*Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4596, 2022 Aug 06.*

##### RESUMO

Applying in-plane uniaxial pressure to strongly correlated low-dimensional systems has been shown to tune the electronic structure dramatically. For example, the unconventional superconductor Sr2RuO4 can be tuned through a single Van Hove point, resulting in strong enhancement of both Tc and Hc2. Out-of-plane (c axis) uniaxial pressure is expected to tune the quasi-two-dimensional structure even more strongly, by pushing it towards two Van Hove points simultaneously. Here, we achieve a record uniaxial stress of 3.2 GPa along the c axis of Sr2RuO4. Hc2 increases, as expected for increasing density of states, but unexpectedly Tc falls. As a first attempt to explain this result, we present three-dimensional calculations in the weak interaction limit. We find that within the weak-coupling framework there is no single order parameter that can account for the contrasting effects of in-plane versus c-axis uniaxial stress, which makes this new result a strong constraint on theories of the superconductivity of Sr2RuO4.

*Nat Phys ; 18(7): 819-824, 2022.*

##### RESUMO

In an idealized infinite crystal, the material properties are constrained by the symmetries of the unit cell. The point-group symmetry is broken by the sample shape of any finite crystal, but this is commonly unobservable in macroscopic metals. To sense the shape-induced symmetry lowering in such metals, long-lived bulk states originating from an anisotropic Fermi surface are needed. Here we show how a strongly facetted Fermi surface and the long quasiparticle mean free path present in microstructures of PdCoO2 yield an in-plane resistivity anisotropy that is forbidden by symmetry on an infinite hexagonal lattice. We fabricate bar-shaped transport devices narrower than the mean free path from single crystals using focused ion beam milling, such that the ballistic charge carriers at low temperatures frequently collide with both of the side walls that define the channel. Two symmetry-forbidden transport signatures appear: the in-plane resistivity anisotropy exceeds a factor of 2, and a transverse voltage appears in zero magnetic field. Using ballistic Monte Carlo simulations and a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation, we identify the orientation of the narrow channel as the source of symmetry breaking.

*Nature ; 607(7918): 276-280, 2022 07.*

##### RESUMO

One of the main developments in unconventional superconductivity in the past two decades has been the discovery that most unconventional superconductors form phase diagrams that also contain other strongly correlated states. Many systems of interest are therefore close to more than one instability, and tuning between the resultant ordered phases is the subject of intense research1. In recent years, uniaxial pressure applied using piezoelectric-based devices has been shown to be a particularly versatile new method of tuning2,3, leading to experiments that have advanced our understanding of the fascinating unconventional superconductor Sr2RuO4 (refs. 4-9). Here we map out its phase diagram using high-precision measurements of the elastocaloric effect in what we believe to be the first such study including both the normal and the superconducting states. We observe a strong entropy quench on entering the superconducting state, in excellent agreement with a model calculation for pairing at the Van Hove point, and obtain a quantitative estimate of the entropy change associated with entry to a magnetic state that is observed in proximity to the superconductivity. The phase diagram is intriguing both for its similarity to those seen in other families of unconventional superconductors and for extra features unique, so far, to Sr2RuO4.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(47)2021 Nov 23.*

##### RESUMO

Intense work studying the ballistic regime of electron transport in two-dimensional systems based on semiconductors and graphene had been thought to have established most of the key experimental facts of the field. In recent years, however, additional forms of ballistic transport have become accessible in the quasi-two-dimensional delafossite metals, whose Fermi wavelength is a factor of 100 shorter than those typically studied in the previous work and whose Fermi surfaces are nearly hexagonal in shape and therefore strongly faceted. This has some profound consequences for results obtained from the classic ballistic transport experiment of studying bend and Hall resistances in mesoscopic squares fabricated from delafossite single crystals. We observe pronounced anisotropies in bend resistances and even a Hall voltage that is strongly asymmetric in magnetic field. Although some of our observations are nonintuitive at first sight, we show that they can be understood within a nonlocal Landauer-Büttiker analysis tailored to the symmetries of the square/hexagonal geometries of our combined device/Fermi surface system. Signatures of nonlocal transport can be resolved for squares of linear dimension of nearly 100 µm, approximately a factor of 15 larger than the bulk mean free path of the crystal from which the device was fabricated.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 Jun 22.*

##### RESUMO

Unambiguous identification of the superconducting order parameter symmetry in [Formula: see text] has remained elusive for more than a quarter century. While a chiral p-wave ground state analogue to superfluid 3He-A was ruled out only very recently, other proposed triplet-pairing scenarios are still viable. Establishing the condensate magnetic susceptibility reveals a sharp distinction between even-parity (singlet) and odd-parity (triplet) pairing since the superconducting condensate is magnetically polarizable only in the latter case. Here field-dependent 17O Knight shift measurements, being sensitive to the spin polarization, are compared to previously reported specific heat measurements for the purpose of distinguishing the condensate contribution from that due to quasiparticles. We conclude that the shift results can be accounted for entirely by the expected field-induced quasiparticle response. An upper bound for the condensate magnetic response of <10% of the normal state susceptibility is sufficient to exclude all purely odd-parity candidates.

*Sci Adv ; 7(15)2021 Apr.*

##### RESUMO

Exploiting inversion symmetry breaking (ISB) in systems with strong spin-orbit coupling promises control of spin through electric fields-crucial to achieve miniaturization in spintronic devices. Delivering on this promise requires a two-dimensional electron gas with a spin precession length shorter than the spin coherence length and a large spin splitting so that spin manipulation can be achieved over length scales of nanometers. Recently, the transition metal oxide terminations of delafossite oxides were found to exhibit a large Rashba spin splitting dominated by ISB. In this limit, the Fermi surface exhibits the same spin texture as for weak ISB, but the orbital texture is completely different, raising questions about the effect on quasiparticle scattering. We demonstrate that the spin-orbital selection rules relevant for conventional Rashba system are obeyed as true spin selection rules in this correlated electron liquid and determine its spin coherence length from quasiparticle interference imaging.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 Mar 09.*

##### RESUMO

A key question regarding the unconventional superconductivity of [Formula: see text] remains whether the order parameter is single- or two-component. Under a hypothesis of two-component superconductivity, uniaxial pressure is expected to lift their degeneracy, resulting in a split transition. The most direct and fundamental probe of a split transition is heat capacity. Here, we report measurement of heat capacity of samples subject to large and highly homogeneous uniaxial pressure. We place an upper limit on the heat-capacity signature of any second transition of a few percent of that of the primary superconducting transition. The normalized jump in heat capacity, [Formula: see text], grows smoothly as a function of uniaxial pressure, favoring order parameters which are allowed to maximize in the same part of the Brillouin zone as the well-studied van Hove singularity. Thanks to the high precision of our measurements, these findings place stringent constraints on theories of the superconductivity of [Formula: see text].

*Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(10): 103902, 2020 Oct 01.*

##### RESUMO

We present a piezoelectric-driven uniaxial pressure cell that is optimized for muon spin relaxation and neutron scattering experiments and that is operable over a wide temperature range including cryogenic temperatures. To accommodate the large samples required for these measurement techniques, the cell is designed to generate forces up to â¼1000 N. To minimize the background signal, the space around the sample is kept as open as possible. We demonstrate here that by mounting plate-like samples with epoxy, a uniaxial stress exceeding 1 GPa can be achieved in an active volume of at least 5 mm3. We show that for practical operation, it is important to monitor both the force and displacement applied to the sample. In addition, because time is critical during facility experiments, samples are mounted in detachable holders that can be rapidly exchanged. The piezoelectric actuators are likewise contained in an exchangeable cartridge.

*Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(8): 083902, 2020 Aug 01.*

##### RESUMO

Response to uniaxial stress has become a major probe of electronic materials. Tunable uniaxial stress may be applied using piezoelectric actuators, and so far two methods have been developed to couple samples to actuators. In one, actuators apply force along the length of a free, beam-like sample, allowing very large strains to be achieved. In the other, samples are affixed directly to piezoelectric actuators, allowing the study of mechanically delicate materials. Here, we describe an approach that merges the two: thin samples are affixed to a substrate, which is then pressurized uniaxially using piezoelectric actuators. Using this approach, we demonstrate the application of large elastic strains to mechanically delicate samples: the van der Waals-bonded material FeSe and a sample of CeAuSb2 that was shaped with a focused ion beam.

_{3}Ru

_{2}O

_{7}.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15524-15529, 2020 Jul 07.*

##### RESUMO

The interplay between spin-orbit coupling and structural inversion symmetry breaking in solids has generated much interest due to the nontrivial spin and magnetic textures which can result. Such studies are typically focused on systems where large atomic number elements lead to strong spin-orbit coupling, in turn rendering electronic correlations weak. In contrast, here we investigate the temperature-dependent electronic structure of [Formula: see text], a [Formula: see text] oxide metal for which both correlations and spin-orbit coupling are pronounced and in which octahedral tilts and rotations combine to mediate both global and local inversion symmetry-breaking polar distortions. Our angle-resolved photoemission measurements reveal the destruction of a large hole-like Fermi surface upon cooling through a coupled structural and spin-reorientation transition at 48 K, accompanied by a sudden onset of quasiparticle coherence. We demonstrate how these result from band hybridization mediated by a hidden Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling. This is enabled by the bulk structural distortions and unlocked when the spin reorients perpendicular to the local symmetry-breaking potential at the Ru sites. We argue that the electronic energy gain associated with the band hybridization is actually the key driver for the phase transition, reflecting a delicate interplay between spin-orbit coupling and strong electronic correlations and revealing a route to control magnetic ordering in solids.

*Science ; 368(6496): 1234-1238, 2020 06 12.*

##### RESUMO

Microstructures can be carefully designed to reveal the quantum phase of the wave-like nature of electrons in a metal. Here, we report phase-coherent oscillations of out-of-plane magnetoresistance in the layered delafossites PdCoO2 and PtCoO2 The oscillation period is equivalent to that determined by the magnetic flux quantum, h/e, threading an area defined by the atomic interlayer separation and the sample width, where h is Planck's constant and e is the charge of an electron. The phase of the electron wave function appears robust over length scales exceeding 10 micrometers and persisting up to temperatures of T > 50 kelvin. We show that the experimental signal stems from a periodic field modulation of the out-of-plane hopping. These results demonstrate extraordinary single-particle quantum coherence lengths in delafossites.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(10): 5222-5227, 2020 Mar 10.*

##### RESUMO

Sr2RuO4 has long been the focus of intense research interest because of conjectures that it is a correlated topological superconductor. It is the momentum space (k-space) structure of the superconducting energy gap [Formula: see text] on each band i that encodes its unknown superconducting order parameter. However, because the energy scales are so low, it has never been possible to directly measure the [Formula: see text] of Sr2RuO4 Here, we implement Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference (BQPI) imaging, a technique capable of high-precision measurement of multiband [Formula: see text] At T = 90 mK, we visualize a set of Bogoliubov scattering interference wavevectors [Formula: see text] consistent with eight gap nodes/minima that are all closely aligned to the [Formula: see text] crystal lattice directions on both the α and ß bands. Taking these observations in combination with other very recent advances in directional thermal conductivity [E. Hassinger et al., Phys. Rev. X 7, 011032 (2017)], temperature-dependent Knight shift [A. Pustogow et al., Nature 574, 72-75 (2019)], time-reversal symmetry conservation [S. Kashiwaya et al., Phys. Rev B, 100, 094530 (2019)], and theory [A. T. Rømer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 247001 (2019); H. S. Roising, T. Scaffidi, F. Flicker, G. F. Lange, S. H. Simon, Phys. Rev. Res. 1, 033108 (2019); and O. Gingras, R. Nourafkan, A. S. Tremblay, M. Côté, Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 217005 (2019)], the BQPI signature of Sr2RuO4 appears most consistent with [Formula: see text] having [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] symmetry.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(20): 207202, 2019 Nov 15.*

##### RESUMO

A wide variety of complex phases in quantum materials are driven by electron-electron interactions, which are enhanced through density of states peaks. A well-known example occurs at van Hove singularities where the Fermi surface undergoes a topological transition. Here we show that higher order singularities, where multiple disconnected leaves of Fermi surface touch all at once, naturally occur at points of high symmetry in the Brillouin zone. Such multicritical singularities can lead to stronger divergences in the density of states than canonical van Hove singularities, and critically boost the formation of complex quantum phases via interactions. As a concrete example of the power of these Fermi surface topological transitions, we demonstrate how they can be used in the analysis of experimental data on Sr_{3}Ru_{2}O_{7}. Understanding the related mechanisms opens up new avenues in material design of complex quantum phases.

*Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5081, 2019 11 08.*

##### RESUMO

Geometric electron optics may be implemented in solids when electron transport is ballistic on the length scale of a device. Currently, this is realized mainly in 2D materials characterized by circular Fermi surfaces. Here we demonstrate that the nearly perfectly hexagonal Fermi surface of PdCoO2 gives rise to highly directional ballistic transport. We probe this directional ballistic regime in a single crystal of PdCoO2 by use of focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining, defining crystalline ballistic circuits with features as small as 250 nm. The peculiar hexagonal Fermi surface naturally leads to enhanced electron self-focusing effects in a magnetic field compared to circular Fermi surfaces. This super-geometric focusing can be quantitatively predicted for arbitrary device geometry, based on the hexagonal cyclotron orbits appearing in this material. These results suggest a novel class of ballistic electronic devices exploiting the unique transport characteristics of strongly faceted Fermi surfaces.

*Science ; 366(6462): 221-226, 2019 10 11.*

##### RESUMO

Although crystals of strongly correlated metals exhibit a diverse set of electronic ground states, few approaches exist for spatially modulating their properties. In this study, we demonstrate disorder-free control, on the micrometer scale, over the superconducting state in samples of the heavy-fermion superconductor CeIrIn5 We pattern crystals by focused ion beam milling to tailor the boundary conditions for the elastic deformation upon thermal contraction during cooling. The resulting nonuniform strain fields induce complex patterns of superconductivity, owing to the strong dependence of the transition temperature on the strength and direction of strain. These results showcase a generic approach to manipulating electronic order on micrometer length scales in strongly correlated matter without compromising the cleanliness, stoichiometry, or mean free path.

*ACS Energy Lett ; 4(9): 2185-2191, 2019 Sep 13.*

##### RESUMO

The observation of extraordinarily high conductivity in delafossite-type PdCoO2 is of great current interest, and there is some evidence that electrons behave like a fluid when flowing in bulk crystals of PdCoO2. Thus, this material is an ideal platform for the study of the electron transfer processes in heterogeneous reactions. Here, we report the use of bulk single-crystal PdCoO2 as a promising electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reactions (HERs). An overpotential of only 31 mV results in a current density of 10 mA cm-2, accompanied by high long-term stability. We have precisely determined that the crystal surface structure is modified after electrochemical activation with the formation of strained Pd nanoclusters in the surface layer. These nanoclusters exhibit reversible hydrogen sorption and desorption, creating more active sites for hydrogen access. The bulk PdCoO2 single crystal with ultrahigh conductivity, which acts as a natural substrate for the Pd nanoclusters, provides a high-speed channel for electron transfer.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(27): 13249-13254, 2019 Jul 02.*

##### RESUMO

The CuO2 antiferromagnetic insulator is transformed by hole-doping into an exotic quantum fluid usually referred to as the pseudogap (PG) phase. Its defining characteristic is a strong suppression of the electronic density-of-states D(E) for energies |E| < [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the PG energy. Unanticipated broken-symmetry phases have been detected by a wide variety of techniques in the PG regime, most significantly a finite-Q density-wave (DW) state and a Q = 0 nematic (NE) state. Sublattice-phase-resolved imaging of electronic structure allows the doping and energy dependence of these distinct broken-symmetry states to be visualized simultaneously. Using this approach, we show that even though their reported ordering temperatures T DW and T NE are unrelated to each other, both the DW and NE states always exhibit their maximum spectral intensity at the same energy, and using independent measurements that this is the PG energy [Formula: see text] Moreover, no new energy-gap opening coincides with the appearance of the DW state (which should theoretically open an energy gap on the Fermi surface), while the observed PG opening coincides with the appearance of the NE state (which should theoretically be incapable of opening a Fermi-surface gap). We demonstrate how this perplexing phenomenology of thermal transitions and energy-gap opening at the breaking of two highly distinct symmetries may be understood as the natural consequence of a vestigial nematic state within the pseudogap phase of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8.

*Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(2): 023904, 2019 Feb.*

##### RESUMO

We present a design for a piezoelectric-driven uniaxial stress cell suitable for use at ambient and cryogenic temperatures and that incorporates both a displacement and a force sensor. The cell has a diameter of 46 mm and a height of 13 mm. It can apply a zero-load displacement of up to â¼45 µm and a zero-displacement force of up to â¼245 N. With combined knowledge of the displacement and force applied to the sample, it can quickly be determined whether the sample and its mounts remain within their elastic limits. In tests on the oxide metal Sr2RuO4, we found that at room temperature serious plastic deformation of the sample onset at a uniaxial stress of â¼0.2 GPa, while at 5 K the sample deformation remained elastic up to almost 2 GPa. This result highlights the usefulness of in situ tuning, in which the force can be applied after cooling samples to cryogenic temperatures.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(51): 12956-12960, 2018 12 18.*

##### RESUMO

The ability to modulate the collective properties of correlated electron systems at their interfaces and surfaces underpins the burgeoning field of "designer" quantum materials. Here, we show how an electronic reconstruction driven by surface polarity mediates a Stoner-like magnetic instability to itinerant ferromagnetism at the Pd-terminated surface of the nonmagnetic delafossite oxide metal PdCoO2 Combining angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density-functional theory calculations, we show how this leads to a rich multiband surface electronic structure. We find similar surface state dispersions in PdCrO2, suggesting surface ferromagnetism persists in this sister compound despite its bulk antiferromagnetic order.