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1.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(10): 617, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580457
2.
Nat Immunol ; 22(9): 1140-1151, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426691

RESUMO

Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells are non-recirculating cells that exist throughout the body. Although TRM cells in various organs rely on common transcriptional networks to establish tissue residency, location-specific factors adapt these cells to their tissue of lodgment. Here we analyze TRM cell heterogeneity between organs and find that the different environments in which these cells differentiate dictate TRM cell function, durability and malleability. We find that unequal responsiveness to TGFß is a major driver of this diversity. Notably, dampened TGFß signaling results in CD103- TRM cells with increased proliferative potential, enhanced function and reduced longevity compared with their TGFß-responsive CD103+ TRM counterparts. Furthermore, whereas CD103- TRM cells readily modified their phenotype upon relocation, CD103+ TRM cells were comparatively resistant to transdifferentiation. Thus, despite common requirements for TRM cell development, tissue adaptation of these cells confers discrete functional properties such that TRM cells exist along a spectrum of differentiation potential that is governed by their local tissue microenvironment.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Plasticidade Celular/imunologia , Microambiente Celular/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Feminino , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2936, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006861

RESUMO

Host protection against cutaneous herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection relies on the induction of a robust adaptive immune response. Here, we show that Nav1.8+ sensory neurons, which are involved in pain perception, control the magnitude of CD8 T cell priming and expansion in HSV-1-infected mice. The ablation of Nav1.8-expressing sensory neurons is associated with extensive skin lesions characterized by enhanced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Mechanistically, Nav1.8+ sensory neurons are required for the downregulation of neutrophil infiltration in the skin after viral clearance to limit the severity of tissue damage and restore skin homeostasis, as well as for eliciting robust CD8 T cell priming in skin-draining lymph nodes by controlling dendritic cell responses. Collectively, our data reveal an important role for the sensory nervous system in regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection, thereby opening up possibilities for new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Dor Nociceptiva/imunologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Herpes Simples/genética , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/imunologia , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/metabolismo , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Dor Nociceptiva/genética , Dor Nociceptiva/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/virologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/virologia
4.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1219-1230.e7, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915109

RESUMO

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls various physiological functions via the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. Activation of the SNS in response to psychological or physical stress is frequently associated with weakened immunity. Here, we investigated how adrenoceptor signaling influences leukocyte behavior. Intravital two-photon imaging after injection of noradrenaline revealed transient inhibition of CD8+ and CD4+ T cell locomotion in tissues. Expression of ß-adrenergic receptor in hematopoietic cells was not required for NA-mediated inhibition of motility. Rather, chemogenetic activation of the SNS or treatment with adrenergic receptor agonists induced vasoconstriction and decreased local blood flow, resulting in abrupt hypoxia that triggered rapid calcium signaling in leukocytes and halted cell motility. Oxygen supplementation reversed these effects. Treatment with adrenergic receptor agonists impaired T cell responses induced in response to viral and parasitic infections, as well as anti-tumor responses. Thus, stimulation of the SNS impairs leukocyte mobility, providing a mechanistic understanding of the link between adrenergic receptors and compromised immunity.


Assuntos
Adrenérgicos/imunologia , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/imunologia , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores Adrenérgicos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753406

RESUMO

Memory T-cell responses are partitioned between the blood, secondary lymphoid organs, and nonlymphoid tissues. Tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells are a population of immune cells that remain permanently in tissues without recirculating in blood. These nonrecirculating cells serve as a principal node in the anamnestic response to invading pathogens and developing malignancies. Here, we contemplate how T-cell tissue residency is defined and shapes protective immunity in the steady state and in the context of disease. We review the properties and heterogeneity of Trm cells, highlight the critical roles these cells play in maintaining tissue homeostasis and eliciting immune pathology, and explore how they might be exploited to treat disease.

6.
Cell Rep ; 33(13): 108567, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378682

RESUMO

Concurrent infection with multiple pathogens occurs frequently in individuals and can result in exacerbated infections and altered immunity. However, the impact of such coinfections on immune responses remains poorly understood. Here, we reveal that systemic infection results in an inflammation-induced suppression of local immunity. During localized infection or vaccination in barrier tissues including the skin or respiratory tract, concurrent systemic infection induces a type I interferon-dependent lymphopenia that impairs lymphocyte recruitment to the draining lymph node (dLN) and induces sequestration of lymphocytes in non-draining LN. This contributes to suppressed fibroblastic reticular cell and endothelial cell expansion and dLN remodeling and impairs induction of B cell responses and antibody production. Our data suggest that contemporaneous systemic inflammation constrains the induction of regional immunity.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/imunologia , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Simplexvirus/imunologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Linfopenia/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Estromais/imunologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2857, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504069

RESUMO

Virtual memory T (TVM) cells are antigen-naïve CD8+ T cells that exist in a semi-differentiated state and exhibit marked proliferative dysfunction in advanced age. High spare respiratory capacity (SRC) has been proposed as a defining metabolic characteristic of antigen-experienced memory T (TMEM) cells, facilitating rapid functionality and survival. Given the semi-differentiated state of TVM cells and their altered functionality with age, here we investigate TVM cell metabolism and its association with longevity and functionality. Elevated SRC is a feature of TVM, but not TMEM, cells and it increases with age in both subsets. The elevated SRC observed in aged mouse TVM cells and human CD8+ T cells from older individuals is associated with a heightened sensitivity to IL-15. We conclude that elevated SRC is a feature of TVM, but not TMEM, cells, is driven by physiological levels of IL-15, and is not indicative of enhanced functionality in CD8+ T cells.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/ultraestrutura , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 9(5): e1127, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377339

RESUMO

Objectives: To facilitate disease prognosis and improve precise immunotherapy of gastric cancer (GC) patients, a comprehensive study integrating immune cellular and molecular analyses on tumor tissues and peripheral blood was performed. Methods: The association of GC patients' outcomes and the immune context of their tumors was explored using multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) and transcriptome profiling. Potential immune dysfunction mechanism/s in the tumors on the systemic level was further examined using mass cytometry (CyTOF) in complementary peripheral blood from selected patients. GC cohorts with mIHC and gene expression profiling data were also used as validation cohorts. Results: Increased CD4+FOXP3+ T-cell density in the GC tumor correlated with prolonged survival. Interestingly, CD4+FOXP3+ T cells had a close interaction with CD8+ T cells rather than tumor cells. High densities of CD4+FOXP3+ T cells and CD8+ T cells (High-High) independently predicted prolonged patient survival. Furthermore, the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) gene signature and PDL1 expression were up-regulated in this group. Importantly, a subgroup of genomically stable (GS) tumors and tumors with chromosomal instability (CIN) within this High-High group also had excellent survival. The High-High GS/CIN tumors were coupled with increased frequencies of Tbet+CD4+ T cells and central memory CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood. Conclusion: These novel findings identify the combination of CD8+ T cells and FOXP3+CD4+ T cells as a significant prognostic marker for GC patients, which also could potentially be targeted and applied in the combination therapy with immune checkpoint blockades in precision medicine.

10.
mBio ; 11(2)2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127460

RESUMO

Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River and Chikungunya viruses cause debilitating muscle and joint pain and pose significant challenges in the light of recent outbreaks. How host immune responses are orchestrated after alphaviral infections and lead to musculoskeletal inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, we show that myositis induced by Ross River virus (RRV) infection is driven by CD11bhi Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes and followed by the establishment of a CD11bhi Ly6Clo CX3CR1+ macrophage population in the muscle upon recovery. Selective modulation of CD11bhi Ly6Chi monocyte migration to infected muscle using immune-modifying microparticles (IMP) reduced disease score, tissue damage, and inflammation and promoted the accumulation of CX3CR1+ macrophages, enhancing recovery and resolution. Here, we detail the role of immune pathology, describing a poorly characterized muscle macrophage subset as part of the dynamics of alphavirus-induced myositis and tissue recovery and identify IMP as an effective immunomodulatory approach. Given the lack of specific treatments available for alphavirus-induced pathologies, this study highlights a therapeutic potential for simple immune modulation by IMP in infected individuals in the event of large alphavirus outbreaks.IMPORTANCE Arthritogenic alphaviruses cause debilitating inflammatory disease, and current therapies are restricted to palliative approaches. Here, we show that following monocyte-driven muscle inflammation, tissue recovery is associated with the accumulation of CX3CR1+ macrophages in the muscle. Modulating inflammatory monocyte infiltration using immune-modifying microparticles (IMP) reduced tissue damage and inflammation and enhanced the formation of tissue repair-associated CX3CR1+ macrophages in the muscle. This shows that modulating key effectors of viral inflammation using microparticles can alter the outcome of disease by facilitating the accumulation of macrophage subsets associated with tissue repair.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Alphavirus/virologia , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/genética , Monócitos/metabolismo , Miosite/etiologia , Miosite/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Infecções por Alphavirus/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imunomodulação/genética , Imunofenotipagem , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/virologia , Miosite/patologia
11.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(6): 341-348, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112054

RESUMO

The presence of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with favourable outcomes in patients with breast cancer as well as in those with other solid tumours. T cells make up a considerable proportion of TILs and current evidence suggests that CD8+ T cells are a crucial determinant of favourable clinical outcomes. Studies involving tumour material from numerous solid tumour types, including breast cancer, demonstrate that the CD8+ TILs include a subpopulation of tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells. This subpopulation has features consistent with those of TRM cells, which have been described as having a role in peripheral immune surveillance and viral immunity in both humans and mice. Patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancers harbouring greater numbers of TRM cells have a substantially improved prognosis and longer overall survival. Furthermore, patients with advanced-stage breast cancers with higher levels of TRM cells have increased response rates to anti-PD-1 antibodies. These findings have motivated efforts to explore whether CD8+ TRM cells include tumour-specific T cells, their functional responses to cognate antigens and their role in responses to immune checkpoint inhibition. In this Review, we focus on the clinical significance of CD8+ TRM cells and the potential ways that these cells can be targeted to improve the success of immunotherapeutic approaches in patients with breast cancer, as well as in those with other solid tumour types.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia
14.
Immunity ; 51(3): 418-420, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533052

RESUMO

Factors regulating the differentiation of tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are incompletely understood. In this issue of Immunity, Li et al. identify Bhlhe40 as a transcriptional regulator of CD8+ TRM cell and TIL persistence and activity by orchestrating metabolic and epigenetic programming.


Assuntos
Memória Imunológica , Fatores de Transcrição , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Controle Social Formal
15.
Trends Immunol ; 40(8): 735-747, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255505

RESUMO

Following their activation and expansion in response to foreign threats, many T cells are retained in peripheral tissues without recirculating in the blood. These tissue-resident CD8+ memory T (TRM) cells patrol barrier surfaces and nonlymphoid organs, where their critical role in protecting against viral and bacterial infections is well established. Recent evidence suggests that TRM cells also play a vital part in preventing the development and spread of solid tumors. Here, we discuss the emerging role of TRM cells in anticancer immunity. We highlight defining features of tumor-localizing TRM cells, examine the mechanisms through which they have recently been shown to suppress cancer growth, and explore their potential as future targets of cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Memória Imunológica , Vigilância Imunológica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
16.
Cell Stress ; 3(5): 162-164, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225511

RESUMO

The immune system can prevent tumour development by engaging in a process termed cancer immunosurveillance, during which immune cells such as T cells restrict tumour growth either by completely eradicating cancer cells in a process of 'elimination' or by suppressing cancer cell outgrowth by establishing a state of tumour-immune 'equilibrium'. Most cancers develop within epithelial layers of tissues but circulating T cells are largely excluded from these epithelial tissue compartments in the absence of infection or overt inflammation. In contrast, CD8+ tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells reside permanently within epithelial layers of peripheral tissues without recirculating in blood. Accumulating evidence suggests that TRM cells are found in diverse human solid cancers where they correlate with improved prognosis and can protect against tumour challenge in mice. However, the mechanisms through which these cells mediate cancer protection are poorly understood. In our recent study (Park SL et al, Nature 565(7739), 2019) we developed a melanoma model that allowed us to identify a critical role for TRM cells in the establishment and maintenance of tumour-immune equilibrium in skin. Our findings provide insight into the immune cell populations important for maintaining long-term tumour dormancy in peripheral tissues and imply that targeting TRM cells may serve as a novel cancer treatment strategy.

17.
J Exp Med ; 216(7): 1682-1699, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142588

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD8+ T (Tc17) cells have emerged as key players in host-microbiota interactions, infection, and cancer. The factors that drive their development, in contrast to interferon (IFN)-γ-producing effector CD8+ T cells, are not clear. Here we demonstrate that the transcription factor TCF-1 (Tcf7) regulates CD8+ T cell fate decisions in double-positive (DP) thymocytes through the sequential suppression of MAF and RORγt, in parallel with TCF-1-driven modulation of chromatin state. Ablation of TCF-1 resulted in enhanced Tc17 cell development and exposed a gene set signature to drive tissue repair and lipid metabolism, which was distinct from other CD8+ T cell subsets. IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells isolated from healthy humans were also distinct from CD8+IL-17- T cells and enriched in pathways driven by MAF and RORγt Overall, our study reveals how TCF-1 exerts central control of T cell differentiation in the thymus by normally repressing Tc17 differentiation and promoting an effector fate outcome.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-maf/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Citometria de Fluxo , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/fisiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/fisiologia
18.
Eur J Immunol ; 49(6): 853-872, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891737

RESUMO

BM has been put forward as a major reservoir for memory CD8+  T cells. In order to fulfill that function, BM should "store" memory CD8+ T cells, which in biological terms would require these "stored" memory cells to be in disequilibrium with the circulatory pool. This issue is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, we unequivocally demonstrate that murine and human BM harbors a population of tissue-resident memory CD8+ T (TRM ) cells. These cells develop against various pathogens, independently of BM infection or local antigen recognition. BM CD8+ TRM cells share a transcriptional program with resident lymphoid cells in other tissues; they are polyfunctional cytokine producers and dependent on IL-15, Blimp-1, and Hobit. CD8+ TRM cells reside in the BM parenchyma, but are in close contact with the circulation. Moreover, this pool of resident T cells is not size-restricted and expands upon peripheral antigenic re-challenge. This works extends the role of the BM in the maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory to include the preservation of an expandable reservoir of functional, non-recirculating memory CD8+ T cells, which develop in response to a large variety of peripheral antigens.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0210495, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742629

RESUMO

Tissue-resident CD8+ memory T (TRM) cells are immune cells that permanently reside at tissue sites where they play an important role in providing rapid protection against reinfection. They are not only phenotypically and functionally distinct from their circulating memory counterparts, but also exhibit a unique transcriptional profile. To date, the local tissue signals required for their development and long-term residency are not well understood. So far, the best-characterised tissue-derived signal is transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), which has been shown to promote the development of these cells within tissues. In this study, we aimed to determine to what extent the transcriptional signatures of TRM cells from multiple tissues reflects TGF-ß imprinting. We activated murine CD8+ T cells, stimulated them in vitro by TGF-ß, and profiled their transcriptomes using RNA-seq. Upon comparison, we identified a TGF-ß-induced signature of differentially expressed genes between TGF-ß-stimulated and -unstimulated cells. Next, we linked this in vitro TGF-ß-induced signature to a previously identified in vivo TRM-specific gene set and found considerable (>50%) overlap between the two gene sets, thus showing that a substantial part of the TRM signature can be attributed to TGF-ß signalling. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis further revealed that the altered gene signature following TGF-ß exposure reflected transcriptional signatures found in TRM cells from both epithelial and non-epithelial tissues. In summary, these findings show that TGF-ß has a broad footprint in establishing the residency-specific transcriptional profile of TRM cells, which is detectable in TRM cells from diverse tissues. They further suggest that constitutive TGF-ß signaling might be involved for their long-term persistence at tissue sites.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Memória Imunológica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Nature ; 566(7745): E10, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742076

RESUMO

Panel j was inadvertently labelled as panel k in the caption to Fig. 4. Similarly, 'Fig. 4k' should have been 'Fig. 4j' in the sentence beginning 'TNF-α-deficient gBT-I cells were…'. In addition, the surname of author Umaimainthan Palendira was misspelled 'Palendria'. These errors have been corrected online.

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