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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4174, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234105

RESUMO

The folding of ß-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in Gram-negative bacteria is catalysed by the ß-barrel assembly machinery (BAM). How lateral opening in the ß-barrel of the major subunit BamA assists in OMP folding, and the contribution of membrane disruption to BAM catalysis remain unresolved. Here, we use an anti-BamA monoclonal antibody fragment (Fab1) and two disulphide-crosslinked BAM variants (lid-locked (LL), and POTRA-5-locked (P5L)) to dissect these roles. Despite being lethal in vivo, we show that all complexes catalyse folding in vitro, albeit less efficiently than wild-type BAM. CryoEM reveals that while Fab1 and BAM-P5L trap an open-barrel state, BAM-LL contains a mixture of closed and contorted, partially-open structures. Finally, all three complexes globally destabilise the lipid bilayer, while BamA does not, revealing that the BAM lipoproteins are required for this function. Together the results provide insights into the role of BAM structure and lipid dynamics in OMP folding.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Hidrolases/genética , Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Proteolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteolipídeos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura
2.
Malar J ; 18(1): 388, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria kills over 400,000 people each year and nearly half the world's population live in at-risk areas. Progress against malaria has recently stalled, highlighting the need for developing novel therapeutics. The parasite haemoglobin degradation pathway, active in the blood stage of the disease where malaria symptoms and lethality manifest, is a well-established drug target. A key enzyme in this pathway is the papain-type protease falcipain-2. METHODS: The crystallographic structure of falcipain-2 at 3.45 Å resolution was resolved in complex with an (E)-chalcone small-molecule inhibitor. The falcipain-2-(E)-chalcone complex was analysed with reference to previous falcipain complexes and their similarity to human cathepsin proteases. RESULTS: The (E)-chalcone inhibitor binds falcipain-2 to the rear of the substrate-binding cleft. This is the first structure of a falcipain protease where the rear of the substrate cleft is bound by a small molecule. In this manner, the (E)-chalcone inhibitor mimics interactions observed in protein-based falcipain inhibitors, which can achieve high interaction specificity. CONCLUSIONS: This work informs the search for novel anti-malaria therapeutics that target falcipain-2 by showing the binding site and interactions of the medically privileged (E)-chalcone molecule. Furthermore, this study highlights the possibility of chemically combining the (E)-chalcone molecule with an existing active-site inhibitor of falcipain, which may yield a potent and selective compound for blocking haemoglobin degradation by the malaria parasite.


Assuntos
Chalconas/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética
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