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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent expert consensus statement proposed designation of comprehensive and primary valve centers, with a recommendation that comprehensive centers house surgical skill and resources to treat patients with infective endocarditis (IE). We sought to compare outcomes of patients who underwent valve surgery for IE at comprehensive versus primary valve centers within a large health care system. METHODS: We reviewed 513 consecutive patients who underwent IE surgery at 8 hospitals (2 comprehensive and 6 primary valve centers) from 2014 to 2020. Outcomes from comprehensive and primary valve centers were compared after propensity score matching on the basis of patient characteristics, valve involvement, valve type, and IE treatment status. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for operative mortality. RESULTS: Propensity score matching generated comparable groups with similar mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons/Gaca IE risk scores among comprehensive and primary valve center cohorts. Comprehensive valve centers were more likely to perform the Bentall procedure (60.4% vs 21.7%; P < .01) when aortic root abscess was present and mitral valve repair (50.4% vs 26.3%; P < .01) in cases of mitral valve involvement. Operative mortality was significantly lower at comprehensive valve centers (6.2% vs 13.0%; P = .04), and multivariate logistic regression suggested that surgery at comprehensive valve centers was protective against operative mortality (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.88; P = .02). Similar findings were present in a sensitivity analysis limited to patients with active IE only. CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk for operative mortality was associated with surgery performed at primary valve centers compared with comprehensive valve centers. Referral or transfer of patients with IE and surgical indications to comprehensive valve centers should be considered.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The treatment of mitral valve disease in the presence of mitral annular calcification (MAC) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Various surgical and transcatheter techniques for the treatment of mitral disease with severe MAC have been described. However, these procedures are associated with high risk of operative morbidity and mortality. We describe our experience with open surgical implantation of a balloon-expandable valve (BEV) in patients with severe MAC as an alternative approach. METHODS: BEV implantation was performed with direct vision through the left atrium via a median sternotomy or minimally invasive approach. The midportion of the anterior leaflet is excised, and a ventricular septal myectomy performed if there is high risk for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The primary outcome was technical success according to the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium criteria; secondary outcomes were 30-day and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: From October 2015 through October 2020, 51 patients at 2 institutions underwent BEV-in-MAC (mean age, 73.9 ± 8.8 years; 60.8% [31/51] were female; mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality: 6.8% ± 4.8%). Technical success was 94.1% (48/51). Thirty-day and 1-year mortality were 13.7% (7/51) and 33.3% (15/45), and for stroke 3.9% (2/51) and 4.4% (2/45), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical implantation of a BEV in the mitral position offers a treatment option for patients with mitral valve disease complicated by severe MAC who are at increased risk for conventional surgical approaches and at risk for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with transcatheter approaches.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the long-term differences in survival between multiple arterial grafts (MAG) and single arterial grafts (SAG) in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the SYNTAX study. METHODS: The present analysis included the randomized and registry-treated CABG patients (n = 1509) from the SYNTAX Extended Survival study (SYNTAXES). Patients with only venous (n = 42) or synthetic grafts (n = 1) were excluded. The primary end point was all-cause death at the longest follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression was used to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics. Sensitivity analysis using propensity matching with inverse probability for treatment weights was performed. RESULTS: Of the 1466 included patients, 465 (31.7%) received MAG and 1001 (68.3%) SAG. Patients receiving MAG were younger and at lower risk. At the longest follow-up of 12.6 years, all-cause death occurred in 23.6% of MAG and 40.0% of SAG patients [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.55-0.98); P = 0.038], which was confirmed by sensitivity analysis. MAG in patients with the three-vessel disease was associated with significant lower unadjusted and adjusted all-cause death at 12.6 years [adjusted HR 0.65, 95% CI (0.44-0.97); P = 0.033]. In contrast, no significance was observed after risk adjustment in patients with the left main disease, with and without diabetes, or among SYNTAX score tertiles. CONCLUSIONS: In the present post hoc analysis of all-comers patients from the SYNTAX trial, MAG resulted in markedly lower all-cause death at 12.6-year follow-up compared to a SAG strategy. Hence, this striking long-term survival benefit of MAG over SAG encourages more extensive use of multiple arterial grafting in selected patients with reasonable life expectancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAXES ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050; SYNTAX ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972.

4.
JAMA ; 326(11): 1034-1044, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546301

RESUMO

Importance: There are limited data on outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for bicuspid aortic stenosis in patients at low surgical risk. Objective: To compare the outcomes of TAVR with a balloon-expandable valve for bicuspid vs tricuspid aortic stenosis in patients who are at low surgical risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Registry-based cohort study of patients undergoing TAVR at 684 US centers. Participants were enrolled in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS)/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry from June 2015 to October 2020. Among 159 661 patients (7058 bicuspid, 152 603 tricuspid), 37 660 patients (3243 bicuspid and 34 417 tricuspid) who were at low surgical risk (defined as STS risk score <3%) were included in the analysis. Exposures: TAVR for bicuspid vs tricuspid aortic stenosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Coprimary outcomes were 30-day and 1-year mortality and stroke. Secondary outcomes included procedural complications and valve hemodynamics. Results: Among 159 661 patients (7058 bicuspid; 152 603 tricuspid), 3168 propensity-matched pairs of patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic stenosis at low surgical risk were analyzed (mean age, 69 years; 69.8% men; mean [SD] STS-predicted risk of mortality, 1.7% [0.6%] for bicuspid and 1.7% [0.7%] for tricuspid). There was no significant difference between the bicuspid and tricuspid groups' rates of death at 30 days (0.9% vs 0.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.18 [95% CI, 0.68-2.03]; P = .55) and at 1 year (4.6% vs 6.6%; HR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.55-1.02]; P = .06) or stroke at 30 days (1.4% vs 1.2%; HR, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.73-1.78]; P = .55) and at 1 year (2.0% vs 2.1%; HR 1.03 [95% CI, 0.69-1.53]; P = .89).There were no significant differences between the bicuspid and tricuspid groups in procedural complications, valve hemodynamics (aortic valve gradient: 13.2 mm Hg vs 13.5 mm Hg; absolute risk difference [RD], 0.3 mm Hg [95% CI, -0.9 to 0.3 mm Hg]), and moderate or severe paravalvular leak (3.4% vs 2.1%; absolute RD, 1.3% [95% CI, -0.6% to 3.2%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary, registry-based study of propensity-matched patients at low surgical risk who had undergone TAVR for aortic stenosis, patients treated for bicuspid vs tricuspid aortic stenosis had no significant difference in mortality or stroke at 30 days or 1 year. Because of the potential for selection bias and absence of a control group treated surgically for bicuspid aortic stenosis, randomized trials are needed to adequately assess the efficacy and safety of transcatheter aortic valve replacement for bicuspid aortic stenosis in patients at low surgical risk.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/cirurgia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(18): 1995-2005, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare 5-year cardiovascular, renal, and bioprosthetic valve durability outcomes in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). BACKGROUND: Patients with severe AS and CKD undergoing TAVR or SAVR are a challenging, understudied clinical subset. METHODS: Intermediate-risk patients with moderate to severe CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/m2) from the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) 2A trial (patients randomly assigned to SAPIEN XT TAVR or SAVR) and SAPIEN 3 Intermediate Risk Registry were pooled. The composite primary outcome of death, stroke, rehospitalization, and new hemodialysis was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Patients with and without perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) were followed through 5 years. A core laboratory-adjudicated analysis of structural valve deterioration and bioprosthetic valve failure was also performed. RESULTS: The study population included 1,045 TAVR patients (512 SAPIEN XT, 533 SAPIEN 3) and 479 SAVR patients. At 5 years, SAVR was better than SAPIEN XT TAVR (52.8% vs 68.0%; P = 0.04) but similar to SAPIEN 3 TAVR (52.8% vs 58.7%; P = 0.89). Perioperative AKI was more common after SAVR than TAVR (26.3% vs 10.3%; P < 0.001) and was independently associated with long-term outcomes. Compared with SAVR, bioprosthetic valve failure and stage 2 or 3 structural valve deterioration were significantly greater for SAPIEN XT TAVR (P < 0.05) but not for SAPIEN 3 TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: In intermediate-risk patients with AS and CKD, SAPIEN 3 TAVR and SAVR were associated with a similar risk for the primary endpoint at 5 years. AKI was more common after SAVR than TAVR, and SAPIEN 3 valve durability was comparable with that of surgical bioprostheses.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 341: 9-12, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The significant interaction between major infection and 5-year mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for complex coronary artery disease (CAD) was observed previously. However, the very long-term outcomes beyond 5 years remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a subgroup analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) trial, which is the extended follow-up of the randomized SYNTAX trial comparing PCI versus CABG in patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) or left-main CAD (LMCAD). Out of 1517 patients enrolled in the SYNTAX trial with available survival status from 5 to 10 years, 140 patients had experienced major infections and survived at 5 years (major infection group). From 5 to 10 years, the mortality of major infection group was 19.8% whereas the mortality of no major infection group was 15.1% (p = 0.157). After the adjustment of other clinical factors, the risk of mortality from 5 to 10 years did not significantly differ between major infection and no major infection groups (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.62-1.96; p = 0.740). When stratified by the presence or absence of periprocedural major infections, defined as a major infection within 60 days after index procedure, there was also no significant difference in 10-year mortality between two groups (30.8% vs. 24.5%; p = 0.057). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the initial association between major infections and 5 years mortality, postprocedural major infection was not evident in the 10 years follow-up, suggesting that the impact of major infection on mortality subsided over time beyond 5 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAXES ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050 SYNTAX ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972.

7.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(9): 684-692, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to understand the extent to which health status and exercise capacity are independently associated with long-term outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) and secondary mitral regurgitation (MR). BACKGROUND: Secondary MR in patients with HF leads to impaired health status (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary Score [KCCQ-OS]) and exercise capacity (6-minute walk distance [6MWD]), both of which improve after transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr). METHODS: The study used data from the COAPT trial (N = 604) to examine the association of baseline KCCQ-OS and 6MWD with 2-year mortality and HF hospitalization, adjusting for treatment arm and patient factors. We also examined the association of change in KCCQ-OS and 6MWD from baseline to 1 month with risk of outcomes from 1 month to 2 years. Interactions of KCCQ-OS and 6MWD with treatment assignment were explored. RESULTS: Mean baseline KCCQ-OS was 53 ± 23 points, and 6MWD was 240 ± 125 meters. In models including both measures, greater baseline 6MWD (but not KCCQ-OS) was associated with reduced 2-year mortality (HR per 125 meters: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.92). When stratified by treatment group, both baseline KCCQ-OS and 6MWD were independently associated with HF hospitalization in patients treated with medical therapy, whereas only KCCQ-OS was associated with HF hospitalization in patients treated with TMVr. In separate analyses, 1-month improvements in KCCQ-OS and 6MWD were each associated with lower subsequent risk of mortality and HF hospitalization, independent of treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with HF and severe secondary MR, assessment of both health status and exercise capacity provide complementary prognostic information for patients with HF and severe secondary MR-both before and after TMVr. (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation [The COAPT Trial]; NCT01626079).

8.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(9): 674-683, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the sex-specific outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) with 3+ and 4+ secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) treated with transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) versus GDMT alone in the COAPT trial. BACKGROUND: The impact of sex in patients with HF and severe SMR treated with TMVr with the MitraClip compared with GDMT alone is unknown. METHODS: Patients were randomized 1:1 to TMVr versus GDMT alone. Two-year outcomes were examined according to sex. RESULTS: Among 614 patients, 221 (36.0%) were women. Women were younger than men and had fewer comorbidities, but reduced quality of life and functional capacity at baseline. In a joint frailty model accounting for the competing risk of death, the 2-year cumulative incidence of the primary endpoint of all HF hospitalizations (HFH) was higher in men compared with women treated with GDMT alone. However, the relative reduction in HFHs with TMVr was greater in men (HR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.34-0.54) than women (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.57-1.05) (Pinteraction = 0.002). A significant interaction between TMVr versus GDMT alone treatment and time was present for all HFHs in women (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.39-0.84, and HR: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.83-2.33 between 0-1 year and 1-2 years after randomization, respectively, Pinteraction = 0.007) but not in men (HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.36-0.64, and HR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.21-0.51; Pinteraction = 0.16). Female sex was independently associated with a lower adjusted risk of death at 2 years (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.46-0.90; P = 0.011). TMVr consistently reduced 2-year mortality compared with GDMT alone, irrespective of sex (Pinteraction = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: In the COAPT trial, TMVr with the MitraClip resulted in improved clinical outcomes compared with GDMT alone, irrespective of sex. However, the impact of TMVr in reducing HFH was less pronounced in women compared with men beyond the first year after treatment. (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation [The COAPT Tria] [COAPT]; NCT01626079).

9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may be associated with increased hazard for long-term mortality as compared to on-pump CABG. We sought to evaluate risk-adjusted long-term survival after off-pump and on-pump CABG, particularly among high-volume and low-volume CABG surgeons. METHODS: We evaluated 1,235,089 isolated CABGs (off-pump = 209,085; on-pump = 1,026,004) performed in Medicare beneficiaries from 2001-2015. Long-term hazard for mortality after off-pump versus on-pump CABG was compared with Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analysis among all CABG surgeons as well as high-volume and low-volume CABG surgeons, before and after inverse-probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: Among all surgeons, off-pump CABG was associated with a statistically-significant hazard for mortality as compared to on-pump CABG before and after IPTW (median survival: off-pump 9.8 years vs on-pump 10.2 years; difference in median survival -134 days; log-rank p<0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed an interaction between surgeon volume and long-term mortality. The hazard for mortality associated with off-pump CABG was decreased among high-volume surgeons (difference in median survival: -84 days; log-rank p<0.001) and increased among low-volume surgeons (difference in median survival: -240 days; long-rank p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Off-pump CABG was associated with a significant, but clinically modest, increased hazard for mortality as compared to on-pump CABG. The hazard was reduced when off-pump CABG was performed by high-volume CABG surgeons.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405875

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to compare long-term all-cause mortality between patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using multiple (MAG) or single arterial grafting (SAG). METHODS AND RESULTS: The current study is a post hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival Study, which compared PCI with CABG in patients with three-vessel (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) and evaluated survival with ≥10 years of follow-up. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at maximum follow-up (median 11.9 years) assessed in the as-treated population. Of the 1743 patients, 901 (51.7%) underwent PCI, 532 (30.5%) received SAG, and 310 (17.8%) had MAG. At maximum follow-up, all-cause death occurred in 305 (33.9%), 175 (32.9%), and 70 (22.6%) patients in the PCI, SAG, and MAG groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Multiple arterial grafting [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.89], but not SAG (adjusted HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.67-1.03), was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality compared with PCI. In patients with 3VD, both MAG (adjusted HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37-0.81) and SAG (adjusted HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.91) were associated with significantly lower mortality than PCI, whereas in LMCAD patients, no significant differences between PCI and MAG (adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.56-1.46) or SAG (adjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.81-1.53) were observed. In patients with revascularization of all three major myocardial territories, a positive correlation was observed between the number of myocardial territories receiving arterial grafts and survival (Ptrend = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that MAG might be the more desirable configuration for CABG to achieve lower long-term all-cause mortality than PCI in patients with 3VD and/or LMCAD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on clinicaltrial.gov. SYNTAXES: NCT03417050 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03417050); SYNTAX: NCT00114972 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00114972).

11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(13): 1466-1477, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare incidence and impact of measured prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPMM) versus predicted PPM (PPMP) after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: TAVR studies have used measured effective orifice area indexed (EOAi) to body surface area (BSA) to define PPM, but most SAVR series have used predicted EOAi. This difference may contribute to discrepancies in incidence and outcomes of PPM between series. METHODS: The study analyzed SAVR patients from the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) 2A trial and TAVR patients from the PARTNER 2 SAPIEN 3 Intermediate Risk registry. PPM was classified as moderate if EOAi ≤0.85 cm2/m2 (≤0.70 if obese: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and severe if EOAi ≤0.65 cm2/m2 (≤0.55 if obese). PPMM was determined by the core lab-measured EOAi on 30-day echocardiogram. PPMP was determined by 2 methods: 1) using normal EOA reference values previously reported for each valve model and size (PPMP1; n = 929 SAVR, 1,069 TAVR) indexed to BSA; and 2) using normal reference EOA predicted from aortic annulus size measured by computed tomography (PPMP2; n = 864 TAVR only) indexed to BSA. Primary endpoint was the composite of 5-year all-cause death and rehospitalization. RESULTS: The incidence of moderate and severe PPMP was much lower than PPMM in both SAVR (PPMP1: 28.4% and 1.2% vs. PPMM: 31.0% and 23.6%) and TAVR (PPMP1: 21.0% and 0.1% and PPMP2: 17.0% and 0% vs. PPMM: 27.9% and 5.7%). The incidence of severe PPMM and severe PPMP1 was lower in TAVR versus SAVR (P < 0.001). The presence of PPM by any method was associated with higher transprosthetic gradient. Severe PPMP1 was independently associated with events in SAVR after adjustment for sex and Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (hazard ratio: 3.18;95% CI: 1.69-5.96; P < 0.001), whereas no association was observed between PPM by any method and outcomes in TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: EOAi measured by echocardiography results in a higher incidence of PPM following SAVR or TAVR than PPM based on predicted EOAi. Severe PPMP is rare (<1.5%), but is associated with increased all-cause death and rehospitalization after SAVR, whereas it is absent following TAVR.

12.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(14): 1594-1606, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between Doppler velocity index (DVI) and 2-year outcomes for balloon-expandable SAPIEN 3 transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). BACKGROUND: DVI >0.35 is normal for a prosthetic valve, but recent studies suggest that DVI <0.50 is associated with poor outcomes following TAVR. METHODS: Patients with severe aortic stenosis enrolled in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) 2 (intermediate surgical risk) or PARTNER 3 (low surgical risk) trial undergoing TAVR (n = 1,450) or SAVR (n = 1,303) were included. Patients were divided into 3 DVI groups on the basis of core laboratory-assessed discharge or 30-day echocardiograms: DVILOW (≤0.35), DVIINTERMEDIATE (>0.35 to ≤0.50), and DVIHIGH (>0.50). Two-year outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Following TAVR, there were no differences among the 3 DVI groups in composite outcomes of death, stroke, or rehospitalization or in any individual components of 2-year outcomes (P > 0.70 for all). Following SAVR, there was no difference among DVI groups in the composite outcome (P = 0.27), but there was a significant association with rehospitalization (P = 0.02). Restricted cubic-spline analysis for combined outcomes showed an increased risk with post-SAVR DVI ≤0.35 but no relationship post-TAVR. DVI ≤0.35 was associated with increased 2-year composite outcome for SAVR (HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.29-2.54; P < 0.001), with no adverse outcomes for TAVR (P = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: In intermediate- and low-risk cohorts of the PARTNER trials, DVI ≤0.35 predicted worse 2-year outcomes following SAVR, driven primarily by rehospitalization, with no adverse outcomes associated with DVI following TAVR with the balloon-expandable SAPIEN 3 valve.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(4): 365-383, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294272

RESUMO

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was introduced in the 1960s as the first procedure for direct coronary artery revascularization and rapidly became one of the most common surgical procedures worldwide, with an overall total of more than 20 million operations performed. CABG continues to be the most common cardiac surgical procedure performed and has been one of the most carefully studied therapies. Best CABG techniques, optimal bypass conduits, and appropriate patient selection have been rigorously tested in landmark clinical trials, some of which have resolved controversy and most of which have stoked further debate and trials. The evolution of CABG cannot be properly portrayed without presenting it in the context of the parallel development of percutaneous coronary intervention. In this Historical Perspective, we a provide a broad overview of the history of coronary revascularization with a focus on the foundations, evolution, best evidence, and future directions of CABG.

14.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(14): 1565-1574, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and prognostic impact of early and late postoperative atrial fibrillation or flutter (POAF) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing controversy regarding the incidence, recurrence rate, and prognostic impact of early (in-hospital) POAF and late (postdischarge) POAF in patients with AS undergoing TAVR or SAVR. METHODS: In the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) 3 trial, patients with severe AS at low surgical risk were randomized to TAVR or SAVR. Analyses were performed in the as-treated population excluding patients with preexistent atrial fibrillation or flutter. RESULTS: Among 781 patients included in the analysis, early POAF occurred in 152 (19.5%) (18 of 415 [4.3%] and 134 of 366 [36.6%] following TAVR and SAVR, respectively). Following discharge, 58 new or recurrent late POAF events occurred within 1 year following the index procedure in 55 of 781 patients (7.0%). Early POAF was not an independent predictor of late POAF following discharge (odds ratio: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.52-2.08; P = 0.90). Following adjustment, early POAF was not an independent predictor of the composite outcome of death, stroke, or rehospitalization (hazard ratio: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.64-1.92; P = 0.72), whereas late POAF was associated with an increased adjusted risk for the composite outcome (hazard ratio: 8.90; 95% CI: 5.02-15.74; P < 0.0001), irrespective of treatment modality. CONCLUSIONS: In the PARTNER 3 trial, early POAF was more frequent following SAVR compared with TAVR. Late POAF, but not early POAF, was significantly associated with worse outcomes at 2 years, irrespective of treatment modality.

15.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(8): 559-567, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper sought to determine whether diabetes influences the outcomes of transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) in patients with heart failure (HF) and secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR). BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated with worse outcomes in patients with HF. METHODS: The COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With functional Mitral Regurgitation) trial randomized HF patients with 3+ or 4+ SMR to MitraClip plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) versus GDMT alone. Two-year outcomes were evaluated in patients with versus without diabetes. RESULTS: Of 614 patients, 229 (37.3%) had diabetes. Diabetic patients had higher 2-year rates of death than those without diabetes (40.8% vs 32.3%, respectively; adjusted P = 0.04) and tended to have higher rates of HF hospitalization (HFH) (HFH: 50.1% vs 43.0%, respectively; adjusted P = 0.07). TMVr reduced the 2-year rate of death consistently in patients with (30.3% vs 49.9%, respectively; adjusted HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.81) and without (27.0% vs 38.3%, respectively; adjusted HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.39-0.84) diabetes (Pinteraction = 0.72). TMVr also consistently reduced the 2-year rates of HFH in patients with (32.2% vs 54.8%, respectively; adjusted HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.58) and without (41.5% vs 59.0%, respectively; adjusted HR: 0.54: 95% CI 0.35-0.82) diabetes (Pinteraction = 0.33). Greater movements in quality-of-life (QOL) and exercise capacity occurred with TMVr than with GDMT alone, regardless of diabetic status. CONCLUSIONS: Among HF patients with severe SMR in the COAPT trial, those with diabetes had a worse prognosis. Nonetheless, diabetic and nondiabetic patients had consistent reductions in the 2-year rates of death and HFH and improvements in QOL and functional capacity following TMVr treatment using the MitraClip than with maintenance on GDMT alone. (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation [COAPT]; NCT01626079).

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 27-38, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of optimal medical therapy (OMT) on 5-year outcomes in patients with 3-vessel disease and/or left main disease after percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was demonstrated in the randomized SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this analysis is to assess the impact of the status of OMT at 5 years on 10-year mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG. METHODS: This is a subanalysis of the SYNTAXES (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery Extended Survival) study, which evaluated for up to 10 years the vital status of patients who were originally enrolled in the SYNTAX trial. OMT was defined as the combination of 4 types of medications: at least 1 antiplatelet drug, statin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, and beta-blocker. After stratifying participants by the number of individual OMT agents at 5 years and randomized treatment, a landmark analysis was conducted to assess the association between treatment response and 10-year mortality. RESULTS: In 1,472 patients, patients on OMT at 5 years had a significantly lower mortality at 10 years compared with those on ≤2 types of medications (13.1% vs 19.9%; adjusted HR: 0.470; 95% CI: 0.292-0.757; P = 0.002) but had a mortality similar to those on 3 types of medications. Furthermore, patients undergoing CABG with the individual OMT agents, antiplatelet drug and statin, at 5 years had lower 10-year mortality than those without. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG, medication status at 5 years had a significant impact on 10-year mortality. Patients on OMT with guideline-recommended pharmacologic therapy at 5 years had a survival benefit. (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050; Taxus Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Stents Farmacológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Card Surg ; 36(9): 3177-3183, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of mitral valve (MV) surgery after previous open-heart surgery is increasing, there is no consensus regarding the optimal surgical approach. Reoperative MV surgery is most commonly performed via sternotomy (ST). We sought to determine whether minimally-invasive (MIS) reoperative MV surgery is safe and feasible. METHODS: All patients with a history of ST undergoing MV surgery with or without concomitant tricuspid or atrial fibrillation surgery at a single institution from 2007 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. ST and MIS approaches were compared using propensity-matched analysis. The coprimary endpoints were operative mortality and 1-year survival, and secondary endpoints were operative complications and length of stay. RESULTS: A total of 305 isolated MV reoperations were performed: 199 (65%) MIS and 106 (35%) ST. MIS patients were older than ST patients (71 [63, 76.5] vs. 66 [56, 72] years, p < .01), more likely to have undergone prior coronary artery bypass grafting (57% vs. 27%, p < .01), and less likely to have had prior valve surgery (55% vs. 78%, p < .01). In unmatched comparisons, operative mortality was significantly lower among MIS patients (3.0% vs. 8.5%, p = .04), but 1-year mortality was similar (14.4% vs. 15.6%, p = .8). After propensity matching, 88 pairs had excellent balance across baseline characteristics. Mortality was similar among MIS and ST patients at 30 days (3.4% vs. 8%, p = .19) and 1 year (15.9% vs. 16.5%, p = .9). RBC and fresh frozen plasma transfusions were significantly lower in the MIS group (p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: A minimally invasive approach is a safe alternative in patients with prior ST undergoing MV surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esternotomia , Resultado do Tratamento
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