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1.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(4): 538-564, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289858

RESUMO

Thrombo-inflammation describes the complex interplay between blood coagulation and inflammation that plays a critical role in cardiovascular diseases. The third Maastricht Consensus Conference on Thrombosis assembled basic, translational, and clinical scientists to discuss the origin and potential consequences of thrombo-inflammation in the etiology, diagnostics, and management of patients with cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. This article presents a state-of-the-art reflection of expert opinions and consensus recommendations regarding the following topics: (1) challenges of the endothelial cell barrier; (2) circulating cells and thrombo-inflammation, focused on platelets, neutrophils, and neutrophil extracellular traps; (3) procoagulant mechanisms; (4) arterial vascular changes in atherogenesis; attenuating atherosclerosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury; (5) management of patients with arterial vascular disease; and (6) pathogenesis of venous thrombosis and late consequences of venous thromboembolism.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(4): 534-536, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289856
3.
Am J Pathol ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275904

RESUMO

Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) causes Ebola virus disease (EVD), which carries a fatality rate between 25% and 90% in humans. Liver pathology is a hallmark of terminal EVD; however, little is known about temporal disease progression. The authors utilized multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in combination with whole slide imaging and image analysis (IA) to quantitatively characterize temporospatial signatures of viral and host factors as related to EBOV pathogenesis. Eighteen rhesus monkeys euthanized between 3 and 8 days post-infection and 3 uninfected controls were enrolled in this study. Compared with semiquantitative histomorphologic ordinal scoring, quantitative IA was able to detect subtle and progressive features of early and terminal EVD that was not feasible with routine approaches. Sinusoidal macrophages were the earliest cells to respond to infection, expressing the proinflammatory cytokine gene IL6. IL6 expression was subsequently also observed in fibrovascular compartments. Interferon-stimulated gene-15 (ISG15), displayed an early, progressive, and ubiquitous signature with hybridization of both mesenchymal and epithelial compartments. ISG15 expression was prominent near infected cells, but not in infected cells, supporting the hypothesis that bystander cells produce a robust interferon gene response. This study contributes to our current understanding of early EVD progression and illustrates the value that digital pathology and quantitative IA serve in infectious disease research.

4.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 19(5): 333-352, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132678

RESUMO

Antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants are a mainstay for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. However, despite advances in antithrombotic therapy, a fundamental challenge is the side effect of bleeding. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of haemostasis and thrombosis has revealed new targets for attenuating thrombosis with the potential for less bleeding, including glycoprotein VI on platelets and factor XIa of the coagulation system. The efficacy and safety of new agents are currently being evaluated in phase III trials. This Review provides an overview of haemostasis and thrombosis, details the current landscape of antithrombotic agents, addresses challenges with preventing thromboembolic events in patients at high risk and describes the emerging therapeutic strategies that may break the inexorable link between antithrombotic therapy and bleeding risk.

5.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 207-216, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935292

RESUMO

The intrinsic tenase complex (FIXa-FVIIIa) of the intrinsic coagulation pathway and, to a lesser extent, thrombin-mediated activation of FXI, are necessary to amplify tissue factor (TF)-FVIIa-initiated thrombin generation. In this study, we determined the contribution of murine FIX and FXI to TF-dependent thrombin generation in vitro. We further investigated TF-dependent FIX activation in mice and the contribution of this pathway to hemostasis. Thrombin generation was decreased in FIX- but not in FXI-deficient mouse plasma. Furthermore, injection of TF increased levels of FIXa-antithrombin complexes in both wild-type and FXI-/- mice. Genetic studies were used to determine the effect of complete deficiencies of either FIX or FXI on the survival of mice expressing low levels of TF. Low-TF;FIX-/y male mice were born at the expected frequency, but none survived to wean. In contrast, low-TF;FXI-/- mice were generated at the expected frequency at wean and had a 6-month survival equivalent to that of low-TF mice. Surprisingly, a deficiency of FXI, but not FIX, exacerbated the size of blood pools in low-TF placentas and led to acute hemorrhage and death of some pregnant dams. Our data indicate that FIX, but not FXI, is essential for survival of low-TF mice after birth. This finding suggests that TF-FVIIa-mediated activation of FIX plays a critical role in murine hemostasis. In contrast, FXI deficiency, but not FIX deficiency, exacerbated blood pooling in low-TF placentas, indicating a tissue-specific requirement for FXI in the murine placenta under conditions of low TF.

6.
Haematologica ; 105(1): 218-225, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048354

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is associated with a high incidence of venous thromboembolism. Neutrophils have been shown to contribute to thrombosis in part by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). A recent study showed that increased plasma levels of the NET biomarker, citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit), are associated with venous thromboembolism in patients with pancreatic and lung cancer but not in those with other types of cancer, including breast cancer. In this study, we examined the contribution of neutrophils and NET to venous thrombosis in nude mice bearing human pancreatic tumors. We found that tumor-bearing mice had increased circulating neutrophil counts and levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, neutrophil elastase, H3Cit and cell-free DNA compared with controls. In addition, thrombi from tumor-bearing mice contained increased levels of the neutrophil marker Ly6G, as well as higher levels of H3Cit and cell-free DNA. Thrombi from tumor-bearing mice also had denser fibrin with thinner fibers consistent with increased thrombin generation. Importantly, either neutrophil depletion or administration of DNase I reduced the thrombus size in tumor-bearing but not in control mice. Our results, together with clinical data, suggest that neutrophils and NET contribute to venous thrombosis in patients with pancreatic cancer.

7.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(1): 103-111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: FXIa (factor XIa) induces clot formation, and human congenital FXI deficiency protects against venous thromboembolism and stroke. In contrast, the role of FXI in hemostasis is rather small, especially compared with FIX deficiency. Little is known about the cause of the difference in phenotypes associated with FIX deficiency and FXI deficiency. We speculated that activation of FIX via the intrinsic coagulation is not solely dependent on FXI(a; activated FXI) and aimed at identifying an FXI-independent FIX activation pathway. Approach and Results: We observed that ellagic acid and long-chain polyphosphates activated the coagulation system in FXI-deficient plasma, as could be demonstrated by measurement of thrombin generation, FIXa-AT (antithrombin), and FXa-AT complex levels, suggesting an FXI bypass route of FIX activation. Addition of a specific PKa (plasma kallikrein) inhibitor to FXI-deficient plasma decreased thrombin generation, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, and diminished FIXa-AT and FXa-AT complex formation, indicating that PKa plays a role in the FXI bypass route of FIX activation. In addition, FIXa-AT complex formation was significantly increased in F11-/- mice treated with ellagic acid or long-chain polyphosphates compared with controls and this increase was significantly reduced by inhibition of PKa. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that activation of FXII leads to thrombin generation via FIX activation by PKa in the absence of FXI. These findings may, in part, explain the different phenotypes associated with FIX and FXI deficiencies.

8.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(2): 399-410, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has frequent and sometimes lethal thrombotic complications. The role that activated platelets, leukocytes, and small (0.3-micron to 1-micron) extracellular vesicles (EVs) play in ECMO thrombosis is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To test the effect of blood flow rate on the generation of activated platelets, leukocytes, and EVs in a simulated neonatal ECMO circuit using heparinized human whole blood. METHODS: Simulated neonatal roller pump circuits circulated whole blood at low, nominal, and high flow rates (0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 L/min) for 6 h. Coagulopathy was defined by thromboelastography (TEG), STA® -procoagulant phospholipid clot time (STA®- Procoag-PPL), and calibrated automated thrombogram. High-resolution flow cytometry measured the cellular expression of prothrombotic phospholipids and proteins on platelets, leukocytes, and EV. RESULTS: Despite heparinization, occlusive thrombosis halted flow in two of five circuits at 0.3 L/min and three of five circuits at 0.7 L/min. None of the five circuits at 0.5 L/min exhibited occlusive thrombosis. Phosphatidylserine (PS)-positive platelets and EVs increased at all flow rates more than blood under static conditions (P < .0002). Tissue factor (TF)-positive leukocytes and EVs increased only in low-flow and high-flow circuits (P < .0001). Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), at 50 times more than the concentration in healthy adults, failed to suppress thrombin initiation in low-flow and high-flow circuits. CONCLUSIONS: This in vitro study informs ECMO specialists to avoid low and high blood flow that increases TF expression on leukocytes and EVs, which likely initiate clot formation. Interventions to decrease TF generated by ECMO may be an effective approach to decrease thrombosis.

9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(1): 91-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) plays a major role in multiple disease processes, including colitis. Understanding the mechanisms coupling PAR-1 to disease pathogenesis is complicated by the fact that PAR-1 is broadly expressed across multiple cell types. OBJECTIVE: Determine the specific contributions of PAR-1 expressed by macrophages and colonic enterocytes to infectious colitis. METHODS: Mice carrying a conditional PAR-1 allele were generated and bred to mice expressing Cre recombinase in a myeloid- (PAR-1ΔM ) or enterocyte-specific (PAR-1ΔEPI ) fashion. Citrobacter rodentium colitis pathogenesis was analyzed in mice with global PAR-1 deletion (PAR-1-/- ) and cell type-specific deletions. RESULTS: Constitutive deletion of PAR-1 had no significant impact on weight loss, crypt hypertrophy, crypt abscess formation, or leukocyte infiltration in Citrobacter colitis. However, colonic shortening was significantly blunted in infected PAR-1-/- mice, and these animals exhibited decreased local levels of IL-1ß, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-17A. In contrast, infected PAR-1ΔM mice lost less weight and had fewer crypt abscesses relative to controls. PAR-1ΔM mice had diminished CD3+ T cell infiltration into colonic tissue, but macrophage and CD4+ T cell infiltration were similar to controls. Also contrasting results in global knockouts, PAR-1ΔM mice exhibited lower levels of IL-1ß, but not Th17-related cytokines (ie, IL-22, IL-6, IL-17A). Infected PAR-1ΔEPI mice exhibited increased crypt hypertrophy and crypt abscess formation, but local cytokine elaboration was similar to controls. CONCLUSIONS: These studies reveal complex, cell type-specific roles for PAR-1 in modulating the immune response to Citrobacter colitis that are not readily apparent in analyses limited to mice with global PAR-1 deficiency.

11.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2019(1): 182-186, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808871

RESUMO

Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The rate of VTE varies with cancer type, with pancreatic cancer having one of the highest rates, suggesting that there are cancer type-specific mechanisms of VTE. Risk assessment scores, such as the Khorana score, have been developed to identify ambulatory cancer patients at high risk of VTE. However, the Khorana score performed poorly in discriminating pancreatic cancer patients at risk of VTE. Currently, thromboprophylaxis is not recommended for cancer outpatients. Recent clinical trials showed that factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors reduced VTE in high-risk cancer patients but also increased major bleeding. Understanding the mechanisms of cancer-associated thrombosis should lead to the development of safer antithrombotic drugs. Mouse models can be used to study the role of different prothrombotic pathways in cancer-associated thrombosis. Human and mouse studies support the notion that 2 prothrombotic pathways contribute to VTE in pancreatic cancer patients: tumor-derived, tissue factor-positive (TF+) extracellular vesicles (EVs), and neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In pancreatic cancer patients, elevated levels of plasma EVTF activity and citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit), a NET biomarker, are independently associated with VTE. We observed increased levels of circulating tumor-derived TF+ EVs, neutrophils, cell-free DNA, and H3Cit in nude mice bearing human pancreatic tumors. Importantly, inhibition of tumor-derived human TF, depletion of neutrophils, or administration of DNAse I to degrade cell-free DNA (including NETs) reduced venous thrombosis in tumor-bearing mice. These studies demonstrate that tumor-derived TF+ EVs, neutrophils, and cell-free DNA contribute to venous thrombosis in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

12.
Immunity ; 51(6): 983-996.e6, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836429

RESUMO

Excessive activation of the coagulation system leads to life-threatening disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying the activation of coagulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major cell-wall component of Gram-negative bacteria. We found that caspase-11, a cytosolic LPS receptor, activated the coagulation cascade. Caspase-11 enhanced the activation of tissue factor (TF), an initiator of coagulation, through triggering the formation of gasdermin D (GSDMD) pores and subsequent phosphatidylserine exposure, in a manner independent of cell death. GSDMD pores mediated calcium influx, which induced phosphatidylserine exposure through transmembrane protein 16F, a calcium-dependent phospholipid scramblase. Deletion of Casp11, ablation of Gsdmd, or neutralization of phosphatidylserine or TF prevented LPS-induced DIC. In septic patients, plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-1ß, biomarkers of GSDMD activation, correlated with phosphatidylserine exposure in peripheral leukocytes and DIC scores. Our findings mechanistically link immune recognition of LPS to coagulation, with implications for the treatment of DIC.


Assuntos
Caspases Iniciadoras/metabolismo , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/patologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Caspases Iniciadoras/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endotoxemia/patologia , Ativação Enzimática , Células HT29 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interleucina-1alfa/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Piroptose/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
13.
Blood ; 134(21): 1781-1782, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751478
14.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Puumala (PUUV) orthohantavirus causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). HFRS patients have an activated coagulation system with increased risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of the study was to determine if circulating extracellular vesicle tissue factor (EVTF) activity levels associates with DIC and VTE (grouped as intravascular coagulation) in HFRS patients. METHODS: Longitudinal samples were collected from 88 HFRS patients. Patients were stratified into groups of those with intravascular coagulation (n=27) and those who did not (n=61). We measured levels of circulating EVTF activity, fibrinogen, activated partial prothrombin time, prothrombin time international normalized ratio, D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and platelets. RESULTS: Plasma EVTF activity was transiently increased during HFRS. Levels of EVTF activity significantly associated with plasma tPA and PAI-1, suggesting endothelial cells as a potential source. Patients with intravascular coagulation had significantly higher peak EVTF activity levels compared to those who did not. The peak EVTF activity value predicting intravascular coagulation was 0.51 ng/L with 63% sensitivity and 61% specificity with AUC 0.63 (95% CI 0.51 - 0.76), p-value 0.046. CONCLUSIONS: Increased circulating EVTF activity during HFRS is associated with intravascular coagulation.

15.
Platelets ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608756

RESUMO

The ferric chloride models of arterial thrombosis are useful tools with which to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to arterial thrombosis. Recent insights have, however, revealed the complex and multifaceted mechanism by which ferric chloride induces thrombus formation. Here, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the ferric chloride models of arterial thrombosis. Particular focus is given to the phenotypes of different knockout mice in the ferric chloride models and how these compare to other models with independent modes of initiation. Further, we discuss the relevance of the ferric chloride models to the human pathology of atherothrombotic disease.

16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(12): 2169-2173, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some clinical studies have shown that low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) prolong the survival of cancer patients. In addition, various anticoagulants have been shown to reduce growth of tumors in mice. However, there are no studies on the effect of the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban on growth of human pancreatic tumors in nude mice. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban reduces the growth of tissue factor (TF)-positive pancreatic tumors but not TF-negative pancreatic tumors in mice. METHODS: The TF-positive human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPc-3 and the TF-negative human pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2 were injected subcutaneously into nude mice and tumors grown to a mean volume of ~100 mm3 . Mice were then divided into two groups. One group was fed chow containing rivaroxaban (0.5 g/kg chow) whereas the other group was fed chow without rivaroxaban. RESULTS: Rivaroxaban significantly prolonged prothrombin time in tumor-bearing mice. Rivaroxaban did not affect cell proliferation or growth of either BxPc-3 or MIA PaCa-2 tumors grown subcutaneously in nude mice. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that inhibition of factor Xa with rivaroxaban does not affect the growth of two human pancreatic tumors in nude mice.

17.
Thromb Res ; 182: 64-74, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450010

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The TF-FVIIa complex is the primary activator of coagulation. Elevated levels of microvesicle (MV) bearing tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity are detectable in patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. Several methods have been described to measure MV TF activity but they are hampered by limited sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this work was to increase the sensitivity of the MV TF activity assay (called Chapel Hill assay). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Improvements of the MV TF activity assay included i/ speed and time of centrifugation, ii/ use of a more potent inhibitory anti-TF antibody iii/ use of FVII and a fluorogenic substrate to increase specificity. RESULTS: The specificity of the MV TF activity assay was demonstrated by the absence of activity on MV derived from a knock-out-TF cell line using an anti-human TF monoclonal antibody called SBTF-1, which shows a higher TF inhibitory effect than the anti-human TF monoclonal antibody called HTF-1. Experiments using blood from healthy individuals, stimulated or not by LPS, or plasma spiked with 3 different levels of MV, demonstrated that the new assay was more sensitive and this allowed detection of MV TF activity in platelet free plasma (PFP) samples from healthy individuals. However, the assay was limited by an inter-assay variability, mainly due to the centrifugation step. CONCLUSIONS: We have improved the sensitivity of the MV TF activity assay without losing specificity. This new assay could be used to evaluate levels of TF-positive MV as a potential biomarker of thrombotic risk in patients.

18.
Cell Immunol ; 344: 103949, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337508

RESUMO

PAR4 is expressed by a variety of cells, including platelets, cardiac, lung and immune cells. We investigated the contribution of PAR4 to viral infections of the heart and lung. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3-dependent immune responses were analyzed after co-stimulation of PAR4 in murine bone-marrow derived macrophages, embryonic fibroblasts and embryonic cardiomyocytes. In addition, we analyzed Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) or H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1 IAV) infection of PAR4-/- (ΔPAR4) and wild-type (WT) mice. Lastly, we investigated the effect of platelet inhibition on H1N1 IAV infection. In vitro experiments revealed that PAR4 stimulation enhances the expression of TLR3-dependent CXCL10 expression and decreases TLR3-dependent NFκB-mediated proinflammatory gene expression. Furthermore, CVB3-infected ΔPAR4 mice exhibited a decreased anti-viral response and increased viral genomes in the heart leading to more pronounced CVB3 myocarditis compared to WT mice. Similarly, H1N1 IAV-infected ΔPAR4 mice had increased immune cell numbers and inflammatory mediators in the lung, and increased mortality compared with infected WT controls. The study showed that PAR4 protects mice from viral infections of the heart and lung.

19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(9): 1724-1738, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315434

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated a role of neutrophils in both venous and arterial thrombosis. A key prothrombotic feature of neutrophils is their ability to release web-like structures composed of DNA filaments coated with histones and granule proteins referred to as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs were discovered over a decade ago as part of our first line of host defense against invading microorganisms. Although NETs have a protective role against pathogens, recent data suggest that an uncontrolled and excessive NET formation within the vasculature may contribute to pathological thrombotic disorders. In vitro studies suggest that NETs promote vessel occlusion by providing a scaffold for platelets, red blood cells, extracellular vesicles, and procoagulant molecules, such as von Willebrand factor and tissue factor. In addition, NET components enhance coagulation by both activating the intrinsic pathway and degrading an inhibitor of the extrinsic pathway (tissue factor pathway inhibitor). NET formation has, therefore, been proposed to contribute to thrombus formation and propagation in arterial, venous, and cancer-associated thrombosis. This review will describe animal and human studies suggesting a role of NETs in the pathogenesis of various thrombotic disorders. Targeting NETs may be a novel approach to reduce thrombosis without affecting hemostasis.

20.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 26(5): 349-356, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261175

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tissue factor (TF) is released from cancer cells and tumors in the form of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This review summarizes our current knowledge of the mechanisms of release of TF-positive EVs (TF+EVs) from cancer cells and the effect of these TF+EVs on cultured endothelial cells. In addition, we will summarize the contribution of TF+EVs to thrombosis in mice, and the association between plasma EVTF activity and venous thrombosis as well as survival of cancer patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The release of TF+EVs from cancer cells is regulated by multiple factors, including hypoxia, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and various intracellular signaling pathways. Cancer cell-derived, TF+EVs confer procoagulant activity to endothelial cells and induce the expression of adhesion proteins and IL-8. In addition, they contribute to thrombosis by directly activating the coagulation system and by generating thrombin that activates platelets in mouse models. Finally, there is an association between EVTF activity and venous thrombosis in pancreatic cancer patients as well as mortality in cancer patients. SUMMARY: Cancer cell-derived TF+EVs bind to and activate endothelial cells. In addition, they serve as biomarkers of survival of cancer patients and venous thrombosis in pancreatic cancer patients.

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