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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 676000, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414156

RESUMO

The most recent global refugee figures are staggering, with over 82.4 million people forcibly displaced and 26.4 million registered refugees. The ongoing conflict in Syria is a major contributor. After a decade of violence and destabilization, over 13.4 million Syrians have been displaced, including 6.7 million internally displaced persons and 6.7 million refugees registered in other countries. Beyond the immediate political and economic challenges, an essential component of any response to this humanitarian crisis must be health-related, including policies and interventions specific to mental health. This policy and practice review addresses refugee mental health in the context of the Syrian crisis, providing an update and overview of the current situation while exploring new initiatives in mental health research and global health policy that can help strengthen and expand services. Relevant global health policy frameworks are first briefly introduced, followed by a short summary of recent research on refugee mental health. We then provide an update on the current status of research, service provision, and health policy in the leading destinations for Syrians who have been forcibly displaced. This starts within Syria and then turns to Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, and Germany. Finally, several general recommendations are discussed, including the pressing need for more data at each phase of migration, the expansion of integrated mental health services, and the explicit inclusion and prioritization of refugee mental health in national and global health policy.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Síria
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 303, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop an inductive coding approach specific to characterizing user-generated social media conversations about transition of use of different tobacco and alternative and emerging tobacco products (ATPs). RESULTS: A total of 40,206 tweets were collected from the Twitter public API stream that were geocoded from 2018 to 2019. Using data mining approaches, these tweets were then filtered for keywords associated with tobacco and ATP use behavior. This resulted in a subset of 5718 tweets, with 657 manually annotated and identified as associated with user-generated conversations about tobacco and ATP use behavior. The 657 tweets were coded into 9 parent codes: inquiry, interaction, observation, opinion, promote, reply, share knowledge, use characteristics, and transition of use behavior. The highest number of observations occurred under transition of use (43.38%, n = 285), followed by current use (39.27%, n = 258), opinions about use (0.07%, n = 46), and product promotion (0.06%, n = 37). Other codes had less than ten tweets that discussed these themes. Results provide early insights into how social media users discuss topics related to transition of use and their experiences with different and emerging tobacco product use behavior.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Produtos do Tabaco , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco
4.
Subst Abus ; : 1-5, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214410

RESUMO

Background: Growing use of social media has led to the emergence of virtual controlled substance and illicit drug marketplaces, prompting calls for action by government and law enforcement. Previous studies have analyzed Instagram drug selling via posts. However, comments made by users involving potential drug selling have not been analyzed. In this study, we use unsupervised machine learning to detect and classify prescription and illicit drug-related buying and selling interactions on Instagram. Methods: We used over 1,000 drug-related hashtags on Instagram to collect a total of 43,607 Instagram comments between February 1st, 2019 and May 31st, 2019 using data mining approaches in the Python programming language. We then used an unsupervised machine learning approach, the Biterm Topic Model (BTM), to thematically summarize Instagram comments into distinct topic groupings, which were then extracted and manually annotated to detect buying and selling comments. Results: We detected 5,589 comments from sellers, prospective buyers, and online pharmacies from 531 unique posts. The vast majority (99.7%) of comments originated from drug sellers and online pharmacies. Key themes from comments included providing contact information through encrypted third-party messaging platforms, drug availability, and price inquiry. Commonly offered drugs for sale included scheduled controlled substances such as Adderall and Xanax, as well as illicit hallucinogens and stimulants. Comments from prospective buyers of drugs most commonly included inquiries about price and availability. Conclusions: We detected prescription controlled substances and other illicit drug selling interactions via Instagram comments to posts. We observed that comments were primarily used by sellers offering drugs, and typically not by prospective buyers interacting with sellers. Further research is needed to characterize these "social" drug marketplace interactions on this and other popular social media platforms.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252656, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077460

RESUMO

The Open Payments database reports payments made to physicians by industry. Given the potential for financial conflicts of interest relating to patient outcomes, further scrutiny of these data is valuable. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze physician-industry relationships by specialty type, payment type, geospatial trend, and longitudinal trend between 2014-2018. We conducted an observational, retrospective data analysis of payments from the Open Payments database for licensed United States physicians listed in the National Plan & Provider Enumeration System (NPPES). Datasets from 2013-2018 were joined using the Python programming language. Aggregation and sub-setting by characteristics of interest was done in R to calculate means and frequencies of reported general physician payments from industry across different specialties, locations, timeframes, and payment types. Normalization was applied for numbers of physicians or payments. Geospatial statistical hot spot analysis was conducted in ArcGIS. 51.73 million payment records were analyzed. In total, 50,047,930 payments were issued to 771,113 allopathic or osteopathic physicians, representing $8,702,631,264 transferred from industry to physicians over the five-year period between 2014 and 2018. The mean payment amount was $179, with a standard deviation of $12,685. Variability in physicians' financial relationships with industry were apparent across specialties, regions, time, and payment type. A limited match rate between records in the NPPES and Open Payments databases may have resulted in selection bias of trends related to physician characteristics. Further research is necessary, particularly in the context of changing industry payment trends and public perceptions of the appropriateness of these relationships.

6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 628812, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928062

RESUMO

Introduction: College-aged youth are active on social media yet smoking-related social media engagement in these populations has not been thoroughly investigated. We sought to conduct an exploratory infoveillance study focused on geolocated data to characterize smoking-related tweets originating from California 4-year colleges on Twitter. Methods: Tweets from 2015 to 2019 with geospatial coordinates in CA college campuses containing smoking-related keywords were collected from the Twitter API stream and manually annotated for discussions about smoking product type, sentiment, and behavior. Results: Out of all tweets detected with smoking-related behavior, 46.7% related to tobacco use, 50.0% to marijuana, and 7.3% to vaping. Of these tweets, 46.1% reported first-person use or second-hand observation of smoking behavior. Out of 962 tweets with user sentiment, the majority (67.6%) were positive, ranging from 55.0% for California State University, Long Beach to 95.8% for California State University, Los Angeles. Discussion: We detected reporting of first- and second-hand smoking behavior on CA college campuses representing possible violation of campus smoking bans. The majority of tweets expressed positive sentiment about smoking behaviors, though there was appreciable variability between college campuses. This suggests that anti-smoking outreach should be tailored to the unique student populations of these college communities. Conclusion: Among tweets about smoking from California colleges, high levels of positive sentiment suggest that the campus climate may be less receptive to anti-smoking messages or adherence to campus smoking bans. Further research should investigate the degree to which this varies by campuses over time and following implementation of bans including validating using other sources of data.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos , Los Angeles , Autorrelato , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 658, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, the "Act on Support for Overseas Expansion of Healthcare System and Attraction of International Patients" was enacted by the South Korean government in an attempt to accelerate growth of its medical tourism industry. However, only a few years after its implementation, the benefits are not well understood, nor have the positive or negative impacts of expanding Korea's medical tourism sector been properly evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review and summarize existing literature describing South Korea's medical tourism policy and legislative history, while also assessing the impact of this domestic policy approach on the country's public health systems. METHODS: A bilingual systematic literature review was conducted per PRISMA guidelines for all South Korean medical tourism legislative and policy literature using MeSH terms and other related keywords in two academic databases, PubMed and JSTOR. Published studies were included if they directly addressed South Korean medical tourism policy. To supplement results from the peer-review, the grey literature was also searched using Google search engine for relevant policy documents, information from government websites, and national statistics on medical tourism-related data. RESULTS: This review included 14 peer-reviewed journal articles and 9 websites. The majority of literature focused on the legislative history of South Korea's pro-medical tourism policy, economic considerations associated with industry growth, and the specific experiences of medical tourists. There was a lack of studies, analytical or commentary-based, conducting in-depth analysis of the healthcare impact of these policies or comparing benefits and costs compared to other medical tourism destinations. Proponents of medical tourism continue to advocate the government for increased deregulation and investment in the sector. CONCLUSION: This systematic review suggests that policy decisions may prioritize economic growth offered by medical tourism over negative effects on the healthcare workforce, access and equity, and its potential to undermine Universal Health Coverage. South Korea continues to examine ways to further amend the Act and grow this sector, but these actions should be taken with caution by critically examining how other countries have adapted their policymaking based on the real-world costs associated with medical tourism.


Assuntos
Turismo Médico , Humanos , Políticas , Saúde Pública , República da Coreia , Turismo
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 793, 2021 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early reports of COVID-19 cases and deaths may not accurately convey community-level concern about the pandemic during early stages, particularly in the United States where testing capacity was initially limited. Social media interaction may elucidate public reaction and communication dynamics about COVID-19 in this critical period, during which communities may have formulated initial conceptions about the perceived severity of the pandemic. METHODS: Tweets were collected from the Twitter public API stream filtered for keywords related to COVID-19. Using a pre-existing training set, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to obtain a larger set of geocoded tweets with characteristics of user self-reporting COVID-19 symptoms, concerns, and experiences. We then assessed the longitudinal relationship between identified tweets and the number of officially reported COVID-19 cases using linear and exponential regression at the U.S. county level. Changes in tweets that included geospatial clustering were also assessed for the top five most populous U.S. cities. RESULTS: From an initial dataset of 60 million tweets, we analyzed 459,937 tweets that contained COVID-19-related keywords that were also geolocated to U.S. counties. We observed an increasing number of tweets throughout the study period, although there was variation between city centers and residential areas. Tweets identified as COVID-19 symptoms or concerns appeared to be more predictive of active COVID-19 cases as temporal distance increased. CONCLUSION: Results from this study suggest that social media communication dynamics during the early stages of a global pandemic may exhibit a number of geospatial-specific variations among different communities and that targeted pandemic communication is warranted. User engagement on COVID-19 topics may also be predictive of future confirmed case counts, though further studies to validate these findings are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 189, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736697

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The potential of regenerative medicine to improve human health has led to the rapid expansion of stem cell clinics throughout the world with varying levels of regulation and oversight. This has led to a market ripe for stem cell tourism, with Tijuana, Mexico, as a major destination. In this study, we characterize the online marketing, intervention details, pricing of services, and assess potential safety risks through web surveillance of regenerative medicine clinics marketing services in Tijuana. METHODS: We conducted structured online search queries from March to April 2019 using 296 search terms in English and Spanish on two search engines (Google and Bing) to identify websites engaged in direct-to-consumer advertising of regenerative medicine services. We performed content analysis to characterize three categories of interest: online presence, tokens of scientific legitimacy, and intervention details. RESULTS: Our structured online searches resulted in 110 unique websites located in Tijuana corresponding to 76 confirmed locations. These clinics' online presence consisted of direct-to-consumer advertising mainly through a dedicated website (94.5%) or Facebook page (65.5%). The vast majority of these websites (99.1%) did not mention any affiliation to an academic institutions or other overt tokens of scientific legitimacy. Most clinics claimed autologous tissue was the source of treatments (67.3%) and generally did not specify route of administration. Additionally, of the Tijuana clinics identified, 13 claimed licensing, though only 1 matched with available licensing information. CONCLUSIONS: Regenerative medicine clinics in Tijuana have a significant online presence using direct-to-consumer advertising to attract stem-cell tourism clientele in a bustling border region between Mexico and the USA. This study adds to existing literature evidencing the unregulated nature of online stem cell offerings and provides further evidence of the need for regulatory harmonization, particularly to address stem cell services being offered online across borders.


Assuntos
Marketing , Medicina Regenerativa , Humanos , México , Células-Tronco
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845882

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: From late 2014 through 2015, Scott County, Indiana faced an HIV outbreak triggered by opioid abuse and transition to injection drug use. Investigating the origins, risk factors, and responses related to this outbreak is critical to inform future surveillance, interventions, and policymaking. In response, this retrospective infoveillance study identifies and characterizes user-generated messages related to opioid abuse, heroin injection drug use, and HIV status using natural language processing (NLP) among Twitter users in Indiana during the period of this HIV outbreak. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study consisted of two phases: data collection and processing, and data analysis. We collected Indiana geolocated tweets from the public Twitter API using Amazon Web Services EC2 instances filtered for geocoded messages in the immediate pre and post period of the outbreak. In the data analysis phase we applied an unsupervised machine learning approach using NLP called the Biterm Topic Model (BTM) to identify tweets related to opioid, heroin/injection, and HIV behavior and then examined these messages for HIV risk-related topics that could be associated with the outbreak. RESULTS: More than 10 million geocoded tweets occurring in Indiana during the immediate pre and post period of the outbreak were collected for analysis. Using BTM, we identified 1350 tweets thought to be relevant to the outbreak and then confirmed 358 tweets using human annotation. The most prevalent themes identified were tweets related to self-reported abuse of illicit and prescription drugs, opioid use disorder, self-reported HIV status, and public sentiment regarding the outbreak. Geospatial analysis found that these messages clustered in population dense areas outside of the outbreak, including Indianapolis and neighboring Clark County. DISCUSSION: This infoveillance study characterized the social media conversations of communities in Indiana in the pre and post period of the 2015 HIV outbreak. Behavioral themes detected reflect discussion about risk factors related to HIV transmission stemming from opioid and heroin abuse for priority populations, and also help identify community attitudes that could have motivated or detracted the use of HIV prevention methods, along with helping identify factors that can impede access to prevention services. CONCLUSIONS: Infoveillance approaches, such as the analysis conducted in this study, represent a possibly strategy to detect "signal" of the emergence of risk factors associated with an outbreak though may be limited in their scope and generalizability. Our results, in conjunction with other forms of public health surveillance, can leverage the growing ubiquity of social media platforms to better detect opioid-related HIV risk knowledge, attitudes and behavior, as well as inform future prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Indiana , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
14.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 39(7): 908-913, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406155

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Infoveillance approaches (i.e. surveillance methods using online content) that leverage big data can provide new insights about infectious disease outbreaks and substance use disorder topics. We assessed social media messages about HIV, opioid use and injection drug use in order to understand how unstructured data can prepare public health practitioners for response to future outbreaks. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted an retrospective analysis of Twitter messages during the 2015 HIV Indiana outbreak using machine learning, statistical and geospatial analysis to examine the transition between opioid prescription drug abuse to heroin injection use and finally HIV transmission risk, and to test possible associations with disease burden and demographic variables in Indiana and Marion County. Tweets from October 2014 to June 2015 were compared to disease burden at the county level for Indiana, and classification of census blocks by presence of relevant messages was done at the census block level for Marion County. Marion County was used as it exhibited the highest total count of Tweets. RESULTS: 257 messages about substance abuse and HIV were significantly related to HIV rates (P < 0.001) and opioid-related hospitalisations (P = 0.037). Using 157 characteristics from the American Community Survey, a linear classifier was computed with an appreciable correlation (r = 0.49) to risk-related social media messages from Marion County. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Communities appear to communicate online in response to disease burden. Classification produced an accurate equation to model census block risk based on census data, allowing for high-dimensional estimation of risk for blocks with sparse populations.

15.
Glob Health Action ; 13(sup1): 1695241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194014

RESUMO

Background: Pharmaceutical corruption is a serious challenge in global health. Digital technologies that can detect and prevent fraud and corruption are particularly important to address barriers to access to medicines, such as medicines availability and affordability, stockouts, shortages, diversion, and infiltration of substandard and falsified medicines.Objectives: To better understand how digital technologies are used to combat corruption, increase transparency, and detect fraud in pharmaceutical procurement systems to improve population health outcomes.Methods: We conducted a multidisciplinary review of the health/medicine, engineering, and computer science literature. Our search queries included keywords associated with medicines procurement and digital technology in combination with terms associated with transparency and anti-corruption initiatives. Our definition of 'digital technology' focused on Internet-based communications, including online portals and management systems, supply chain tools, and electronic databases.Results: We extracted 37 articles for in-depth review based on our inclusion criteria focused on the utilization of digital technology to improve medicines procurement. The vast majority of articles focused on electronic data transfer and/or e-procurement systems with fewer articles discussing emerging technologies such as machine learning and blockchain distributed ledger solutions. In the context of e-procurement, slow adoption, justifying cost-savings, and need for technical standards setting were identified as key challenges for current and future utilization.Conclusions: Though there is a significant promise for digital technologies, particularly e-procurement, overall adoption of solutions that can enhance transparency, accountability and concomitantly combat corruption, is still underdeveloped. Future efforts should focus on tying cost-saving measurements with anti-corruption indicators, prioritizing centralization of e-procurement systems, establishing regulatory harmonization with standards setting, and incorporating additional anti-corruption technologies into procurement processes for improving access to medicines and to reach the overall goal of Universal Health Coverage.


Assuntos
Fraude/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/ética , Invenções , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribuição , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/ética , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Responsabilidade Social
16.
Ann Surg ; 271(3): 431-433, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356264

RESUMO

: Reducing preventable medical errors remains a universal goal, yet implementing effective solutions remains a challenge. The development of surgical data recording technology shows promise to generate robust qualitative and quantitative data in the surgical theater. These data can allow physicians and their teams to capture specific sources of error and implement corrective interventions. Surgical data recording technology encompasses rudimentary data tabulation on notecards, to integrated audio-video systems containing cameras, microphones, and sensors, capturing and synthesizing intraoperative, environmental, and instrumentation information, along with devices tailored to robotic surgical systems. There is growing interest in the implementation of such technology in medical centers, particularly in the United States, Canada, and Europe, but existing medicolegal and regulatory challenges necessitate further research and clinical assessment in order for this technology to facilitate improved surgical patient safety.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/organização & administração , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Humanos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Segurança do Paciente , Gestão de Riscos
17.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(11): 668-671, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779293

RESUMO

Corruption in the health sector has been a "dirty secret" in the health policy and international development community, but recent global activities point to a day when it will no longer be neglected as a key determinant of health. To further explore next steps forward, this commentary applies the Kingdon's multiple-streams framework (MSF) to assess what opportunities are available to mobilize the global agenda to combat health corruption. Based on this analysis, it appears that Kingdon's problem, policy, and political streams are coalescing to create a policy window opportunity that can be leveraged based on recent developments in the global health and international development community around corruption. This includes the recent formation of the Global Network on Anti-Corruption, Transparency and Accountability (GNACTA) led by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Global Fund, and the United Nations Development Programme in 2019. It also includes bridging shared goals of addressing corruption in order to make progress towards health-specific goals in the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and for achieving universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Nações Unidas , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
18.
Global Health ; 15(1): 57, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533850

RESUMO

In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee approved the addition of 16 cancer medicines to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), bringing the total number of cancer medicines on the list to 46. This change represented the first major revision to the EML oncology section in recent history and reinforces international recognition of the need to ensure access and affordability for cancer treatments. Importantly, many low and middle-income countries rely on the EML, as well as the children's EML, as a guide to establish national formularies, and moreover use these lists as tools to negotiate medicine pricing. However, EML inclusion is only one component that impacts cancer treatment access. More specifically, factors such as intellectual property rights and international trade agreements can interact with EML inclusion, drug pricing, and accessibility. To better understand this dynamic, we conducted an interdisciplinary review of the patent status of EML cancer medicines compared to other EML noncommunicable disease medicines using the 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st editions of the list. We also explored the interaction of intellectual property rights with the international trade regime and how trade agreements can and do impact cancer treatment access and affordability. Based on this analysis, we conclude that patent status is simply one factor in the complex international environment of health systems, IPR policies, and trade regimes and that aligning these oftentimes disparate interests will require shared global governance across the cancer care continuum.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Comércio/organização & administração , Medicamentos Essenciais , Propriedade Intelectual , Cooperação Internacional , Políticas , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/provisão & distribuição , Custos e Análise de Custo , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(6): e13803, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social media use is now ubiquitous, but the growth in social media communications has also made it a convenient digital platform for drug dealers selling controlled substances, opioids, and other illicit drugs. Previous studies and news investigations have reported the use of popular social media platforms as conduits for opioid sales. This study uses deep learning to detect illicit drug dealing on the image and video sharing platform Instagram. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a machine learning approach to detect Instagram posts related to illegal internet drug dealing. METHODS: In this paper, we describe an approach to detect drug dealers by using a deep learning model on Instagram. We collected Instagram posts using a Web scraper between July 2018 and October 2018 and then compared our deep learning model against 3 different machine learning models (eg, random forest, decision tree, and support vector machine) to assess the performance and accuracy of the model. For our deep learning model, we used the long short-term memory unit in the recurrent neural network to learn the pattern of the text of drug dealing posts. We also manually annotated all posts collected to evaluate our model performance and to characterize drug selling conversations. RESULTS: From the 12,857 posts we collected, we detected 1228 drug dealer posts comprising 267 unique users. We used cross-validation to evaluate the 4 models, with our deep learning model reaching 95% on F1 score and performing better than the other 3 models. We also found that by removing the hashtags in the text, the model had better performance. Detected posts contained hashtags related to several drugs, including the controlled substance Xanax (1078/1228, 87.78%), oxycodone/OxyContin (321/1228, 26.14%), and illicit drugs lysergic acid diethylamide (213/1228, 17.34%) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (94/1228, 7.65%). We also observed the use of communication applications for suspected drug trading through user comments. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach using a combination of Web scraping and deep learning was able to detect illegal online drug sellers on Instagram, with high accuracy. Despite increased scrutiny by regulators and policymakers, the Instagram platform continues to host posts from drug dealers, in violation of federal law. Further action needs to be taken to ensure the safety of social media communities and help put an end to this illicit digital channel of sourcing.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas/provisão & distribuição , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos
20.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 68, 2019 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914045

RESUMO

Blockchain is a shared distributed digital ledger technology that can better facilitate data management, provenance and security, and has the potential to transform healthcare. Importantly, blockchain represents a data architecture, whose application goes far beyond Bitcoin - the cryptocurrency that relies on blockchain and has popularized the technology. In the health sector, blockchain is being aggressively explored by various stakeholders to optimize business processes, lower costs, improve patient outcomes, enhance compliance, and enable better use of healthcare-related data. However, critical in assessing whether blockchain can fulfill the hype of a technology characterized as 'revolutionary' and 'disruptive', is the need to ensure that blockchain design elements consider actual healthcare needs from the diverse perspectives of consumers, patients, providers, and regulators. In addition, answering the real needs of healthcare stakeholders, blockchain approaches must also be responsive to the unique challenges faced in healthcare compared to other sectors of the economy. In this sense, ensuring that a health blockchain is 'fit-for-purpose' is pivotal. This concept forms the basis for this article, where we share views from a multidisciplinary group of practitioners at the forefront of blockchain conceptualization, development, and deployment.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Sistemas de Informação Administrativa , Informática Médica , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/organização & administração , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/provisão & distribuição , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/tendências , Data Warehousing/métodos , Data Warehousing/tendências , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/tendências , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos/organização & administração , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos/tendências , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação Administrativa/normas , Sistemas de Informação Administrativa/tendências , Informática Médica/métodos , Informática Médica/organização & administração , Informática Médica/tendências , Registros Médicos/normas
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