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1.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(11): 668-671, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779293

RESUMO

Corruption in the health sector has been a "dirty secret" in the health policy and international development community, but recent global activities point to a day when it will no longer be neglected as a key determinant of health. To further explore next steps forward, this commentary applies the Kingdon's multiple-streams framework (MSF) to assess what opportunities are available to mobilize the global agenda to combat health corruption. Based on this analysis, it appears that Kingdon's problem, policy, and political streams are coalescing to create a policy window opportunity that can be leveraged based on recent developments in the global health and international development community around corruption. This includes the recent formation of the Global Network on Anti-Corruption, Transparency and Accountability (GNACTA) led by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Global Fund, and the United Nations Development Programme in 2019. It also includes bridging shared goals of addressing corruption in order to make progress towards health-specific goals in the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and for achieving universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Nações Unidas , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
2.
Global Health ; 15(1): 57, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533850

RESUMO

In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee approved the addition of 16 cancer medicines to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), bringing the total number of cancer medicines on the list to 46. This change represented the first major revision to the EML oncology section in recent history and reinforces international recognition of the need to ensure access and affordability for cancer treatments. Importantly, many low and middle-income countries rely on the EML, as well as the children's EML, as a guide to establish national formularies, and moreover use these lists as tools to negotiate medicine pricing. However, EML inclusion is only one component that impacts cancer treatment access. More specifically, factors such as intellectual property rights and international trade agreements can interact with EML inclusion, drug pricing, and accessibility. To better understand this dynamic, we conducted an interdisciplinary review of the patent status of EML cancer medicines compared to other EML noncommunicable disease medicines using the 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st editions of the list. We also explored the interaction of intellectual property rights with the international trade regime and how trade agreements can and do impact cancer treatment access and affordability. Based on this analysis, we conclude that patent status is simply one factor in the complex international environment of health systems, IPR policies, and trade regimes and that aligning these oftentimes disparate interests will require shared global governance across the cancer care continuum.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Comércio/organização & administração , Medicamentos Essenciais , Propriedade Intelectual , Cooperação Internacional , Políticas , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/provisão & distribução , Custos e Análise de Custo , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356264

RESUMO

: Reducing preventable medical errors remains a universal goal, yet implementing effective solutions remains a challenge. The development of surgical data recording technology shows promise to generate robust qualitative and quantitative data in the surgical theater. These data can allow physicians and their teams to capture specific sources of error and implement corrective interventions. Surgical data recording technology encompasses rudimentary data tabulation on notecards, to integrated audio-video systems containing cameras, microphones, and sensors, capturing and synthesizing intraoperative, environmental, and instrumentation information, along with devices tailored to robotic surgical systems. There is growing interest in the implementation of such technology in medical centers, particularly in the United States, Canada, and Europe, but existing medicolegal and regulatory challenges necessitate further research and clinical assessment in order for this technology to facilitate improved surgical patient safety.

4.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(6): e13803, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social media use is now ubiquitous, but the growth in social media communications has also made it a convenient digital platform for drug dealers selling controlled substances, opioids, and other illicit drugs. Previous studies and news investigations have reported the use of popular social media platforms as conduits for opioid sales. This study uses deep learning to detect illicit drug dealing on the image and video sharing platform Instagram. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a machine learning approach to detect Instagram posts related to illegal internet drug dealing. METHODS: In this paper, we describe an approach to detect drug dealers by using a deep learning model on Instagram. We collected Instagram posts using a Web scraper between July 2018 and October 2018 and then compared our deep learning model against 3 different machine learning models (eg, random forest, decision tree, and support vector machine) to assess the performance and accuracy of the model. For our deep learning model, we used the long short-term memory unit in the recurrent neural network to learn the pattern of the text of drug dealing posts. We also manually annotated all posts collected to evaluate our model performance and to characterize drug selling conversations. RESULTS: From the 12,857 posts we collected, we detected 1228 drug dealer posts comprising 267 unique users. We used cross-validation to evaluate the 4 models, with our deep learning model reaching 95% on F1 score and performing better than the other 3 models. We also found that by removing the hashtags in the text, the model had better performance. Detected posts contained hashtags related to several drugs, including the controlled substance Xanax (1078/1228, 87.78%), oxycodone/OxyContin (321/1228, 26.14%), and illicit drugs lysergic acid diethylamide (213/1228, 17.34%) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (94/1228, 7.65%). We also observed the use of communication applications for suspected drug trading through user comments. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach using a combination of Web scraping and deep learning was able to detect illegal online drug sellers on Instagram, with high accuracy. Despite increased scrutiny by regulators and policymakers, the Instagram platform continues to host posts from drug dealers, in violation of federal law. Further action needs to be taken to ensure the safety of social media communities and help put an end to this illicit digital channel of sourcing.

5.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 68, 2019 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914045

RESUMO

Blockchain is a shared distributed digital ledger technology that can better facilitate data management, provenance and security, and has the potential to transform healthcare. Importantly, blockchain represents a data architecture, whose application goes far beyond Bitcoin - the cryptocurrency that relies on blockchain and has popularized the technology. In the health sector, blockchain is being aggressively explored by various stakeholders to optimize business processes, lower costs, improve patient outcomes, enhance compliance, and enable better use of healthcare-related data. However, critical in assessing whether blockchain can fulfill the hype of a technology characterized as 'revolutionary' and 'disruptive', is the need to ensure that blockchain design elements consider actual healthcare needs from the diverse perspectives of consumers, patients, providers, and regulators. In addition, answering the real needs of healthcare stakeholders, blockchain approaches must also be responsive to the unique challenges faced in healthcare compared to other sectors of the economy. In this sense, ensuring that a health blockchain is 'fit-for-purpose' is pivotal. This concept forms the basis for this article, where we share views from a multidisciplinary group of practitioners at the forefront of blockchain conceptualization, development, and deployment.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Sistemas de Informação Administrativa , Informática Médica , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/organização & administração , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/provisão & distribução , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/tendências , Data Warehousing/métodos , Data Warehousing/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/tendências , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos/organização & administração , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos/tendências , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação Administrativa/normas , Sistemas de Informação Administrativa/tendências , Informática Médica/métodos , Informática Médica/organização & administração , Informática Médica/tendências , Registros Médicos/normas
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(5): 1058-1065, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860016

RESUMO

Falsified and substandard medicines are associated with tens of thousands of deaths, mainly in young children in poor countries. Poor-quality drugs exact an annual economic toll of up to US$200 billion and contribute to the increasing peril of antimicrobial resistance. The WHO has emerged recently as the global leader in the battle against poor-quality drugs, and pharmaceutical companies have increased their roles in assuring the integrity of drug supply chains. Despite advances in drug quality surveillance and detection technology, more efforts are urgently required in research, policy, and field monitoring to halt the pandemic of bad drugs. In addition to strengthening international and national pharmaceutical governance, in part by national implementation of the Model Law on Medicines and Crime, a quantifiable Sustainable Development Goal target and an international convention to insure drug quality and safety are urgent priorities.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Política de Saúde/economia , Legislação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Fora do Padrão/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Falsificados/economia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicamentos Fora do Padrão/economia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 46, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in science and technology coupled with globalization are changing access to and utilization of reproductive health services. This includes the transnational phenomenon of families who use surrogate mothers to reproduce, with forms of altruistic and commercial surrogacy becoming more commonplace. Simultaneously, changes in law, regulation, and policy are necessary to protect surrogates, intended parents, and resulting children. These developments have been slow to adapt to challenges inherent to surrogacy arrangements, most specifically in low-and middle-income countries, including in South American countries. METHODS: We conducted an interdisciplinary non-systematic literature review and legal analysis of existing and pending policy, laws, and regulations related to commercial surrogacy arrangements in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The review focused on articles that discussed topics of domestic and international law, policy, regulation, and governance related to commercial surrogacy. We queried PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for Spanish and English-language articles limited to those published between 2000 and 2016. RESULTS: Our literature and legal review found a wide variance in how different countries address the issue, including two (Brazil and Uruguay) that have issued guidance attempting to clarify the legality of commercial surrogacy, others who have introduced surrogacy-specific legislation, and a final group with no specific legal mechanisms in place. Our extracted legal case studies also indicate that courts have a hard time interpreting existing law and its applicability to surrogacy. The influence of Catholicism also played a role in the adoption of surrogacy and other advanced reproductive technology (ART)-related legislation. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in global infertility rates, the emergence of new family structures, and advancement of ART are factors that will influence future development of legal frameworks addressing surrogacy in South America. Despite a growing transnational market for commercial surrogacy in many of the countries examined, the current patchwork of policy does little to clarify what forms of surrogacy are legally permissible, nor do they adequately protect surrogates, intended parents, or the children themselves. This points to an urgent need for regional legal and policy harmonization specifically designed to align with public health and human rights principles.


Assuntos
Turismo Médico/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/legislação & jurisprudência , América do Sul
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 79, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On April 28, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared polio a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" (PHIC) under the authority of the International Health Regulations. Although polio has been eradicated from nearly every nation on earth, Pakistan is one of three countries where wild polio and vaccine-derived polio strains remain, thwarting global eradication efforts. AIMS: Polio eradication progress is complicated by security and conflict issues at the border area between Pakistan and Afghanistan. In addition to security issues, other critical challenges, such as maintaining cold supply chain for vaccines, active and sentinel surveillance, false beliefs about vaccines, distrust of healthcare workers, and accessibility to conflict areas due to terrorist activities, all play a role in the continued persistence of Polio. In response to these challenges, we assess the local and international policy environment and its impact on polio eradication in Pakistan. FINDINGS: Based on our analysis of existing barriers and challenges associated with polio eradication in Pakistan, this study discusses why employing "vaccine diplomacy" represents a key policy and advocacy strategic approach to achieve the overall end game of polio eradication. Specifically, we identify a set of concrete public health, international development, and diplomatic and policy recommendations that can act synergistically under the umbrella of health and vaccine diplomacy to finally put an end to polio.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Política Pública , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia
9.
Bull World Health Organ ; 96(9): 634-643, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262945

RESUMO

Corruption is diverse in its forms and embedded in health systems worldwide. Health-sector corruption directly impedes progress towards universal health coverage by inhibiting people's access to quality health services and to safe and effective medicines, and undermining systems for financial risk protection. Corruption is also a cross-cutting theme in the United Nations' sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aim to improve population health, promote justice and strong institutions and advance sustainable human development. To address health-sector corruption, we need to identify how it happens, collect evidence on its impact and develop frameworks to assess the potential risks and put in place protective measures. We propose that the SDGs can be leveraged to develop a new approach to anti-corruption governance in the health sector. The aim will be to address coordination across the jurisdictions of different countries and foster partnerships among stakeholders to adopt coherent policies and anti-corruption best practices at all levels. Combating corruption requires a focused and invigorated political will, better advocacy and stronger institutions. There is no single solution to the problem. Nevertheless, a commitment to controlling corruption via the SDGs will better ensure the integrity of global health and human development now and beyond 2030.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/economia , Metas , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/ética , Humanos , Nações Unidas , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
10.
Health Serv Insights ; 11: 1178632918800995, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245569

RESUMO

The United States is in the midst of an opioid public health emergency, one that is also influenced by a convergence of Internet-based technology, health policy, and the need for stakeholder collaboration and action around the need to combat the illicit online sales of opioids by illegal online pharmacies and digital drug dealers. This risk is not new, however, with calls to actively reduce online opioid availability as online pharmacies use a growing array of digital channels, including search engines, social media platforms, and the dark Web. In response, the US Food and Drug Administration convened a special June 2018 summit bringing together technology companies, government agencies, researchers, and advocacy groups with the goal of collaboratively developing and implementing solutions to tackle the problem. Yet after this meeting, stakeholders remain fragmented in approaches despite the availability of technology that can detect, classify, and report illicit sellers who are in direct violation of Federal law. Despite ongoing challenges, advances in data science and the resources and expertise technology companies can contribute will be a key factor in ensuring that the Internet helps end and not fuel the public health emergency of opioid abuse.

11.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 104(6): 1054-1056, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076604

RESUMO

We discuss how corruption affects access to antiretroviral therapies (ARVs) globally. Recent cases of theft of ARVs, collusion, and manipulation in procurement found in countries such as Central African Republic, Bangladesh, Malawi, and Guinea, show there is still much work to be done to reduce the risk of corruption. This includes addressing the structural weaknesses in procurement mechanisms and supply chain management systems of health commodities and medicines.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/provisão & distribução , Comércio , Medicamentos Falsificados/provisão & distribução , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Roubo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Comércio/economia , Medicamentos Falsificados/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Falsificados/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Saúde Global/economia , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Métodos de Controle de Pagamentos , Roubo/economia
13.
Front Public Health ; 6: 108, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721489

RESUMO

The United Nations has declared the Syrian conflict, with more than 50% of Syria's population currently displaced, as the worst humanitarian crisis of the twenty-first century. The Syrian conflict has led to a collapse of infrastructure, including access to critical and lifesaving healthcare services. Women and children account for approximately 75% of internally displaced Syrians and refugees. This population is also particularly vulnerable to poor health outcomes, a condition worsened by lack of access to maternal and child health services. In response to this crisis, a partnership of Saudi and Syrian physicians established a non-profit healthcare facility named the Brotherhood Medical Center (BMC) to serve women and children within a safe area near the Syrian-Turkish border. The project began in September 2014 and was implemented in three phases of establishment, phased construction and formal launch and operation. Currently, the BMC is working at about 70% of its capacity and is run in partnership with the Syrian Expatriate Medical Association. Although there was strong initial support from donors, the BMC continues to face many financial and operational challenges, including difficulties in transferring money to Syria, shortage of medical supplies, and lack of qualified medical personnel. Despite these challenges, the BMC represents a critical model and an important case study of the challenges of delivering healthcare services to underserved populations during an ongoing conflict. However, more robust support from the international community is needed to ensure it continues its important health and humanitarian mission.

14.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 65, 2018 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After 7 years of increasing conflict and violence, the Syrian civil war now constitutes the largest displacement crisis in the world, with more than 6 million people who have been internally displaced. Among this already-vulnerable population group, women and children face significant challenges associated with lack of adequate access to maternal and child health (MCH) services, threatening their lives along with their immediate and long-term health outcomes. DISCUSSION: While several health and humanitarian aid organizations are working to improve the health and welfare of internally displaced Syrian women and children, there is an immediate need for local medical humanitarian interventions. Responding to this need, we describe the case study of the Brotherhood Medical Center (the "Center"), a local clinic that was initially established by private donors and later partnered with the Syrian Expatriate Medical Association to provide free MCH services to internally displaced Syrian women and children in the small Syrian border town of Atimah. CONCLUSIONS: The Center provides a unique contribution to the Syrian health and humanitarian crisis by focusing on providing MCH services to a targeted vulnerable population locally and through an established clinic. Hence, the Center complements efforts by larger international, regional, and local organizations that also are attempting to alleviate the suffering of Syrians victimized by this ongoing civil war. However, the long-term success of organizations like the Center relies on many factors including strategic partnership building, adjusting to logistical difficulties, and seeking sustainable sources of funding. Importantly, the lessons learned by the Center should serve as important principles in the design of future medical humanitarian interventions working directly in conflict zones, and should emphasize the need for better international cooperation and coordination to support local initiatives that serve victims where and when they need it the most.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Socorro em Desastres/normas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Síria
15.
Drug Discov Today ; 23(7): 1324-1327, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501912

RESUMO

The withdrawal of the UK from the European Union (EU) is a complicated event. Although implications vary by industry, the biotechnology sector is especially vulnerable to the consequences of Brexit. Accordingly, here we evaluate potential repercussions under four post-Brexit political pathways: European Economic Area (EEA) affiliation (Norwegian Model); negotiated bilateral access (Swiss Model); limited participation in EU Customs Union (Turkish Model); or independence under the World Trade Organization (WTO) designation. We conclude that all four pathways fail to protect the mutually beneficial UK-EU biotechnology relationship and that alternative pathways need to be explored. Accordingly, we outline a suite of policy mechanisms aimed at ensuring continued EU-UK regulatory synergy, with the central aim of ensuring access to biomedical innovations and ensuring patient safety.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , União Europeia , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Formulação de Políticas , Política , Biotecnologia/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Difusão de Inovações , União Europeia/organização & administração , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Reino Unido
16.
Fam Syst Health ; 36(2): 225-229, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increased awareness of the importance of mental health for global health has led to a number of new initiatives, including influential policy instruments issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations (UN). METHOD: This policy brief describes two WHO instruments, the Mental Health Action Plan for 2013-2020 (World Health Organization, 2013) and the Mental Health Atlas (World Health Organization, 2015), and presents a comparative analysis with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2015). RESULTS: The WHO's Action Plan calls for several specific objectives and targets, with a focus on improving global mental health governance and service coverage. In contrast, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals include only one goal specific to mental health, with a single indicator tracking suicide mortality rates. DISCUSSION: The discrepancy between the WHO and UN frameworks suggests a need for increased policy coherence. Improved global health governance can provide the basis for ensuring and accelerating progress in global mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Nações Unidas/organização & administração , Nações Unidas/tendências
17.
Global Health ; 14(1): 2, 2018 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global health diplomacy (GHD) is a burgeoning field bridging the priorities of global health and foreign affairs. Given the increasing need to mobilize disparate global health stakeholders coupled with the need to design complex public health partnerships to tackle issues of international concern, effective and timely cooperation among state actors is critical. Health Attachés represent this coordination focal point and are key diplomatic professionals at the forefront of GHD. Despite their unique mandate, little is published about this profession and the perspectives of those who work in the field. METHODS: Through purposive sampling, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews with seven Health Attachés: three foreign Health Attachés accredited to the United States and four U.S. Health Attachés accredited to foreign governments. Our interviews explored four key topics: the role and mission of Health Attachés, skills needed to perform GHD, examples of successes and challenges in accomplishing their respective missions, and suggestions for the future development of the diplomatic profession. RESULTS: We identified several lessons to apply to the growing field of GHD. First, GHD actors need to receive appropriate training to successfully negotiate the intersection of global health and foreign affairs. Participants suggested several areas of training that would benefit GHD actors: diplomacy and negotiation, applied science, and cross-cultural competency. Second, participants articulated the need for a career path for GHD practitioners, increased opportunities for on-the-job training and mentored experiences, and GHD competencies with defined levels of mastery that can be used in occupational evaluation and career development. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that skills in diplomacy and negotiation, applied science, and cross cultural competency are essential for the statecraft of Health Attachés. Additionally, establishing a clear career pathway for Health Attachés is critical for future maturation of the profession and for fostering effective global health action that aligns public health and foreign diplomacy outcomes. Achieving these goals would ensure that this special cadre of diplomats could effectively practice GHD and would also better position Health Attachés to take the lead in advancing shared global health goals among nation states in a new era of twenty-first century diplomacy.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Governo , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Glob Public Health ; 13(7): 914-930, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28162042

RESUMO

Ongoing failure by the international community to resolve the Syrian conflict has led to destruction of critical infrastructure. This includes the collapse of the Syrian health system, leaving millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in urgent need of healthcare services. As the conflict intensifies, IDP populations are suffering from infectious and non-communicable disease risks, poor maternal and child health outcomes, trauma, and mental health issues, while healthcare workers continually exit the country. Healthcare workers who remain face significant challenges, including systematic attacks on healthcare facilities and conditions that severely inhibit healthcare delivery and assistance. Within this conflict-driven public health crisis, the most susceptible population is arguably the IDP. Though the fundamental 'right to health' is a recognised international legal principle, its application is inadequate due to limited recognition by the UN Security Council and stymied global governance by the broader international community. These factors have also negatively impacted other vulnerable groups other than IDPs, such as refugees and ethnic minorities, who may or may not be displaced. Hence, this article reviews the current Syrian conflict, assesses challenges with local and global governance for IDPs, and explores potential governance solutions needed to address this health and humanitarian crisis.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Saúde Pública , Refugiados , Conflitos Armados , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síria , Ferimentos e Lesões
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