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1.
Hematology ; 25(1): 366-371, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment patterns and patient outcomes in Latin America. METHODS: This chart review study (NCT02559583; 2008-2015)evaluated time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) outcomes among patients with CLL who initiate done (n = 261) to two (n = 96) lines of therapy (LOT) since diagnosis. Differences in TTP and OS were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis, with a log-rank test for statistical significance. Association between therapeutic regimen and risk for disease progression or death was estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: The most commonly prescribed therapies in both LOTs were chlorambucil-, followed by fludarabine- and cyclophosphamide (C)/CHOP-based therapies. Chlorambucil- and C/CHOP-based therapies were largely prescribed to elderly patients (≥65 years) while fludarabine-based therapy was predominantly used by younger patients (≤65 years). In LOT1, relative to chlorambucil-administered patients, those prescribed fludarabine-based therapies had lower risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32 [0.19-0.54]), whereas C/CHOP-prescribed patients had higher risk (HR 95%CI 1.88 [1.17-3.04]). Similar results were observed in LOT2. There was no difference in OS between treatments in both LOTs. DISCUSSION: Novel therapies such as kinase inhibitors were rarely prescribed in LOT1 or LOT2in Latin America. The greater TTP observed forfludarabine-based therapies could be attributed to the fact that fludarabine-based therapies are predominantly administered to young and healthy patients. CONCLUSION: Chlorambucil-based therapy, which has limited benefits, is frequently prescribed in Latin America. Prescribing novel agents for fludarabine-based therapy-ineligible patients with CLL is the need of the hour. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02559583.

2.
Adv Ther ; 37(12): 4996-5009, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067698

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The phase 3 ALCYONE study demonstrated significantly longer progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS) and higher overall response rates (ORR) with daratumumab plus bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (D-VMP) versus VMP alone in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). In Latin America, bortezomib- or thalidomide-based regimens remain standard of care (SoC) for this population. No head-to-head trials have compared D-VMP with SoC regimens used in Latin America. METHODS: Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to control for baseline differences between patient populations and compare outcomes for D-VMP versus SoC regimens used in Latin America. Data for the D-VMP cohort were from the D-VMP arm of the ALCYONE trial (n = 350). Data for the SoC cohort were from the retrospective, observational Hemato-Oncology Latin America (HOLA) study, which included patients with NDMM who did not receive a transplant (n = 729). Propensity scores were estimated using logistic regression. Exact, optimal, and nearest-neighbor PSM were applied to pick the best-performing method. Doubly robust estimation was the base case, since some baseline imbalances persisted. RESULTS: All 350 patients from the D-VMP arm of ALCYONE were included in OS/PFS analyses and 338 in ORR analysis; 478 and 324 patients, respectively, from HOLA were included in these analyses. Naïve comparison revealed important differences in baseline characteristics (age, chronic kidney disease, hypercalcemia, and International Staging System [ISS] stage). After nearest-neighbor matching, baseline characteristics, except ISS stage, were well balanced; comparisons favored D-VMP over SoC for OS (hazard ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.66; P = 0.002) and PFS (hazard ratio = 0.48; 95% CI 0.35-0.67; P < 0.001). After exact matching, imbalances remained in age and ISS stage; comparisons favored D-VMP over SoC for ORR (odds ratio = 5.44; 95% CI 2.65-11.82; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In transplant-ineligible patients with NDMM, D-VMP showed superior effectiveness versus bortezomib- and thalidomide-based regimens, supporting adoption of daratumumab-containing regimens in Latin America.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD) have a major impact on quality of life and medical costs. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence, incidence and clinical phenotypes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) cases in Mexico and Colombia. METHODS: We analyzed official administrative and health databases, used mathematical modelling to estimate the incidence and complete prevalence, and performed a case-series of IBD patients at a referral center both in Mexico and Colombia. RESULTS: The age-adjusted complete prevalence of UC per 100,000 inhabitants for 2015/2016 ranged from 15.65 to 71.19 in Mexico and from 27.40 to 69.97 in Colombia depending on the model considered. The prevalence of CD per 100,000 inhabitants in Mexico ranged from 15.45 to 18.08 and from 16.75 to 18.43 in Colombia. In Mexico, the age-adjusted incidence of UC per 100,000 inhabitants per year ranged from 0.90 to 2.30, and from 0.55 to 2.33 in Colombia. The incidence for CD in Mexico ranged from 0.35 to 0.66 whereas in Colombia, the age-adjusted incidence of CD ranged from 0.30 to 0.57. The case-series included 200 IBD patients from Mexico and 204 patients from Colombia. The UC/CD prevalence ratio in Mexico and Colombia was 1.50:1 and 4.5:1 respectively. In Mexico, the female/male prevalence ratio for UC was 1.50:1 and 1.28:1 for CD, while in Colombia this ratio was 0.68:1 for UC and 0.8:1 for CD. In Mexico the relapse rate for UC was 63.3% and 72.5% for CD, while those rates in Colombia were 58.2% for UC and 58.3% for CD. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated burden of disease of IBD in Mexico and Colombia is not negligible. Although these findings need to be confirmed by population-based studies, they are useful for decision-makers, practitioners and patients with this condition.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Idoso , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Br J Haematol ; 188(3): 383-393, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392724

RESUMO

Limited data are available regarding contemporary multiple myeloma (MM) treatment practices in Latin America. In this retrospective cohort study, medical records were reviewed for a multinational cohort of 1103 Latin American MM patients (median age, 61 years) diagnosed in 2008-2015 who initiated first-line therapy (LOT1). Of these patients, 33·9% underwent autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). During follow-up, 501 (45·4%) and 129 (11·7%) patients initiated second- (LOT2) and third-line therapy (LOT3), respectively. In the LOT1 setting, from 2008 to 2015, there was a decrease in the use of thalidomide-based therapy, from 66·7% to 42·6%, and chemotherapy from, 20·2% to 5·9%, whereas use of bortezomib-based therapy or bortezomib + thalidomide increased from 10·7% to 45·5%. Bortezomib-based therapy and bortezomib + thalidomide were more commonly used in ASCT patients and in private clinics. In non-ASCT and ASCT patients, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 15·0 and 31·1 months following LOT1 and 10·9 and 9·5 months following LOT2, respectively. PFS was generally longer in patients treated with bortezomib-based or thalidomide-based therapy versus chemotherapy. These data shed light on recent trends in the management of MM in Latin America. Slower uptake of newer therapies in public clinics and poor PFS among patients with relapsed MM point to areas of unmet therapeutic need in Latin America.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Instalações Privadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Glob Oncol ; 5: 1-19, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited information is available on multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) management in Latin America. The primary objective of the Hemato-Oncology Latin America (HOLA) study was to describe patient characteristics and treatment patterns of Latin American patients with MM, CLL, and NHL. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, retrospective, medical chart review of patients with MM, CLL, and NHL in Latin America identified between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2015. Included were adults with at least 1 year of follow-up (except in cases of death within 1 year of diagnosis) treated at 30 oncology hospitals (Argentina, 5; Brazil, 9; Chile, 1; Colombia, 5; Mexico, 6; Panama/Guatemala, 4). RESULTS: Of 5,140 patients, 2,967 (57.7%) had NHL, 1,518 (29.5%) MM, and 655 (12.7%) CLL. Median follow-up was 2.2 years for MM, 3.0 years for CLL, and 2.2 years for NHL, and approximately 26% died during the study observation period. Most patients had at least one comorbidity at diagnosis. The most frequent induction regimen was thalidomide-based chemotherapy for MM and chlorambucil with or without prednisone for CLL. Most patients with NHL had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; 49.1%) or follicular lymphoma (FL; 19.5%). The majority of patients with DLBCL or FL received rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. CONCLUSION: The HOLA study generated an unprecedented level of high-quality, real-world evidence on characteristics and treatment patterns of patients with hematologic malignancies. Regional disparities in patient characteristics may reflect differences in ethnoracial identity and level of access to care. These data provide needed real-world evidence to understand the disease landscape in Latin America and may be used to inform clinical and health policy decision making.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
6.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 8: 49-55, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly used to demonstrate the value of interventions and support health technology assessment (HTA). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to analyze trends regarding PROs in Latin America (LatAm), highlight challenges in the application of PROs in this region, and suggest solutions. METHODS: A team of researchers with expertise in PROs conducted a nonsystematic PubMed literature search pertaining to the use of PROs in LatAm. The experts also drew on their experience working with PROs to assess the application of PROs in LatAm. RESULTS: The literature search yielded more than 4000 publications, with an increasing publication rate in recent years. PROs are being used in LatAm in various study types: instrument validation, phase III international clinical trials, health service research. A large Inter-American Development Bank study demonstrates the growing importance of PROs in the region. The growth in local value sets for the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire in LatAm reflects the regional emergence of HTA systems. Operational challenges relate to ensuring the use of good-quality questionnaires that, at a minimum, have undergone appropriate cultural adaptation and ideally have established psychometric properties. CONCLUSIONS: PROs are increasingly important in LatAm. Future efforts should aim to strengthen the operational and research infrastructure around PROs in the region. Innovation should be encouraged, including studying alternative methods of eliciting health utilities for economic evaluation. A wider scope around PRO uses for decision making by HTA bodies is an international trend with potential positive prospects in LatAm.

7.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 30(12): 2453-60, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25265131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop and validate a stroke risk model incorporating pulse pressure (PP) as a potential risk factor. Recent evidence suggests that PP, defined as the difference between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), could be an incremental risk factor beyond SBP. METHODS: Electronic health records (EHRs) of hypertensive patients from a US integrated health delivery system were analyzed (January 2004 to May 2012). Patients with ≥ 1 PP reading and ≥ 6 months of observation prior to the first diagnosis of hypertension were randomly split into development (two-thirds of sample) and validation (one-third of sample) datasets. Stroke events were identified using ICD-9-CM 433.xx-436.xx. Cox proportional hazards models assessed time to first stroke event within 3 years of first hypertension diagnosis based on baseline risk factors, including PP, age, gender, diabetes, and cardiac comorbidities. The optimal model was selected using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO); performance was evaluated by the c-statistic. RESULTS: Among 34,797 patients selected (mean age 59.3 years, 48% male), 4272 patients (12.3%) had a stroke. PP was higher among patients who developed stroke (mean [SD] PP, stroke: 02.0 [15.3] mmHg; non-stroke: 58.1 [14.0] mmHg, p < 0.001). The best performing risk model (c-statistic, development: 0.730; validation: 0.729) included PP (hazard ratio per mmHg increase: 1.0037, p < 0.001) as a significant risk factor. LIMITATIONS: This study was subject to limitations similar to other studies using EHRs. Only patient encounters occurring within the single healthcare network were captured in the data source. Though the model was tested internally, external validation (using a separate data source) would help assess the model's generalizability and calibration. CONCLUSIONS: This stroke risk model shows that greater PP is a significant predictive factor for increased stroke risk, even in the presence of known risk factors. PP should be considered by practitioners along with established risk factors in stroke treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
9.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 71(8): 549-55, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23982015

RESUMO

METHOD: A systematic review of the literature from 1990 to 2011 was conducted. Outcome measures included: mean cost of disease modifying therapies (DMTs), mean cost of treatment of relapses and mean cost of disease by stage stratification measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). RESULTS: Seven studies from three countries (Brazil, Argentina and Colombia) were included. In 2004, in Argentina, the mean cost of DMT treatment was reported to be USD 35,000 per patient treated. In Brazil, the total MS expenditure of DMTs rose from USD 14,011,700 in 2006 to USD 122,575,000 in 2009. Patient costs ranged between USD 10,543 (EDSS 8-9.5) and USD 25,713 (EDSS 3-5.5). Indirect costs markedly increased for the EDSS 8-9.5 patients. CONCLUSION: Further research assessing the economic burden of MS in LA is warranted.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Esclerose Múltipla/economia , Argentina , Brasil , Colômbia , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(8): 549-555, ago. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-684094

RESUMO

METHOD: A systematic review of the literature from 1990 to 2011 was conducted. Outcome measures included: mean cost of disease modifying therapies (DMTs), mean cost of treatment of relapses and mean cost of disease by stage stratification measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). RESULTS: Seven studies from three countries (Brazil, Argentina and Colombia) were included. In 2004, in Argentina, the mean cost of DMT treatment was reported to be USD 35,000 per patient treated. In Brazil, the total MS expenditure of DMTs rose from USD 14,011,700 in 2006 to USD 122,575,000 in 2009. Patient costs ranged between USD 10,543 (EDSS 8-9.5) and USD 25,713 (EDSS 3-5.5). Indirect costs markedly increased for the EDSS 8-9.5 patients. CONCLUSION: Further research assessing the economic burden of MS in LA is warranted. .


MÉTODOS: Revisión sistemática de la literatura desde 1990 hasta 2011. Los resultados evaluados fueron: coste medio de los tratamientos modificadores de la enfermedad (DMTs), coste medio del tratamiento de las recaídas y la media de coste de la enfermedad estratificado por la Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). RESULTADOS: Siete estudios de tres países (Brasil, Argentina y Colombia) fueron incluidos. El costo promedio del tratamiento de DMTs fue de USD 35.000 por paciente para el año 2004 en Argentina y el total del costo de los DMTs aumentó de USD 14.011,700 en 2006 a USD 122.575,000 en Brasil en 2009. Los costos de pacientes oscilaron entre USD 10.543 (EDSS 8-9.5) y USD 25.713 (EDSS 3.5 a 5). Los costes indirectos aumentaron para la EDSS mayor discapacidad (EDSS 8-9.5). CONCLUSIÓN: Estudios adicionales del costo de la EM en AL son necesarios.. .


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Esclerose Múltipla/economia , Argentina , Brasil , Colômbia , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia
11.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 1(2): 165-171, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main objectives were to estimate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of indacaterol (a once-daily, long-acting-beta2-agonist) compared with 1) salmeterol/fluticasone, 2) formoterol/budesonide, and 3) tiotropium for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Colombia. METHODS: A Markov model was utilized to simulate the progressive course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, distinguished by forced expiratory volume in 1 second predicted according to the four Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease severity stages by using prebronchodilation values. Efficacy was based on the initial improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, taken from either a network meta-analysis (salmeterol/fluticasone and formoterol/budesonide) or a randomized controlled trial (tiotropium). Colombian direct costs and life tables were incorporated in the adaptation, and analysis was performed from a health care payer perspective, discounting future costs (presented as US dollars) and benefits at 5%. A budget impact model was built to estimate the cost impact of indacaterol in Colombia over 3 and 5 years. RESULTS: Indacaterol was found to be dominant (i.e., less costly and more effective) against both salmeterol/fluticasone and formoterol/budesonide per life year and quality-adjusted life-year gained after a 5-year time horizon. The average cost saving against salmeterol/fluticasone and formoterol/budesonide was US $411 and US $909 per patient, respectively. All probabilistic sensitivity analysis simulations indicated indacaterol to be less costly than salmeterol/fluticasone and formoterol/budesonide. Indacaterol was more effective and more costly than tiotropium, corresponding to an incremental cost-utility ratio of US $2584 per quality-adjusted life-year. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that by replacing salmeterol/fluticasone or formoterol/budesonide with indacaterol, there are possible cost savings for the Colombian health care system. This was demonstrated by both cost-effectiveness and budget impact models.

12.
Value Health ; 14(5 Suppl 1): S13-5, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21839885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of evidence about insurance status and the likelihood of receiving medical services in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to examine the association between insurance status and pharmacologic treatment for depression. METHODS: Patients referred to a memory clinic of a public hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and identified with any of four types of depression (subsyndromal, dysthymia, major, and due to dementia) were included. Age, years of education, insurance status, Beck Depression Inventory score, and number of comorbidities were considered. Associations between these factors and not receiving pharmacologic treatment for depression were examined with logistic regression. Use of prescription neuroleptics, hypnotics, and anticholinesterase inhibitors was also explored. RESULTS: Out of 100 patients, 92 with insurance status data were used. Sixty-one patients (66%) had formal insurance and 31 patients (34%) lacked insurance. Twenty-seven (44%) insured patients and 23 (74%) uninsured patients did not receive antidepressants (P = 0.001). Controlling for other factors, uninsured patients had 7.12 higher odds of not receiving treatment compared to insured patients (95% confidence interval 1.88-28.86). Older patients and those with more comorbidities had higher odds of not receiving treatment. More educated patients, those with higher Beck Depression Inventory score, and those without subsyndromal depression had lower odds of not receiving treatment. None of those associations were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a potential negative effect of the lack of formal insurance regarding pharmacologic treatment for depression. These findings should be confirmed with larger samples, and for other diseases.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/economia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Idoso , Antipsicóticos/economia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Argentina , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Inibidores da Colinesterase/economia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Uso de Medicamentos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais Públicos/economia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/economia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Affect Disord ; 134(1-3): 177-87, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21676468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the older population increases so does the number of older psychiatric patients. Elderly psychiatric patients manifest certain specific and unique characteristics. Different subtypes of depressive syndromes exist in late-life depression, and many of these are associated with cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 109 depressive patients and 30 normal subjects matched by age and educational level were evaluated using a neuropsychiatric interview and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Depressive patients were classified into four different groups by SCAN 2.1 (schedules for clinical assessment in Neuropsychiatry): major depression disorder (n: 34), dysthymia disorder (n: 29), subsyndromal depression (n: 28), and depression due to mild dementia of Alzheimer's type (n: 18). RESULTS: We found significant associations (p<.05) between depressive status and demographic or clinical factors that include marital status (OR: 3.4, CI: 1.2-9.6), level of daily activity (OR: 5.3, CI: 2-14), heart disease (OR: 12.5, CI: 1.6-96.3), and high blood cholesterol levels (p:.032). Neuropsychological differences were observed among the four depressive groups and also between depressive patients and controls. Significant differences were observed in daily life activities and caregivers' burden between depressive patients and normal subjects. CONCLUSION: Geriatric depression is associated with heart disease, high cholesterol blood levels, marital status, and daily inactivity. Different subtypes of geriatric depression have particular clinical features, such as cognitive profiles, daily life activities, and caregivers' burden, that can help to differentiate among them. LIMITATIONS: The cohort referred to a memory clinic with memory complaints is a biased sample, and the results cannot be generalized to other non-memory symptomatic cohorts.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Viés , Cuidadores/psicologia , Colesterol/sangue , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/psicologia , Depressão/classificação , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/classificação , Feminino , Geriatria , Humanos , Masculino , Memória
14.
Value Health ; 14(4): 443-9, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21315636

RESUMO

Anti-rejection regimens for renal transplants have changed dramatically during the past 20 years, but there are few long-term studies relating cost, mortality, or graft failure simultaneously to disease-pharmacotherapy couplets. We analyzed US Renal Data System data on a matched-pair cohort of first, single organ kidney transplants from 1998 through 2002 over up to 5 years following transplantation for patients on tacrolimus or low-dose cyclosporine, stratifying by whether the recipient had pre-existing or new onset diabetes. Kaplan-Meier survival curves show mortality and survival differences associated with diabetes, but no additional incremental effects of immune suppression regimen. Significant cost increases are reported for patients receiving tacrolimus above and beyond the extra costs associated with diabetes.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/economia , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Transplante de Rim/economia , Tacrolimo/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/tendências , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/economia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 22(1): 24-39, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21196610

RESUMO

Little is known about the influence of pre-transplant comorbidities on post-transplant expenditures. We estimated the associations between pre-transplant comorbidities and post-transplant Medicare costs, using several comorbidity classification systems. We included recipients of first-kidney deceased donor transplants from 1995 through 2002 for whom Medicare was the primary payer for at least one year pre-transplant (N = 25,175). We examined pre-transplant comorbidities as classified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM) codes from Medicare claims with the Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) and Charlson and Elixhauser algorithms. Post-transplant costs were calculated from payments on Medicare claims. We developed models considering Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) variables plus: 1) CCS categories, 2) Charlson, 3) Elixhauser, 4) number of Charlson and 5) number of Elixhauser comorbidities, independently. We applied a novel regression methodology to account for censoring. Costs were estimated at individual and population levels. The comorbidities with the largest impact on mean Medicare payments included cardiovascular disease, malignancies, cerebrovascular disease, mental conditions and functional limitations. Skin ulcers and infections, rheumatic and other connective tissue disease and liver disease also contributed to payments and have not been considered or described previously. A positive graded relationship was found between costs and the number of pre-transplant comorbidities. In conclusion, we showed that expansion beyond the usually considered pre-transplant comorbidities with inclusion of CCS and Charlson or Elixhauser comorbidities increased the knowledge about comorbidities related to augmented Medicare payments. Our expanded methodology can be used by others to assess more accurately the financial implications of renal transplantation to Medicare and individual transplant centers.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Transplante de Rim/economia , Medicare/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/economia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Med Sci ; 7(2): 278-86, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22291768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated associations between pre-transplant comorbidities, length of stay (LOS) and Medicare payments for transplant hospitalization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined United States Renal Data System for 24,963 recipients of first deceased-donor kidney transplants in 1995-2002 for whom Medicare was the primary payer for at least a year pre-transplant. Pre-transplant ICD-9-CM codes from claims were classified with the Charlson and Elixhauser algorithms. Regression models for payments and LOS included: 1) baseline recipient, donor and transplant factors from the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN), 2) OPTN variables and individual comorbidities and 3) OPTN variables and counts of Charlson or Elixhauser comorbidities. RESULTS: Factors most strongly associated with LOS were type I diabetes, cold ischemia time > 36 h, expanded criteria donor (ECD) and donation after cardiac death (DCD). Except for ECD, each was associated with increased payments. Upper respiratory disease, liver disease, peptic ulcer disease, diabetes, cancer and other diseases were also associated with increased LOS and payments. Each additional Charlson comorbidity increased LOS by 2.94% and payments by $471 (Elixhauser results: 1.71% for LOS, $277 for payments). Use of ECD or DCD organs were associated with 10-15% higher LOS and 5% increased Medicare payments for DCD. CONCLUSIONS: This methodology could be used to explore if Medicare reimbursement for transplantation of higher-risk recipients and using non-standard organs is financially adequate and to analyze related questions in other healthcare systems.

17.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 4(4)dez. 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-570174

RESUMO

Alzheimers disease (AD) patients suffer progressive cognitive, behavioral and functional impairment which result in a heavy burden to patients, families, and the public-health system. AD entails both direct and indirect costs. Indirect costs (such as loss or reduction of income by the patient or family members) are the most important costs in early and community-dwelling AD patients. Direct costs (such as medical treatment or social services) increase when the disorder progresses, and the patient is institutionalized or a formal caregiver is required. Drug therapies represent an increase in direct cost but can reduce some other direct or indirect costs involved. Several studies have projected overall savings to society when using drug therapies and all relevant cost are considered, where results depend on specific patient and care setting characteristics. Dementia should be the focus of analysis when public health policies are being devised. South American countries should strengthen their policy and planning capabilities by gathering more local evidence about the burden of AD and how it can be shaped by treatment options.


O paciente com doença de Alzheimer (DA) sofre comprometimento progressivo cognitivo, comportamental e funcional, que resulta numa grande sobrecarga aos pacientes, familiares e à saúde pública. A DA inclui custos diretos e indiretos. Os custos indiretos (como perda ou redução dos ganhos pelo paciente ou membros da família) são os mais importantes custos dos pacientes leves e na comunidade. Os custos diretos (tais como tratamento médico ou serviços sociais) aumentam com a progressão da doença, quando o paciente é institucionalizado ou quando um cuidador formal é requerido. A terapia com drogas representam um aumento nos custos diretos, mas podem reduzir alguns outros custos diretos ou indiretos envolvidos. Vários estudos projetam uma economia global da sociedade quando é usada terapia com drogas e todos os custos relevantes são considerados; e os resultados dependerão de um paciente específico e características do meio envolvido no cuidado. A demência pode ser um assunto de análise quando as políticas de saúde são desenhadas. Os países da América do Sul deveriam fortalecer suas políticas e capacidades de planejamento, pela geração de maiores evidências locais sobre a sobrecarga da DA e como poderia ser norteada pelas opções de tratamento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer , Economia Médica , Família , Saúde do Idoso , Saúde Pública
18.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 5(8): 1471-9, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20538839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Characterizing relationships of kidney function to healthcare costs in polycystic kidney disease has applications for economic evaluations of standard and emerging therapies. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The administrative records (2003 to 2006) of a private health insurer were examined to identify polycystic kidney disease patients (n = 1913) from ICD9 diagnosis codes on billing claims. The first available diagnostic claim was assumed as an index date, and baseline estimated GFR (eGFR) was computed using closest serum creatinine value. The associations of eGFR with annualized charges were modeled by nonlinear and linear regression. RESULTS: Medical, pharmacy, and total healthcare costs varied significantly by baseline kidney function, such that mean total annualized charges (unadjusted) were approximately 5-fold higher in patients with eGFR < 15 ml/min compared with those with eGFR >or= 90 ml/min. After adjustment for age and gender, total charges did not differ significantly among patients with eGFR > 30 ml/min, and but rose precipitously with eGFR < 30 ml/min. Each ml/min decline <30 ml/min predicted approximately $5435 higher adjusted annual charges. Results were similar after adjustment for baseline diabetes and cardiovascular disease as identified in claims, while significantly higher adjusted charges were detected with eGFR = 31 to 60 ml/min versus >or=90 ml/min in a subgroup free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare charges are associated with advanced renal dysfunction in polycystic kidney disease patients. Strategies that prevent loss of renal function below 30 ml/min have the potential to generate substantial reductions in medical charges.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Rim/fisiopatologia , Doenças Renais Policísticas/economia , Doenças Renais Policísticas/fisiopatologia , Setor Privado/economia , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Creatinina/sangue , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Doenças Renais Policísticas/sangue , Doenças Renais Policísticas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos
19.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 4(4): 262-267, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29213697

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients suffer progressive cognitive, behavioral and functional impairment which result in a heavy burden to patients, families, and the public-health system. AD entails both direct and indirect costs. Indirect costs (such as loss or reduction of income by the patient or family members) are the most important costs in early and community-dwelling AD patients. Direct costs (such as medical treatment or social services) increase when the disorder progresses, and the patient is institutionalized or a formal caregiver is required. Drug therapies represent an increase in direct cost but can reduce some other direct or indirect costs involved. Several studies have projected overall savings to society when using drug therapies and all relevant cost are considered, where results depend on specific patient and care setting characteristics. Dementia should be the focus of analysis when public health policies are being devised. South American countries should strengthen their policy and planning capabilities by gathering more local evidence about the burden of AD and how it can be shaped by treatment options.

20.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 28(3): 206-12, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19752555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being a caregiver of a patient with Alzheimer's disease is associated with impaired health status and declines in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the Argentinean version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) among caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Forty-eight caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients completed the SF-36, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Patients were evaluated for dementia severity using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and for cognitive status using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). RESULTS: The SF-36 scales demonstrated adequate-to-strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha range: 0.72 to 0.92). Correlations between the SF-36 scales and the ZBI were moderate to strong (range: -0.19 to -0.79, all p < 0.01 expect for physical function). Significant correlations between the SF-36 scales and the CDR, MMSE and NPI were lower (range: -0.30 to -0.40, p < 0.001) and strongest in mental health-related scales of the SF-36. The SF-36 demonstrated good factorial validity. CONCLUSIONS: The Argentinean translation of the SF-36 is reliable and valid for use to measure the HRQoL of caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia
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