, because, on average, there was no great impact of the thermal load on the traits. One possible explanation is the use of herds with little climatic difference among herds, as well as the use of fans and sprinklers into the barns. However, the THI levels may be important factors in the selection process, as reranking of animals was verified.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Umidade , Masculino , Fenótipo , Temperatura
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