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1.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using a reversible multistate model, we prospectively examined neuropsychiatric (NP) events for attribution, outcome and association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in an international, inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Annual assessments for 19 NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes, physician determination of outcome and patient HRQoL (short-form (SF)-36 scores) were measured. Time-to-event analysis and multistate modelling examined the onset, recurrence and transition between NP states. RESULTS: NP events occurred in 955/1827 (52.3%) patients and 592/1910 (31.0%) unique events were attributed to SLE. In the first 2 years of follow-up the relative risk (95% CI) for SLE NP events was 6.16 (4.96, 7.66) and non-SLE events was 4.66 (4.01, 5.43) compared with thereafter. Patients without SLE NP events at initial assessment had a 74% probability of being event free at 10 years. For non-SLE NP events the estimate was 48%. The majority of NP events resolved over 10 years but mortality was higher in patients with NP events attributed to SLE (16%) versus patients with no NPSLE events (6%) while the rate was comparable in patients with non-SLE NP events (7%) compared with patients with no non-SLE events (6%). Patients with NP events had lower SF-36 summary scores compared with those without NP events and resolved NP states (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: NP events occur most frequently around the diagnosis of SLE. Although the majority of events resolve they are associated with reduced HRQoL and excess mortality. Multistate modelling is well suited for the assessment of NP events in SLE.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A (HMG Co-A) reductase inhibitors (statins) are standard treatment for hyperlipidaemia. In addition to lipid-lowering abilities, statins exhibit multiple anti-inflammatory effects. The objectives of this study were to determine whether treatment of patients with RA with lovastatin decreased CRP or reduced disease activity. METHODS: We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 12 week trial of lovastatin vs placebo in 64 RA patients with mild clinical disease activity but an elevated CRP. The primary efficacy end point was the reduction in mean log CRP. Secondary end points included disease activity, RF and anti-CCP antibody titres. Mechanistic end points included levels of serum cytokines. Safety was assessed; hepatic and muscle toxicities were of particular interest. RESULTS: Baseline features were similar between groups. No significant difference in mean log CRP reduction between the two groups was observed, and disease activity did not change from baseline in either treatment group. Mechanistic analyses did not reveal significant changes in any biomarkers. A post hoc analysis of subjects not using biologic therapy demonstrated a significantly greater proportion achieving ⩾20% reduction in CRP from baseline in the lovastatin group compared with placebo (P-value = 0.007). No difference was observed in subjects receiving biologics. Lovastatin was well tolerated with no serious safety concerns. CONCLUSION: This study showed no anti-inflammatory or clinical effects on RA disease activity after 12 weeks of treatment with lovastatin. Lovastatin had a modest effect on CRP in subjects not using biologics, suggesting statins may be anti-inflammatory in selected patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00302952.

3.
J Autoimmun ; : 102340, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE. METHODS: Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). RESULTS: The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) has been shown to predict mortality, but its association with other important outcomes is unknown. We examined the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with damage accrual in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: The baseline visit was defined as the first at which both organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36]) were assessed. Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. Damage accrual was measured by the increase in SDI between the baseline assessment and the last study visit. Multivariable negative binomial regression estimated the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of increase in the SDI during follow-up, adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (standard deviation, SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (interquartile range) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range of 0-0.51. Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 653 patients (42.2%) had an increase in SDI. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with higher rates of increase in the SDI during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1.19; 95% CI 1.13-1.25), after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity/region, education, baseline SLEDAI-2K, baseline SDI, and baseline use of corticosteroids, antimalarials, and immunosuppressives. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts damage accrual in incident SLE, which further supports the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of data regarding healthcare costs associated with damage accrual in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe costs associated with damage states across the disease course using multi-state modeling. METHODS: Patients from 33 centres in 11 countries were enrolled in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort within 15 months of diagnosis. Annual data on demographics, disease activity, damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Damage Index [SDI]), hospitalizations, medications, dialysis, and selected procedures were collected. Ten-year cumulative costs (Canadian dollars) were estimated by multiplying annual costs associated with each SDI state by the expected state duration using a multi-state model. RESULTS: 1687 patients participated, 88.7% female, 49.0% of Caucasian race/ethnicity, mean age at diagnosis 34.6 years (SD 13.3), and mean follow up 8.9 years (range 0.6-18.5). Annual costs were higher in those with higher SDIs (SDI ≥ 5: $22 006 2019 CDN, 95% CI $16 662, $27 350 versus SDI=0: $1833, 95% CI $1134, $2532). Similarly, 10-year cumulative costs were higher in those with higher SDIs at the beginning of the 10-year interval (SDI ≥ 5: $189 073, 95% CI $142 318, $235 827 versus SDI=0: $21 713, 95% CI $13 639, $29 788). CONCLUSION: Patients with the highest SDIs incur 10-year cumulative costs that are almost 9-fold higher than those with the lowest SDIs. By estimating the damage trajectory and incorporating annual costs, damage can be used to estimate future costs, critical knowledge for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of novel therapies.

6.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 31(6): 682-688, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389814

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of lupus nephritis remains unsatisfactory due to insufficiently effective treatment regimens and the dearth of reliable predictors of disease onset or progression to guide individualized therapeutic decisions. This review summarizes new findings related to lupus nephritis over the last 18 months and discusses clinical needs that should be considered to advance trials of mechanism-based therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Collaborative teams are addressing how to improve disease definitions and are developing predictive models for disease onset, disease response and risk of flare in individual patients. More attention is being paid to clinical trial design. Advanced technologic approaches are allowing the analysis of small amounts of human tissue and urine in unprecedented detail so as to discover new pathogenic mechanisms and identify disease biomarkers. Novel therapies continue to be tested in disease models and include new strategies to protect renal tissue from cell damage and fibrosis. SUMMARY: The collaborative efforts of patients, clinical and translational researchers, the pharmaceutical industry and funding sources are needed to advance therapies for lupus nephritis. Specialized clinical centers can then deliver optimal and more personalized patient care that will improve patient outcomes.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, associations, and outcomes of different types of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease in a multiethnic/multiracial, prospective inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Patients were evaluated annually for 19 neuropsychiatric (NP) events including 7 types of PNS disease. SLE disease activity, organ damage, autoantibodies, and patient and physician assessment of outcome were measured. Time to event and linear regressions were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Of 1,827 SLE patients, 88.8% were female, and 48.8% were white. The mean ± SD age was 35.1 ± 13.3 years, disease duration at enrollment was 5.6 ± 4.2 months, and follow-up was 7.6 ± 4.6 years. There were 161 PNS events in 139 (7.6%) of 1,827 patients. The predominant events were peripheral neuropathy (66 of 161 [41.0%]), mononeuropathy (44 of 161 [27.3%]), and cranial neuropathy (39 of 161 [24.2%]), and the majority were attributed to SLE. Multivariate Cox regressions suggested longer time to resolution in patients with a history of neuropathy, older age at SLE diagnosis, higher SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 scores, and for peripheral neuropathy versus other neuropathies. Neuropathy was associated with significantly lower Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical and mental component summary scores versus no NP events. According to physician assessment, the majority of neuropathies resolved or improved over time, which was associated with improvements in SF-36 summary scores for peripheral neuropathy and mononeuropathy. CONCLUSION: PNS disease is an important component of total NPSLE and has a significant negative impact on health-related quality of life. The outcome is favorable for most patients, but our findings indicate that several factors are associated with longer time to resolution.

8.
Lupus Sci Med ; 6(1): e000327, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413849

RESUMO

Objective: Resting Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) brain imaging and neuropsychological testing were used to investigate the usefulness of a spatial navigation task (SNT) as a performance benchmark for cognitive impairment related to anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor antibodies (DNRAb) in SLE. Methods: Neuropsychological assessments, including a desktop 3-D virtual SNT, were performed on 19 SLE participants and 9 healthy control (HC) subjects. SLE participants had stable disease activity and medication doses and no history of neuropsychiatric illness or current use of mind-altering medications. Resting FDG-PET scans were obtained on all SLE participants and compared with a historical set from 25 age-matched and sex-matched HCs. Serum DNRAb titres were measured by ELISA. Results: 11/19 (58%) of SLE participants failed to complete the SNT (SNT-) compared with 2/9 (22%) of HCs. Compared with 7/9 (78%) in HCs, only 2/9 (22%; p=0.037) of SLE participants with high serum DNRAb titres completed the SNT, in contrast to 6/10 (60%; p=0.810) in SLE participants with low DNRAb titres. Voxel-wise comparison of FDG-PET scans between the 8 SLE participants successfully completing the SNT task (SNT+) and the 11 SNT- SLE participants revealed increased metabolism in the SNT+ participants (p<0.001) in the left anterior putamen/caudate, right anterior putamen, left prefrontal cortex (BA 9), right prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10) and left lateral and medial frontal cortex (BA 8). Compared with HCs, the SNT+ group demonstrated increased metabolism in all regions (p<0.02) except for the right prefrontal cortex (BA 9), whereas the SNT- group demonstrated either significantly decreased or similar metabolism in these seven regions. Conclusions: SNT performance is associated with serum DNRAb titres and resting glucose metabolism in the anterior putamen/caudate and frontal cortex, suggesting compensatory neural recruitment in SNT-associated regions is necessary for successful completion of the task. The SNT therefore has potential for use as a marker for SLE-mediated cognitive impairment.

9.
JCI Insight ; 4(9)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045579

RESUMO

IgG antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are a dominant feature of several autoimmune diseases. We previously showed that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by increased ANA+ IgG plasmablasts/plasma cells (PCs) through aberrant IgG PC differentiation rather than an antigen-specific tolerance defect. Here, we aimed to understand the differentiation pathways resulting in ANA+ IgG PCs in SLE patients. We demonstrate distinct profiles of ANA+ antigen-experienced B cells in SLE patients, characterized by either a high frequency of PCs or a high frequency of IgG+ memory B cells. This classification of SLE patients was unrelated to disease activity and remained stable over time in almost all patients, suggesting minimal influence of disease activity. A similar classification applies to antigen-specific B cell subsets in mice following primary immunization with T-independent and T-dependent antigens as well as in lupus-prone mouse models (MRL/lpr and NZB/W). We further show that, in both lupus-prone mice and SLE patients, the classification correlates with the serum autoantibody profile. In this study, we identified B cell phenotypes that we propose reflect an extrafollicular pathway for PC differentiation or a germinal center pathway, respectively. The classification we propose can be used to stratify patients for longitudinal studies and clinical trials.

10.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a Frailty Index (FI) as a measure of vulnerability to adverse outcomes among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort. METHODS: The SLICC inception cohort consists of recently diagnosed patients with SLE followed annually with clinical and laboratory assessments. For this analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which sufficient information was available for construction of an FI. Following a standard procedure, variables from the SLICC database were evaluated as potential health deficits. Selected health deficits were then used to generate a SLICC-FI. The prevalence of frailty in the baseline dataset was evaluated using established cutpoints for FI values. RESULTS: The 1683 patients with SLE (92.1% of the overall cohort) eligible for inclusion in the baseline dataset were mostly female (89%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.4) years and mean (SD) disease duration 18.8 (15.7) months at baseline. Of 222 variables, 48 met criteria for inclusion in the SLICC-FI. Mean (SD) SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range from 0 to 0.51. At baseline, 27.1% (95% CI 25.0-29.2) of patients were classified as frail, based on SLICC-FI values > 0.21. CONCLUSION: The SLICC inception cohort permits feasible construction of an FI for use in patients with SLE. Even in a relatively young cohort of patients with SLE, frailty was common. The SLICC-FI may be a useful tool for identifying patients with SLE who are most vulnerable to adverse outcomes, but validation of this index is required prior to its use.

11.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(7): 1259-1267, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) in reproductive-age women with SLE with and without possible contraindications and to determine factors associated with their use in the presence of possible contraindications. METHODS: This observational cohort study included premenopausal women ages 18-45 years enrolled in the SLICC Registry ⩽15 months after SLE onset, with annual assessments spanning 2000-2017. World Health Organization Category 3 or 4 contraindications to CHCs (e.g. hypertension, aPL) were assessed at each study visit. High disease activity (SLEDAI score >12 or use of >0.5 mg/kg/day of prednisone) was considered a relative contraindication. RESULTS: A total of 927 SLE women contributed 6315 visits, of which 3811 (60%) occurred in the presence of one or more possible contraindication to CHCs. Women used CHCs during 512 (8%) visits, of which 281 (55%) took place in the setting of one or more possible contraindication. The most frequently observed contraindications were aPL (52%), hypertension (34%) and migraine with aura (22%). Women with one or more contraindication were slightly less likely to be taking CHCs [7% of visits (95% CI 7, 8)] than women with no contraindications [9% (95% CI 8, 10)]. CONCLUSION: CHC use was low compared with general population estimates (>35%) and more than half of CHC users had at least one possible contraindication. Many yet unmeasured factors, including patient preferences, may have contributed to these observations. Further work should also aim to clarify outcomes associated with this exposure.

12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(8): 1297-1307, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of a frailty index (FI), constructed using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort, as a novel health measure in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: For this secondary analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which both organ damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36] scores) were assessed. The SLICC-FI was constructed using baseline data. The SLICC-FI comprises 48 health deficits, including items related to organ damage, disease activity, comorbidities, and functional status. Content, construct, and criterion validity of the SLICC-FI were assessed. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and mortality risk, adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: In the baseline data set of 1,683 patients with SLE, 89% were female, the mean ± SD age was 35.7 ± 13.4 years, and the mean ± SD disease duration was 18.8 ± 15.7 months. At baseline, the mean ± SD SLICC-FI score was 0.17 ± 0.08 (range 0-0.51). Baseline SLICC-FI values exhibited the expected measurement properties and were weakly correlated with baseline SDI scores (r = 0.26, P < 0.0001). Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.35-1.87), after adjusting for age, sex, steroid use, ethnicity/region, and baseline SDI scores. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI demonstrates internal validity as a health measure in SLE and might be used to predict future mortality risk. The SLICC-FI is potentially valuable for quantifying vulnerability among patients with SLE, and adds to existing prognostic scores.

13.
JCI Insight ; 4(1)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626758

RESUMO

To address challenges in the diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction (CD) related to systemic lupus erythematosus-associated (SLE-associated) autoimmune mechanisms rather than confounding factors, we employed an integrated approach, using resting-state functional (FDG-PET) and structural (diffusion tensor imaging [DTI]) neuroimaging techniques and cognitive testing, in adult SLE patients with quiescent disease and no history of neuropsychiatric illness. We identified resting hypermetabolism in the sensorimotor cortex, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe of SLE subjects, in addition to validation of previously published resting hypermetabolism in the hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, and putamen/GP/thalamus. Regional hypermetabolism demonstrated abnormal interregional metabolic correlations, associated with impaired cognitive performance, and was stable over 15 months. DTI analyses demonstrated 4 clusters of decreased microstructural integrity in white matter tracts adjacent to hypermetabolic regions and significantly diminished connecting tracts in SLE subjects. Decreased microstructural integrity in the parahippocampal gyrus correlated with impaired spatial memory and increased serum titers of DNRAb, a neurotoxic autoantibody associated with neuropsychiatric lupus. These findings of regional hypermetabolism, associated with decreased microstructural integrity and poor cognitive performance and not associated with disease duration, disease activity, medications, or comorbid disease, suggest that this is a reproducible, stable marker for SLE-associated CD that may be may be used for early disease detection and to discriminate between groups, evaluate response to treatment strategies, or assess disease progression.

14.
J Rheumatol ; 46(5): 492-500, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In cross-sectional studies, elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels have been proposed to reflect, and/or precede, progressive organ damage and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed, in a cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE, to determine whether raised serum OPN levels precede damage and/or are associated with disease activity or certain disease phenotypes. METHODS: We included 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who had 5 years of followup data available. All patients fulfilled the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Baseline sera from patients and from age- and sex-matched population-based controls were analyzed for OPN using ELISA. Disease activity and damage were assessed at each annual followup visit using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), respectively. RESULTS: Compared to controls, baseline OPN was raised 4-fold in SLE cases (p < 0.0001). After relevant adjustments in a binary logistic regression model, OPN levels failed to significantly predict global damage accrual defined as SDI ≥ 1 at 5 years. However, baseline OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K at enrollment into the cohort (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI-2K ≥ 5) had raised serum OPN (p < 0.0001). In addition, higher OPN levels were found in patients with persistent disease activity (p = 0.0006), in cases with renal involvement (p < 0.0001) and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The performance of OPN to predict development of organ damage was not impressive. However, OPN associated significantly with lupus nephritis and with raised disease activity at enrollment, as well as over time.

15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(2): 281-289, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a large, multiethnic/multiracial, prospective inception cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the frequency, attribution, clinical, and autoantibody associations with lupus psychosis and the short- and long-term outcomes as assessed by physicians and patients. METHODS: Patients were evaluated annually for 19 neuropsychiatric (NP) events including psychosis. Scores on the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index, and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) were recorded. Time to event and linear regressions were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Of 1,826 SLE patients, 88.8% were female and 48.8% were Caucasian. The mean ± SD age was 35.1 ± 13.3 years, the mean ± SD disease duration was 5.6 ± 4.2 months, and the mean ± SD follow-up period was 7.4 ± 4.5 years. There were 31 psychotic events in 28 of 1,826 patients (1.53%), and most patients had a single event (26 of 28 [93%]). In the majority of patients (20 of 25 [80%]) and events (28 of 31 [90%]), psychosis was attributed to SLE, usually either in the year prior to or within 3 years of SLE diagnosis. Positive associations (hazard ratios [HRs] and 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) with lupus psychosis were previous SLE NP events (HR 3.59 [95% CI 1.16-11.14]), male sex (HR 3.0 [95% CI 1.20-7.50]), younger age at SLE diagnosis (per 10 years) (HR 1.45 [95% CI 1.01-2.07]), and African ancestry (HR 4.59 [95% CI 1.79-11.76]). By physician assessment, most psychotic events resolved by the second annual visit following onset, in parallel with an improvement in patient-reported SF-36 summary and subscale scores. CONCLUSION: Psychosis is an infrequent manifestation of NPSLE. Generally, it occurs early after SLE onset and has a significant negative impact on health status. As determined by patient and physician report, the short- and long-term outlooks are good for most patients, although careful follow-up is required.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Anticardiolipina/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Lineares , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Psicóticos/imunologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/imunologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem , beta 2-Glicoproteína I/imunologia
16.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(3): 411-419, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: End points currently used in lupus nephritis (LN) clinical trials lack uniformity and questionably reflect long-term kidney survival. This study was undertaken to identify short-term end points that predict long-term kidney outcomes for use in clinical trials. METHODS: A database of 944 patients with LN was assembled from 3 clinical trials and 12 longitudinal cohorts. Variables from the first 12 months of treatment after diagnosis of active LN (prediction period) were assessed as potential predictors of long-term outcomes in a 36-month follow-up period. The long-term outcomes examined were new or progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD), severe kidney injury (SKI), and the need for permanent renal replacement therapy (RRT). To predict the risk for each outcome, hazard index tools (HITs) were derived using multivariable analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Among 550 eligible subjects, 54 CKD, 55 SKI, and 22 RRT events occurred. Variables in the final CKD HIT were prediction-period CKD status, 12-month proteinuria, and 12-month serum creatinine level. The SKI HIT variables included prediction-period CKD status, International Society of Nephrology (ISN)/Renal Pathology Society (RPS) class, 12-month proteinuria, 12-month serum creatinine level, race, and an interaction between ISN/RPS class and 12-month proteinuria. The RRT HIT included age at diagnosis, 12-month proteinuria, and 12-month serum creatinine level. Each HIT validated well internally (c-indices 0.84-0.92) and in an independent LN cohort (c-indices 0.89-0.92). CONCLUSION: HITs, derived from short-term kidney responses to treatment, correlate with long-term kidney outcomes, and now must be validated as surrogate end points for LN clinical trials.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Nefrite Lúpica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Creatinina/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Nefrite Lúpica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteinúria/urina , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(4): 1586-1597, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgG antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are a feature of several autoimmune diseases. These antibodies arise through defects in central or peripheral tolerance checkpoints. The specific checkpoints breached in patients with autoimmune disease are not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study whether autoreactive plasma cells in lupus models and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) arise as a consequence of defective antigen-specific selection or a global enhancement of IgG plasma cell differentiation. METHODS: We optimized and validated a novel technique to detect naturally occurring ANA+ B cells and plasma cells. RESULTS: We observed a major checkpoint for generation of ANA+ IgG+ plasma cells in both nonautoimmune mice and healthy human subjects. Interestingly, we observed increased numbers of ANA+ IgG+ plasma cells despite normal tolerance checkpoints in immature and naive B cells of lupus-prone MRL/lpr and NZB/W mice, as well as patients with SLE. This increase was due to increased numbers of total IgG+ plasma cells rather than lack of selection against ANA+ plasma cells. CONCLUSION: Using a method that permits quick and accurate quantification of autoreactive B cells and plasma cells in vivo within a native B-cell repertoire in mice and human subjects, we demonstrate the importance of a checkpoint that restricts the generation of IgG plasma cells and protects against IgG ANAs. Our observations suggest a fundamentally revised understanding of SLE: that it is a disease of aberrant B-cell differentiation rather than a defect in antigen-specific B-cell tolerance.

19.
JCI Insight ; 3(17)2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185675

RESUMO

Belimumab has therapeutic benefit in active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially in patients with high-titer anti-dsDNA antibodies. We asked whether the profound B cell loss in belimumab-treated SLE patients is accompanied by shifts in the immunoglobulin repertoire. We enrolled 15 patients who had been continuously treated with belimumab for more than 7 years, 17 matched controls, and 5 patients who were studied before and after drug initiation. VH genes of sort-purified mature B cells and plasmablasts were subjected to next-generation sequencing. We found that B cell-activating factor (BAFF) regulates the transitional B cell checkpoint, with conservation of transitional 1 (T1) cells and approximately 90% loss of T3 and naive B cells after chronic belimumab treatment. Class-switched memory B cells, B1 B cells, and plasmablasts were also substantially depleted. Next-generation sequencing revealed no redistribution of VH, DH, or JH family usage and no effect of belimumab on representation of the autoreactive VH4-34 gene or CDR3 composition in unmutated IgM sequences, suggesting a minimal effect on selection of the naive B cell repertoire. Interestingly, a significantly greater loss of VH4-34 was observed among mutated IgM and plasmablast sequences in chronic belimumab-treated subjects than in controls, suggesting that belimumab promotes negative selection of activated autoreactive B cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fator Ativador de Células B , Receptor do Fator Ativador de Células B , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
20.
Mol Med ; 24(1): 24, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. In Western Europe and North America, individuals of West African descent have a 3-4 fold greater incidence of SLE than Caucasians. Paradoxically, West Africans in sub-Saharan Africa appear to have a low incidence of SLE, and some studies suggest a milder disease with less nephritis. In this study, we analyzed sera from African American female SLE patients and four other cohorts, one with SLE and others with varying degrees of risk for SLE in order to identify serologic factors that might correlate with risk of or protection against SLE. METHODS: Our cohorts included West African women with previous malaria infection assumed to be protected from development of SLE, clinically unaffected sisters of SLE patients with high risk of developing SLE, healthy African American women with intermediate risk, healthy Caucasian women with low risk of developing SLE, and women with a diagnosis of SLE. We developed a lupus risk index (LRI) based on titers of IgM and IgG anti-double stranded DNA antibodies and levels of C1q. RESULTS: The risk index was highest in SLE patients; second highest in unaffected sisters of SLE patients; third highest in healthy African-American women and lowest in healthy Caucasian women and malaria-exposed West African women. CONCLUSION: This risk index may be useful in early interventions to prevent SLE. In addition, it suggests new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of SLE.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Complemento C1q/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Malária/sangue , Malária/etnologia , Malária/genética , Malária/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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