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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1590-1610, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390653

RESUMO

Our study investigated the underlying mechanism for the 14q24 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) susceptibility risk locus identified by a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The sentinel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4903064, at 14q24 confers an allele-specific effect on expression of the double PHD fingers 3 (DPF3) of the BAF SWI/SNF complex as assessed by massively parallel reporter assay, confirmatory luciferase assays, and eQTL analyses. Overexpression of DPF3 in renal cell lines increases growth rates and alters chromatin accessibility and gene expression, leading to inhibition of apoptosis and activation of oncogenic pathways. siRNA interference of multiple DPF3-deregulated genes reduces growth. Our results indicate that germline variation in DPF3, a component of the BAF complex, part of the SWI/SNF complexes, can lead to reduced apoptosis and activation of the STAT3 pathway, both critical in RCC carcinogenesis. In addition, we show that altered DPF3 expression in the 14q24 RCC locus could influence the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment for RCC by regulating tumor cytokine secretion and immune cell activation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Loci Gênicos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/imunologia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia
2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma (UM), a rare malignant tumor of the eye, is predominantly observed in populations of European ancestry. UMs carrying a monosomy 3 (M3) frequently relapse mainly in the liver, whereas UMs with disomy 3 (D3) are associated with more favorable outcome. Here, we explored the UM genetic predisposition factors in a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,142 European UM patients and 882 healthy controls. METHODS: We combined two independent datasets (GSA array) with the dataset described in a previously published GWAS in UM (Omni5 array), which were imputed separately and subsequently merged. Patients were stratified according to their chromosome 3 status and identified UM risk loci were tested for differential association with M3 or D3 subgroups. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We recapitulated the previously identified risk locus on chromosome 5 on CLPTM1L (rs421284: odds ratio [OR] =1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35-1.86; P=1.98 × 10-8) and identified two additional risk loci involved in eye pigmentation: IRF4 locus on chromosome 6 (rs12203592: OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.44-2.16; P =3.55 × 10-8) and HERC locus on chromosome 15 (rs12913832: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.48-0.67; P =1.88 × 10-11). The IRF4 rs12203592 SNP was found to be exclusively associated with risk for the D3 UM subtype (ORD3 = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.87-3.97; P =1.78 × 10-7), and the HERC2 rs12913832 SNP was exclusively associated with risk for the M3 UM subtype (ORM3 = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.79-3.29; P =1.13 × 10-8). However, the CLPTM1L risk locus was equally statistically significant in both subgroups. CONCLUSION: This work identified two additional UM risk loci known for their role in pigmentation. Importantly, we demonstrate that UM tumor biology and metastatic potential are influenced by patients' genetic backgrounds.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15004, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294836

RESUMO

To improve risk stratification and treatment decisions for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We used SNP-array data from the DISCOVeRY-BMT study to detect chromosomal aberrations in pre-HCT peripheral blood (collected 2-4 weeks before the administration of conditioning regimen) from 1974 AML patients who received HCT between 2000 and 2011. All aberrations detected in ≥ 10 patients were tested for their association with overall survival (OS), separately by remission status, using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Cox regression models were used for multivariable analyses. Follow-up was through January 2019. We identified 701 unique chromosomal aberrations in 285 patients (7% of 1438 in complete remission (CR) and 36% of 536 not in CR). Copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity (CNLOH) in chr17p in CR patients (3-year OS = 20% vs. 50%, with and without chr17p CNLOH, p = 0.0002), and chr13q in patients not in CR (3-year OS = 4% vs. 26%, with and without chr13q CNLOH, p < 0.0001) are risk factors for poor survival. Models adjusted for clinical factors showed approximately three-fold excess risk of post-HCT mortality with chr17p CNLOH in CR patients (hazard ratio, HR = 3.39, 95% confidence interval CI 1.74-6.60, p = 0.0003), or chr13q CNLOH in patients not in CR (HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.75-4.09, p < 0.0001). The observed mortality was mostly driven by post-HCT relapse (HR = 2.47, 95% CI 1.01-6.02, p = 0.047 for chr17p CNLOH in CR patients, and HR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.63-4.08, p < 0.0001 for chr13q CNLOH in patients not in CR. Pre-transplant CNLOH in chr13q or chr17p predicts risk of poor outcomes after unrelated donor HCT in AML patients. A large prospective study is warranted to validate the results and evaluate novel strategies to improve survival in those patients.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1408-1417, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested positive associations for iron and red meat intake with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Inherited pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway are known to cause iron overload and hemochromatosis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway is associated with PDAC. METHODS: We conducted a pathway analysis of the hepcidin-regulating genes using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics generated from 4 genome-wide association studies in 2 large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method. Our population consisted of 9253 PDAC cases and 12,525 controls of European descent. Our analysis included 11 hepcidin-regulating genes [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), ferritin light chain (FTL), hepcidin (HAMP), homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)] and their surrounding genomic regions (±20 kb) for a total of 412 SNPs. RESULTS: The hepcidin-regulating gene pathway was significantly associated with PDAC (P = 0.002), with the HJV, TFR2, TFR1, BMP6, and HAMP genes contributing the most to the association. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that genetic susceptibility related to the hepcidin-regulating gene pathway is associated with PDAC risk and suggest a potential role of iron metabolism in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to evaluate effect modification by intake of iron-rich foods on this association.

5.
Cell Biosci ; 11(1): 143, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) are large chromosomal gains, losses and copy-neutral losses of heterozygosity (LOH) in peripheral leukocytes. While many individuals with detectable mCAs have no notable adverse outcomes, mCA-associated gene dosage alterations as well as clonal expansion of mutated leukocyte clones could increase susceptibility to disease. RESULTS: We performed a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) using existing data from 482,396 UK Biobank (UKBB) participants to investigate potential associations between mCAs and incident disease. Of the 1290 ICD codes we examined, our adjusted analysis identified a total of 50 incident disease outcomes associated with mCAs at PheWAS significance levels. We observed striking differences in the diseases associated with each type of alteration, with autosomal mCAs most associated with increased hematologic malignancies, incident infections and possibly cancer therapy-related conditions. Alterations of chromosome X were associated with increased lymphoid leukemia risk and, mCAs of chromosome Y were linked to potential reduced metabolic disease risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that a wide range of diseases are potential sequelae of mCAs and highlight the critical importance of careful covariate adjustment in mCA disease association studies.

6.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 1012-1024, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099924

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking age to infectious disease risk are incompletely understood. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from genotyping of blood-derived DNA, are structural somatic variants indicative of clonal hematopoiesis, and are associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality. Here, we show that mCAs predispose to diverse types of infections. We analyzed mCAs from 768,762 individuals without hematological cancer at the time of DNA acquisition across five biobanks. Expanded autosomal mCAs were associated with diverse incident infections (hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.36; P = 1.8 × 10-7), including sepsis (HR 2.68; 95% CI = 2.25-3.19; P = 3.1 × 10-28), pneumonia (HR 1.76; 95% CI = 1.53-2.03; P = 2.3 × 10-15), digestive system infections (HR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.73; P = 2.2 × 10-9) and genitourinary infections (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.41; P = 3.7 × 10-4). A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 loci, which were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. These results suggest that mCAs are a marker of impaired immunity and confer increased predisposition to infections.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/genética , Pneumonia/genética , Sepse/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/genética , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/microbiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosaicismo , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Anormalidades Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Anormalidades Urogenitais/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Cancer ; 149(5): 1054-1066, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961701

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most common primary bone tumor in children and adolescents. There are few known epidemiological or genetic risk factors for ES. Numerous reports describe incidence rates and trends within the United States, but international comparisons are sparse. We used the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) data to estimate age standardized incidence rates (ASRs; cases per million) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), male-to-female incidence rate ratios (IRRs; 95% CI), and the average annual percent change in incidence (AAPC; 95% CI) for ES by geographic region for children and adults aged 0 to 49 years. We also estimated the ASR for each country or country subpopulation among the 10- to 19-year-old age range; capturing the peak incidence of ES. In total, 15 874 ES cases ages 0 to 49 were reported in the CI5 series between 1988 and 2012. AAPC estimates varied by age group and geographic region. Most of the statistically significant AAPCs showed an increased incidence over time; the only statistically significant decreases in incidence were observed among 20- to 29-year-olds and 30- to 39-year-olds in Southern Asia at -1.93% and -1.67%. When categorized by predominant ancestry, we observed countries and subpopulations with predominately African, East Asian, and Southeast Asian ancestry had the lowest incidence rates, whereas Pacific Islanders and populations with predominantly European and North African/Middle Eastern ancestry had the highest. An excess incidence in males was observed in most regions. Our results highlight substantial variation in ES incidence across geographic populations, reflecting potential ancestral influence on disease risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/tendências , Sarcoma de Ewing/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Agências Internacionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Science ; 372(6543)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888599

RESUMO

The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident increased papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence in surrounding regions, particularly for radioactive iodine (131I)-exposed children. We analyzed genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic characteristics of 440 PTCs from Ukraine (from 359 individuals with estimated childhood 131I exposure and 81 unexposed children born after 1986). PTCs displayed radiation dose-dependent enrichment of fusion drivers, nearly all in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and increases in small deletions and simple/balanced structural variants that were clonal and bore hallmarks of nonhomologous end-joining repair. Radiation-related genomic alterations were more pronounced for individuals who were younger at exposure. Transcriptomic and epigenomic features were strongly associated with driver events but not radiation dose. Our results point to DNA double-strand breaks as early carcinogenic events that subsequently enable PTC growth after environmental radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Mutação , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/etiologia , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epigenoma , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes ras , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , RNA-Seq , Doses de Radiação , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação , Translocação Genética , Ucrânia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
9.
Science ; 372(6543): 725-729, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888597

RESUMO

Effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear accident remain a topic of interest. We investigated germline de novo mutations (DNMs) in children born to parents employed as cleanup workers or exposed to occupational and environmental ionizing radiation after the accident. Whole-genome sequencing of 130 children (born 1987-2002) and their parents did not reveal an increase in the rates, distributions, or types of DNMs relative to the results of previous studies. We find no elevation in total DNMs, regardless of cumulative preconception gonadal paternal [mean = 365 milligrays (mGy), range = 0 to 4080 mGy] or maternal (mean = 19 mGy, range = 0 to 550 mGy) exposure to ionizing radiation. Thus, we conclude that, over this exposure range, evidence is lacking for a substantial effect on germline DNMs in humans, suggesting minimal impact from transgenerational genetic effects.

10.
AIDS ; 35(10): 1525-1535, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Zidovudine (ZDV) has been extensively used in pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission of HIV but few studies have evaluated potential mutagenic effects of ZDV during fetal development. DESIGN: Our study investigated clonal hematopoiesis in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) newborns, 94 of whom were ZDV-exposed and 91 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-unexposed and matched for potential confounding factors. METHODS: Utilizing high depth sequencing and genotyping arrays, we comprehensively examined blood samples collected during the first week after birth for potential clonal hematopoiesis associated with fetal ZDV exposure, including clonal single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions (indels), and large structural copy number or copy neutral alterations. RESULTS: We observed no statistically significant difference in the number of SNVs and indels per person in ZDV-exposed children (adjusted ratio [95% confidence interval, CI] for expected number of mutations = 0.79 [0.50--1.22], P = 0.3), and no difference in the number of large structural alterations. Mutations in common clonal hematopoiesis driver genes were not found in the study population. Mutational signature analyses on SNVs detected no novel signatures unique to the ZDV-exposed children and the mutational profiles were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that clonal hematopoiesis at levels detectable in our study is not strongly influenced by in-utero ZDV exposure; however, additional follow-up studies are needed to further evaluate the safety and potential long-term impacts of in-utero ZDV exposure in HEU children as well as better investigate genomic aberrations occurring late in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Criança , Hematopoiese Clonal , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Zidovudina/efeitos adversos
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(6): 1275-1278, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating the association between peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) risk have produced conflicting results. METHODS: Using available genotype data from the Testicular Cancer Consortium (TECAC), polygenic risk score and Mendelian randomization analyses of genetic variants previously associated with LTL were used to assess potential etiologic associations between telomere length and TGCT risk. RESULTS: Genetically inferred telomere length was not associated with TGCT risk among 2,049 cases and 6,921 controls with individual-level genotype data (OR, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.07). Mendelian randomization analyses using summary statistic data further indicated no evidence for an association between telomere length and TGCT risk among all available TECAC participants (3,558 cases and 13,971 controls). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses in the largest molecular genetic testicular cancer study to date provide no evidence for an association between genetically inferred peripheral blood LTL and TGCT risk. IMPACT: The lack of evidence for an overall association indicates that peripheral blood LTL is likely not a strong biomarker for TGCT risk.

12.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 13, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer epidemiology studies require sufficient power to assess spatial relationships between exposures and cancer incidence accurately. However, methods for power calculations of spatial statistics are complicated and underdeveloped, and therefore underutilized by investigators. The spatial relative risk function, a cluster detection technique that detects spatial clusters of point-level data for two groups (e.g., cancer cases and controls, two exposure groups), is a commonly used spatial statistic but does not have a readily available power calculation for study design. RESULTS: We developed sparrpowR as an open-source R package to estimate the statistical power of the spatial relative risk function. sparrpowR generates simulated data applying user-defined parameters (e.g., sample size, locations) to detect spatial clusters with high statistical power. We present applications of sparrpowR that perform a power calculation for a study designed to detect a spatial cluster of incident cancer in relation to a point source of numerous environmental emissions. The conducted power calculations demonstrate the functionality and utility of sparrpowR to calculate the local power for spatial cluster detection. CONCLUSIONS: sparrpowR improves the current capacity of investigators to calculate the statistical power of spatial clusters, which assists in designing more efficient studies. This newly developed R package addresses a critically underdeveloped gap in cancer epidemiology by estimating statistical power for a common spatial cluster detection technique.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Incidência , Análise Espacial
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1193, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441948

RESUMO

Age-related male Y and female X chromosome mosaicism is commonly observed in large population-based studies. To investigate the frequency of male X chromosome mosaicism, we scanned for deviations in chromosome X genotyping array intensity data in a population-based survey of 196,219 UK Biobank men. We detected 12 (0.006%) men with mosaic chromosome X gains ≥ 2 Mb and found no evidence for mosaic chromosome X loss, a level of detection substantially lower than for autosomes or other sex chromosomes. The rarity of chromosome X mosaicism in males relative to females reflects the importance of chromosome X gene dosage for leukocyte function.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosaicismo , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais
15.
Bioinformatics ; 37(8): 1178-1181, 2021 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926120

RESUMO

SUMMARY: A concern when conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is the potential for population stratification, i.e. ancestry-based genetic differences between cases and controls, that if not properly accounted for, could lead to biased association results. We developed PCAmatchR as an open source R package for performing optimal case-control matching using principal component analysis (PCA) to aid in selecting controls that are well matched by ancestry to cases. PCAmatchR takes user supplied PCA outputs and selects matching controls for cases by utilizing a weighted Mahalanobis distance metric which weights each principal component by the percentage of genetic variation explained. Results from the 1000 Genomes Project data demonstrate both the functionality and performance of PCAmatchR for selecting matching controls for case populations as well as reducing inflation of association test statistics. PCAmatchR improves genomic similarity between matched cases and controls, which minimizes the effects of population stratification in GWAS analyses. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: PCAmatchR is freely available for download on GitHub (https://github.com/machiela-lab/PCAmatchR) or through CRAN (https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=PCAmatchR). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Software , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genômica , Análise de Componente Principal
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2226: 3-14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326089

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is a rare bone or soft tissue tumor that occurs early in life and as such genetic variation is a major contributor to EwS risk. To date, genetic investigations have identified key somatic mutations and germline variants of importance for EwS risk. While substantial progress is being made in uncovering the genetic etiology of EwS, considerable gaps in knowledge remain. Herein, we provide a summary of methodological approaches for future genomic investigations of EwS. We anticipate this recommended analytical framework for germline and somatic investigations, along with genomic data from growing EwS case series, will aid in accelerating new genomic discoveries in EwS and expand knowledge of the genetic architecture of EwS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/diagnóstico
17.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269365

RESUMO

Acquired somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (clonal hematopoiesis or CH) are associated with advanced age, increased risk of cardiovascular and malignant diseases, and decreased overall survival. 1-4 These adverse sequelae may be mediated by altered inflammatory profiles observed in patients with CH. 2,5,6 A pro-inflammatory immunologic profile is also associated with worse outcomes of certain infections, including SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease Covid-19. 7,8 Whether CH predisposes to severe Covid-19 or other infections is unknown. Among 515 individuals with Covid-19 from Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) and the Korean Clonal Hematopoiesis (KoCH) consortia, we found that CH was associated with severe Covid-19 outcomes (OR=1.9, 95%=1.2-2.9, p=0.01). We further explored the relationship between CH and risk of other infections in 14,211 solid tumor patients at MSK. CH was significantly associated with risk of Clostridium Difficile (HR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3, p=6×10 -3 ) and Streptococcus/Enterococcus infections (HR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.1, p=5×10 -3 ). These findings suggest a relationship between CH and risk of severe infections that warrants further investigation.

18.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236019

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking the two are incompletely understood 1,2 . Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from blood-derived DNA genotyping, are structural somatic variants associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality 3-11 . Whether mCAs represent independent risk factors for infection is unknown. Here we use genome-wide genotyping of blood DNA to show that mCAs predispose to diverse infectious diseases. We analyzed mCAs from 767,891 individuals without hematological cancer at DNA acquisition across four countries. Expanded mCA (cell fraction >10%) prevalence approached 4% by 60 years of age and was associated with diverse incident infections, including sepsis, pneumonia, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization. A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 significant loci. Germline genetic alleles associated with expanded mCAs were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. Our results link mCAs with impaired immunity and predisposition to infections. Furthermore, these findings may also have important implications for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in prioritizing individual preventive strategies and evaluating immunization responses.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1009078, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090998

RESUMO

Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes essential in maintaining chromosomal stability. Observational studies have identified associations between telomeres and elevated cancer risk, including hematologic malignancies; but biologic mechanisms relating telomere length to cancer etiology remain unclear. Our study sought to better understand the relationship between telomere length and cancer risk by evaluating genetically-predicted telomere length (gTL) in relation to the presence of clonal somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) in peripheral blood leukocytes. Genotyping array data were acquired from 431,507 participants in the UK Biobank and used to detect SCNAs from intensity information and infer telomere length using a polygenic risk score (PRS) of variants previously associated with leukocyte telomere length. In total, 15,236 (3.5%) of individuals had a detectable clonal SCNA on an autosomal chromosome. Overall, higher gTL value was positively associated with the presence of an autosomal SCNA (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.05-1.09, P = 1.61×10-15). There was high consistency in effect estimates across strata of chromosomal event location (e.g., telomeric ends, interstitial or whole chromosome event; Phet = 0.37) and strata of copy number state (e.g., gain, loss, or neutral events; Phet = 0.05). Higher gTL value was associated with a greater cellular fraction of clones carrying autosomal SCNAs (ß = 0.004, 95% CI = 0.002-0.007, P = 6.61×10-4). Our population-based examination of gTL and SCNAs suggests inherited components of telomere length do not preferentially impact autosomal SCNA event location or copy number status, but rather likely influence cellular replicative potential.


Assuntos
Evolução Clonal/genética , Neoplasias/sangue , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Telômero/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Divisão Celular/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Cancer Res ; 80(16): 3443-3446, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606005

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of germline susceptibility loci associated with risk for cancer as well as a wide range of other traits and diseases. An interest of many investigators is identifying traits or diseases that share common susceptibility loci. We developed LDtrait (https://ldlink.nci.nih.gov/?tab=ldtrait) as an open access web tool for finding germline variation associated with multiple traits. LDtrait searches the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog to identify susceptibility loci in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a user-provided list of query variants. Options allow for modifying LD thresholds, calculating LD from a diverse set of reference populations, and downloading annotated variant lists. Results from example query searches highlight the utility of LDtrait in uncovering cross-trait associations for cancer risk and other traits. LDtrait accelerates etiologic understanding of cancer genetics by rapidly identifying genetic similarities with other traits or diseases. SIGNIFICANCE: The new GWAS search tool LDtrait will expedite discovery of shared genetic components underlying seemingly unrelated diseases and may offer novel insights into cancer research.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo
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