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1.
Drugs Aging ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is relatively common among nursing home residents, and decisions regarding anticoagulant therapy in this setting may be complicated by resident frailty and other factors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine trends and correlates of oral anticoagulant use among newly admitted nursing home residents with AF following the approval of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults aged > 65 years with AF who were newly admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Canada, between 2011 and 2018 (N = 36,466). Health administrative databases were linked with comprehensive clinical assessment data captured shortly after admission, to ascertain resident characteristics. Trends in prevalence of anticoagulant use (any, warfarin, DOAC) at admission were captured with prescription claims and examined by frailty and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Log-binomial regression models estimated crude percentage changes in use over time and modified Poisson regression models assessed factors associated with anticoagulant use and type. RESULTS: The prevalence of anticoagulant use at admission increased from 41.1% in 2011/2012 to 58.0% in 2017/2018 (percentage increase = 41.1%, p < 0.001). Warfarin use declined (- 67.7%, p < 0.001), while DOAC use increased. Anticoagulant use was less likely among residents with a prior hospitalization for hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.70) or gastrointestinal bleed (aRR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78-0.83), liver disease (aRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.89), severe cognitive impairment (aRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.94), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (aRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.81) or antiplatelet (aRR 0.25, 95% CI 0.23-0.27) use, but more likely for those with a prior hospitalization for ischemic stroke or thromboembolism (aRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.27-1.33). CKD was associated with a reduced likelihood of DOAC versus warfarin use in both the early (aRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.54-0.71) and later years (aRR 0.79, 95% CI 0.76-0.83) of our study period. Frail residents were significantly less likely to receive an anticoagulant at admission, although this association was modest (aRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98). Frailty was not associated with anticoagulant type. CONCLUSIONS: While the proportion of residents with AF receiving oral anticoagulants at admission increased following the approval of DOACs, over 40% remained untreated. Among those treated, use of a DOAC increased, while warfarin use declined. The impact of these recent treatment patterns on the balance between benefit and harm among residents warrant further investigation.

2.
Drugs Aging ; 37(11): 817-827, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In nursing homes, residents with dementia frequently receive potentially inappropriate medications that are associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Despite known sex differences in clinical presentation and sociodemographic characteristics among persons with dementia, few studies have examined sex differences in patterns and predictors of potentially inappropriate medication use. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine sex differences in the patterns of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use in the 180 days following admission to a nursing home, estimate clinical and sociodemographic predictors of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use in male and female residents, and explore the effects of modification by sex on the predictors of using these drug therapies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 35,169 adults aged 66 years and older with dementia who were newly admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Canada between 2011 and 2014. Health administrative databases were linked to detailed clinical assessment data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI-MDS 2.0). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic covariates to estimate the rate of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine initiation and discontinuation in the 180 days following nursing home admission in the total sample and stratified by sex. Sex-covariate interaction terms were used to assess whether sex modified the association between covariates and the rate of drug therapy initiation or discontinuation following nursing home entry. RESULTS: Across 638 nursing homes, our analytical sample included 22,847 females and 12,322 males. At admission, male residents were more likely to be prevalent antipsychotic users than female residents (33.8% vs 28.3%; p < 0.001), and female residents were more likely to be prevalent benzodiazepine users than male residents (17.2% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). In adjusted models, female residents were less likely to initiate an antipsychotic after admission (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.86); however, no sex difference was observed in the rate of benzodiazepine initiation (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.12). Female residents were less likely than males to discontinue antipsychotics (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98) and benzodiazepines (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.89). Sex modified the association between some covariates and the rate of changes in drug use (e.g., widowed males exhibited an increased rate of antipsychotic discontinuation (p-interaction = 0.03) compared with married males), but these associations were not statistically significant among females. Sex did not modify the effect of frailty on the rates of initiation and discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Males and females with dementia differed in their exposure to antipsychotics and benzodiazepines at nursing home admission and their patterns of use following admission. A greater understanding of factors driving sex differences in potentially inappropriate medication use may help tailor interventions to reduce exposure in this vulnerable population.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e037485, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term trajectories of health system use by persons with dementia as they remain in the community over time. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study using health administrative data. SETTING: Ontario, Canada from 1 April 2007 to 31 March 2014. PARTICIPANTS: 62 622 community-dwelling adults aged 65+ years with prevalent dementia on 1 April 2007 matched 1:1 to persons without dementia based on age, sex and comorbidity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of health service use, long-term care placement and mortality over time. RESULTS: After 7 years, 49.0% of persons with dementia had spent time in long-term care (6.8% without) and 64.5% had died (30.0% without). Persons with dementia were more likely than those without to use home care (rate ratio (RR) 3.02, 95% CI 2.93 to 3.11) and experience hospitalisations with a discharge delay (RR 2.36, 95% CI 2.30 to 2.42). As they remained in the community, persons with dementia used home care at a growing rate (10.7%, 95% CI 10.0 to 11.3 increase per year vs 6.7%, 95% CI 4.3 to 9.0 per year among those without), but rates of acute care hospitalisation remained constant (0.6%, 95% CI -0.6 to 1.9 increase per year). CONCLUSIONS: While persons with dementia used more health services than those without dementia over time, the rate of change in use differed by service type. These results, particularly enumerating the increased intensity of home care service use, add value to capacity planning initiatives where limited budgets require balancing services.

4.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(8): 864-872, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410265

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of an approach combining computational methods and pharmacoepidemiology to identify potentially disease-modifying drugs in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We used a two-step approach; (a) computational method using artificial intelligence to rank 620 drugs in the Ontario Drug Benefit formulary based on their predicted ability to inhibit alpha-synucleinaggregation, a pathogenic hallmark of PD; and (b) case-control study using administrative databases in Ontario, Canada. Persons aged 70-110 years with incident PD from April 2002-March 2013. Controls were randomly selected from persons with no previous diagnosis of PD. RESULTS: A total of 15 of the top 50 drugs were deemed feasible for pharmacoepidemiologic analysis, of which seven were significantly associated with incident PD after adjustment, with five of these seven associated with a decreased odds of PD. Methylxanthine drugs pentoxifylline (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.89) and theophylline (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66-0.91), and the corticosteroid dexamethasone (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61-0.85) were associated with decreased odds of PD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to focus the search for disease-modifying drugs. Corticosteroids and methylxanthines should be further investigated as potential disease-modifyingdrugs in PD.

5.
Can J Psychiatry ; 65(11): 790-801, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and memantine are approved for Alzheimer disease in Canada. Regional drug reimbursement policies are associated with cross-provincial variation in ChEI use, but it is unclear how these policies influence predictors of use. Using standardized data from two provinces with differing policies, we compared resident-level characteristics associated with dementia pharmacotherapy at long-term care (LTC) admission. METHODS: Using linked clinical and administrative databases, we examined characteristics associated with dementia pharmacotherapy use among residents with dementia and/or significant cognitive impairment admitted to LTC facilities in Saskatchewan (more restrictive reimbursement policies; n = 10,599) and Ontario (less restrictive; n = 93,331) between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2015. Multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to assess resident demographic, functional, and clinical characteristics associated with dementia pharmacotherapy. RESULTS: On admission, 8.1% of Saskatchewan residents were receiving dementia pharmacotherapy compared to 33.2% in Ontario. In both provinces, residents with severe cognitive impairment, aggressive behaviors, and recent antipsychotic use were more likely to receive dementia pharmacotherapy; while those who were unmarried, admitted in later years, had a greater degree of frailty, and recent hospitalizations were less likely. The direction of the association for older age, rural residency, medication number, and anticholinergic therapy differed between provinces. CONCLUSIONS: While more restrictive criteria for dementia pharmacotherapy coverage in Saskatchewan resulted in fewer residents entering LTC on dementia pharmacotherapy, there were relatively few differences in the factors associated with use across provinces. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess how differences in prevalence and characteristics associated with use impact patient outcomes.

6.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 47(2): 153-159, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are more likely to be admitted to nursing home after stroke than men. Differences in patient characteristics and outcomes by sex after institutionalization are less understood. We examined sex differences in the characteristics and care needs of patients admitted to nursing home following stroke and their subsequent survival. METHODS: We identified patients with stroke newly admitted to nursing home between April 2011 and March 2016 in Ontario, Canada, with follow-up until March 2018 using linked administrative data. We calculated prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the primary outcomes of dependence for activities of daily living, cognitive impairment, frailty, health instability, and symptoms of depression or pain, comparing women to men. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Among 4831 patients, 60.9% were women. Compared to men, women were older (median age [interquartile range, IQR]: 84 [78, 89] vs. 80 [71, 86]), more likely to be frail (prevalence ratio 1.14, 95% CI [1.08, 1.19]), have unstable health (1.45 [1.28, 1.66]), and experience symptoms of depression (1.25 [1.11, 1.40]) or pain (1.21 [1.13, 1.30]), and less likely to have aggressive behaviors (0.87 [0.80, 0.94]). Overall median survival was 2.9 years. In a propensity-score-matched cohort, women had lower mortality than men (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% CI [0.77, 0.94]), but in the age-stratified survival analysis, the survival advantage in women was limited to those aged 75 years and older. CONCLUSIONS: Despite lower subsequent mortality, women admitted to nursing home after stroke required more care than men. Pain and depression are two treatable symptoms that disproportionately affect women.

7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(11): 2516-2524, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between hospitalization for a fall-related injury and the co-prescription of a cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) among persons with dementia receiving a beta-blocker, and whether this potential drug-drug interaction is modified by frailty. DESIGN: Nested case-control study using population-based administrative databases. SETTING: All nursing homes in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with dementia aged 66 and older who received at least one beta-blocker between April 2013 and March 2018 following nursing home admission (n = 19,060). MEASUREMENTS: Cases were persons with dementia with a hospitalization (emergency department visit or acute care admission) for a fall-related injury with concurrent beta-blocker use. Each case (n = 3,038) was matched 1:1 to a control by age (±1 year), sex, cohort entry year, frailty, and history of fall-related injuries. The association between fall-related injury and exposure to a ChEI in the 90 days prior was examined using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Secondary exposures included ChEI type, daily dose, incident versus prevalent use, and use in the prior 30 days. Subgroup analyses considered frailty, age group, sex, and history of hospitalization for fall-related injuries. RESULTS: Exposure to a ChEI in the prior 90 days occurred among 947 (31.2%) cases and 940 (30.9%) controls. In multivariable models, no association was found between hospitalization for a fall-related injury and prior exposure to a ChEI in persons with dementia dispensed beta-blockers (adjusted odds ratio = .96, 95% confidence interval = .85-1.08). Findings were consistent across secondary exposures and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSION: Among nursing home residents with dementia receiving beta-blockers, co-prescription of a ChEI was not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for a fall-related injury. However, we did not assess for its association with falls not leading to hospitalization. This finding could inform clinical guidelines and shared decision making between persons with dementia, caregivers, and clinicians concerning ChEI initiation and/or discontinuation.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Demência/epidemiologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ontário
8.
CMAJ Open ; 7(3): E582-E589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioids are an important pain therapy, but their use may be associated with adverse events in frail and cognitively impaired long-term care residents. The objective of this study was to investigate trends in opioid prescribing among Ontario long-term care residents over time, given the paucity of data for this setting. METHODS: We used linked clinical and health administrative databases to conduct a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study of opioid use among Ontario long-term care residents between Apr. 1, 2009, and Mar. 31, 2017. We identified prevalent opioid use by drug type, dosage and coprescription with benzodiazepines, and within certain vulnerable subgroups. We used log-binomial regression to quantify the percent change between 2009/10 and 2016/17. RESULTS: Among an average of 76 147 long-term care residents per year, the prevalence of opioid use increased from 15.8% in 2009/10 to 19.6% in 2016/17 (p < 0.001). Over the study period, the use of hydromorphone increased by 233.2%, whereas the use of all other opioid agents decreased. The use of high-dose opioids (> 90 mg of morphine equivalents) and the coprescription of opioids with benzodiazepines decreased significantly, by 17.7% (p < 0.001) and 23.8% (p < 0.001), respectively. Increases in opioid prevalence were more notable among frail residents (37.6% v. 18.8% among nonfrail residents, p < 0.001) and those with dementia (38.6% v. 21.6% among those without dementia, p < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Within Ontario long-term care, trends suggest a shift toward increased use of hydromorphone but reduced prevalence of use of other opioid agents and potentially inappropriate opioid prescribing. Further investigation is needed on the impact of these trends on resident outcomes.

9.
Neuroepidemiology ; 52(3-4): 119-127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reported incidence rates of pediatric stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) range widely. Treatment gaps are poorly characterized. We sought to evaluate in -Ontario, the incidence and characteristics of pediatric stroke and TIA including care gaps and the predictive value of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at 147 Ontario pediatric and adult acute care hospitals. Pediatric stroke and TIA cases (age < 18 years) were identified using ICD-10 code searches in the 2010/11 Canadian Institute for Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database (CIHI-DAD) and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) databases in the Ontario Stroke Audit. RESULTS: Among 478 potential pediatric stroke and TIA cases identified in the CIHI-DAD and NACRS databases, 163 were confirmed as cases of stroke and TIA during the 1-year study period. The Ontario stroke and TIA incidence rate was 5.9 per 100,000 children (3.3 ischemic, 1.8 hemorrhagic and 0.8 TIA). Mean age was 6.4 years (16% neonate). Nearly half were not imaged within 24 h of arrival in emergency and only 56% were given antithrombotic treatment. At discharge, 83 out of 121 (69%) required health care services post-discharge. Overall positive predictive value (PPV) of ICD-10 stroke and TIA codes was 31% (range 5-74%) and yield ranged from 2.4 to 29% for acute stroke or TIA event; code I63 achieved maximal PPV and yield. CONCLUSION: Our population-based study yielded a higher incidence rate than prior North-American studies. Important care gaps exist including delayed diagnosis, lack of expert care, and departure from published treatment guidelines. Variability in ICD PPV and yield underlines the need for prospective data collection and for improving the pediatric stroke and TIA coding processes.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
CMAJ ; 191(2): E32-E39, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidance from randomized clinical trials about the ongoing benefits of statin therapies in residents of long-term care facilities is lacking. We sought to examine the effect of statin dose on 1-year survival and admission to hospital for cardiovascular events in this setting. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using population-based administrative data from Ontario, Canada. We identified 21 808 residents in long-term care facilities who were 76 years of age and older and were prevalent statin users on the date of a full clinical assessment between April 2013 and March 2014, and categorized residents as intensive- or moderate-dose users. Treatment groups were matched on age, sex, admission to hospital for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, resident frailty and propensity score. Differences in 1-year survival and admission to hospital for cardiovascular events were measured using Cox proportional and subdistribution hazard models, respectively. RESULTS: Using propensity-score matching, we included 4577 well-balanced pairs of residents who were taking intensive- and moderate-dose statins. After 1 year, there were 1210 (26.4%) deaths and 524 (11.5%) admissions to hospital for cardiovascular events among residents using moderate-dose statins compared with 1173 (25.6%) deaths and 522 (11.4%) admissions to hospital for cardiovascular events among those taking intensive-dose statins. We found no significant association between prevalent use of intensive-dose statins and 1-year survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90 to 1.05) or 1-year admission to hospital for cardiovascular events (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.12) compared with use of moderate-dose statins. INTERPRETATION: The rates of mortality and admission to hospital for cardiovascular events at 1 year were similar between residents in long-term care taking intensive-dose statins compared with those taking moderate-dose statins. This lack of benefit should be considered when prescribing statins to vulnerable residents of long-term care facilities who are at potentially increased risk of statin-related adverse events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 66(10): 1963-1971, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether risk of fall-related injuries differs between nursing home (NH) residents newly dispensed low-dose trazodone and those newly dispensed benzodiazepines. DESIGN: Retrospective, matched cohort study in linked, population-based administrative data. Matching was based on propensity score ( ± 0.2 standard deviations of the score as a caliper), age ( ± 1 year), sex, frailty status, and history of dementia. The derived propensity score included demographic characteristics, clinical comorbidities, cognitive and functional status, and risk factors for falls. SETTING: All NHs in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Propensity score-matched pairs of residents aged 66 and older who received a full clinical assessment between April 1, 2010, and March 31, 2015 (N=7,791). MEASUREMENTS: Hospitalization (emergency department visit or acute care admission) for a fall-related injury within 90 days of exposure. Subdistribution hazard functions accounted for competing risk of death. Sensitivity analyses were used to examine falls resulting in hip or wrist fracture only, as well as different lengths of follow-up at 30, 60, and 180 days. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of a fall-related injury in the 90 days after index was 5.7% for low-dose trazodone users and 6.0% for benzodiazepine users (between-group change=-0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-1.02-0.44]; hazard ratio=0.94, 95% CI=0.83-1.08). Findings were consistent across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: New use of low-dose trazodone was no safer with respect to a risk of a fall-related injury than new use of benzodiazepines. Additional studies to compare the effectiveness and risks of low-dose trazodone with those of a variety of psychotropic drug therapies are required in light of increasing trends in the use of trazodone in NHs.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Trazodona/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 19(11): 959-966.e4, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: For persons with dementia, the appropriate duration of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) use remains unclear. We examined patterns of ChEI use during nursing home (NH) transition and the factors associated with discontinuation following admission. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study using linked health administrative and Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Dataset, version 2.0 databases. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 47,851 older adults (mean age = 84.8 years, standard deviation = 6.8) with dementia newly admitted to a NH in Ontario, Canada between 2011 and 2015. MEASUREMENTS: ChEI use at admission and during the following year was identified from prescription claims. Resident sociodemographic and health characteristics at admission, including a 72-item frailty index, were derived from the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Dataset 2.0. Additional resident and prescriber characteristics were derived from administrative data. Discontinuation was defined as a 30+-day gap in ChEI supply. Multivariable subdistribution hazard models were used to estimate the independent effect of resident frailty and other factors on ChEI discontinuation. RESULTS: Approximately one-third (17,560) of residents with dementia were on a ChEI at admission. Among this group, 17.7% (3110) discontinued use over follow-up. Incidence of discontinuation was significantly higher among residents with syncope [subdistribution hazard ratio, sHR = 2.21, 95% confidence interval, CI (1.52, 3.22)], more severe behavioral symptoms [sHR = 1.79, 95% CI (1.57, 2.05)], cognitive impairment [sHR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.07, 1.48)], higher frailty, [sHR = 1.19, 95% CI (1.04, 1.36)], and a primary prescriber active in the NH [sHR = 1.28, 95% CI (1.14, 1.45)]. A significantly lower incidence was observed for older and unmarried residents and those with a longer duration of use. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Less than one-fifth of residents on a ChEI at admission discontinued use during the following year. Although some of the predictors of discontinuation align with past research and current clinical recommendations, others were unexpected and point to novel drivers of ChEI use. Future investigations should explore the varied reasons underlying these associations and resident outcomes associated with ChEI discontinuation.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem , Demência/epidemiologia , Desprescrições , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sintomas Comportamentais/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síncope/epidemiologia
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 198(11): 1389-1396, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889548

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The burden of advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is high globally; however, little is known about how often end-of-life strategies are used by this population. OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in the use of end-of-life care strategies by people with advanced COPD in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: A population-based repeated cross-sectional study examining end-of-life care strategies in individuals with advanced COPD was conducted. Annual proportions of individuals who received formal palliative care, long-term oxygen therapy, or opioids from 2004 to 2014 were determined. Results were age and sex standardized and stratified by age, sex, socioeconomic status, urban/rural residence, and immigrant status. Measurement/Main Results: There were 151,912 persons with advanced COPD in Ontario between 2004 and 2014. Use of formal palliative care services increased 1% per year from 5.3% in 2004 to 14.3% in 2014 (P value for trend < 0.001), whereas use of long-term oxygen therapy increased 1.1% per year from 26.4% in 2004 to 35.3% in 2013 (P value for trend < 0.001). The use of opioids was relatively stable (40.0% in 2004 and 41.8% in 2014; P value for trend = 0.08). Younger individuals were less likely to use formal palliative care services and long-term oxygen therapy. Males were less likely than females to receive long-term oxygen therapy and opioids. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of people with advanced COPD using end-of-life strategies, although increasing, remains low. Efforts should focus on increasing access to such strategies and educating patients and providers of their benefits.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Oxigenoterapia/métodos
14.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 65(9): 2044-2051, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the variability of statin use among nursing home residents and prescribing physicians, and to assess statin use by resident frailty. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: All nursing home facilities (N = 631) in Ontario, Canada between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014. PARTICIPANTS: All adults aged 66 years and older who received a full clinical assessment while residing in a nursing home facility and their assigned, most responsible, physician. MEASUREMENTS: Statin use on date of clinical assessment. Resident- and physician-level characteristics ascertained through clinical assessment and health administrative data. Resident frailty was derived using a previously validated index. RESULTS: Among 76,226 nursing home residents assigned to 1,919 physicians, 25,648 (33.6%) were statin users. There were 13,331 (30.1%) statin users among the 44,290 residents categorized as frail. In an adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression model, frail residents (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.65) were significantly less likely to be statin users compared with non-frail residents. After adjustment for resident characteristics, the intraclass correlation coefficient indicated that between-physician variability accounted for 9.1% of the residual unexplained variation in statin use (P < .001). Among the 894 physicians assigned 20 or more residents, funnel plots confirmed there were more low-outlying (17.4%) and high-outlying (12.0%) prescribers of statins than expected by chance. Physicians who were high-outlying prescribers had higher historical rates of statin prescribing. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Statin prescribing was substantial within nursing homes, even among frail residents. After controlling for resident characteristics, the likelihood of statin prescribing varied significantly across physicians. Further studies are required to evaluate the risks and benefits of statin use, and discontinuation, among nursing home residents to better inform clinical practice in this setting.


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Ontário
15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 65(10): 2205-2212, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28752589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use among older adults with cognitive impairment or dementia prior to and following admission to nursing homes and in relation to frailty. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using health administrative databases. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 41,351 individuals with cognitive impairment or dementia, aged 66+ years newly admitted to nursing home between 2011 and 2014. MEASUREMENTS: PIMs were defined with 2015 Beers Criteria and included antipsychotics, H2 -receptor antagonists, benzodiazepines, and drugs with strong anticholinergic properties. Medication information was obtained at nursing home admission and in the subsequent 180 days. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models were used to assess the impact of frailty status (determined by a 72-item frailty index) on the hazard of starting and discontinuing PIMs. RESULTS: At admission, 44% of residents with cognitive impairment or dementia were on a PIM and prevalence varied by frailty (38.7% non-frail, 42.8% pre-frail, and 48.1% frail, P < .001). Following admission, many residents discontinued PIMs (23.5% for antipsychotics, 49.3% benzodiazepines, 32.2% anticholinergics, and 30.9% H2 -receptor antagonists). However, PIMs were also introduced with 10.9% newly started on antipsychotics, benzodiazepines (10.1%), anticholinergics (6.6%), and H2 -receptor antagonists (1.2%). After adjustment for other characteristics, frail residents had a similar risk of PIM discontinuation as non-frail residents except for anticholinergics (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.06-1.39) but were more likely to be newly prescribed benzodiazepines (HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.20-1.44), antipsychotics (HR = 1.36, 1.23-1.49), and anticholinergics (HR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.20-1.50). CONCLUSION: Many residents with cognitive impairment or dementia enter nursing homes on PIMs. PIMs are more likely to be started in frail individuals following admission. Interventions to support deprescribing of PIMs should be implemented targeting frail individuals during the transition to nursing home.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Transicional/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Ontário , Polimedicação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
CMAJ Open ; 5(2): E315-E321, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28446446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality ambulatory care can reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but important gaps exist in the provision of cardiovascular preventive care. We sought to develop a set of key performance indicators that can be used to measure and improve cardiovascular care in the primary care setting. METHODS: As part of the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team initiative, we established a 14-member multidisciplinary expert panel to develop a set of indicators for measuring primary prevention performance in ambulatory cardiovascular care. We used a 2-stage modified Delphi panel process to rate potential indicators, which were identified from the literature and national cardiovascular organizations. The top-rated indicators were pilot tested to determine their measurement feasibility with the use of data routinely collected in the Canadian health care system. RESULTS: A set of 28 indicators of primary prevention performance were identified, which were grouped into 5 domains: risk factor prevalence, screening, management, intermediate outcomes and long-term outcomes. The indicators reflect the major cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation. All indicators were determined to be amenable to measurement with the use of population-based administrative (physician claims, hospital admission, laboratory, medication), survey or electronic medical record databases. INTERPRETATION: The Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team indicators of primary prevention performance provide a framework for the measurement of cardiovascular primary prevention efforts in Canada. The indicators may be used by clinicians, researchers and policy-makers interested in measuring and improving the prevention of cardiovascular disease in ambulatory care settings.

17.
Can J Cardiol ; 33(2): 279-282, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27840049

RESUMO

The proliferation of cardiac diagnostic tests over the past few decades has received substantial attention from policymakers. However, contemporary population-based temporal trends of the utilization of noninvasive cardiac diagnostic tests for coronary artery disease are not known. Our objective was to examine the temporal trends in the utilization of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), exercise stress testing (GXT), and stress echocardiography between 2008 and 2014. We performed a population-based repeated cross-sectional study of the adult population of Ontario between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014. Annual utilization rates of noninvasive cardiac diagnostic tests were computed. For each cardiac testing modality, a negative binomial regression model was used to assess temporal changes in test utilization. GXT and MPI collectively accounted for 88% of all cardiac noninvasive diagnostic tests throughout our study period. Age- and sex-standardized rates of GXT declined from 26.7/1000 adult population to 21.6/1000 adult population (mean annual reduction of 3.4%; P < 0.001). MPI rates declined from 21.1/1000 adult population to 19.5/1000 adult population (mean annual reduction of 1.3%; P < 0.001). Although utilization rates for both CCTA and stress echocardiography increased over time, the combined rate of all available tests decreased from 50.8/1000 adult population to 49.1/1000 adult population (mean annual reduction of 1.1%; P < 0.001). In conclusion, utilization rates for the most prevalent noninvasive cardiac diagnostic tests-GXT and MPI-declined over our study period. Furthermore, the overall test utilization rate also declined over time. We believe our findings are encouraging from a health policy perspective. Nonetheless, rising utilization rates for CCTA and stress echocardiography will need to be monitored in the future.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Esforço/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Acad Emerg Med ; 24(2): 201-215, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27797435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic diseases are often forced to seek emergency care for exacerbations. In the face of large predicted increases in the prevalence of chronic diseases, there is increased pressure to avoid hospitalizing these patients at the end of the ED visit, if they can obtain the care they need in the outpatient setting. We performed this scoping study to provide a broad overview of the published literature on the transition of care between ED and primary care following ED discharge. METHODS: We performed a MEDLINE search of English-language articles published between 1990 and March 2015. We created a data-charting form a priori of the search. Papers were organized into themes, with new themes created when none of the existing themes matched the paper. Papers with multiple themes were assigned preferentially to the theme that was consistent with their primary objectives. We created a descriptive numerical summary of the included studies. RESULTS: Of 1,138 titles, there were 252 potentially relevant abstracts, and among those 122 met criteria for full paper review. An additional 11 papers were acquired from reference review. From the 133 papers, 85 were included in the study. The papers were categorized into seven themes. These included Follow-up compliance and its predictors (38 studies), Telephone calls to discharged ED patients (15 studies), ED navigators (14 studies), The current system (nine studies), Ways to alert primary care providers (PCPs) of the ED visit (seven studies), and Patient views and PCP information requirements (one each). In the Follow-up compliance and predictors theme, the two most frequently identified significant predictors for increasing the frequency of follow-up care were the provision of a follow-up appointment time prior to ED departure and the presence of health insurance. Follow-up telephone calls to patients resulted in better follow-up rates, but increased ED return visits in some studies. In the current system patients themselves are the conduit, and the barriers to follow-up care can be high. E-mail and/or electronic medical record alerts to the PCP are relatively new, and no studies limited the alerts to patients who had a defined need for follow-up care. CONCLUSIONS: A plethora of work has been published on the transition of care from ED to primary care. To decrease hospitalizations among the upcoming wave of patients with chronic diseases, it appears that the two most efficient areas to target are a primary care follow-up appointment system and health insurance. Further research is needed in particular to identify the patients who actually need follow-up care and to develop information technology solutions that can be effectively implemented within the current emergency healthcare system.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Environ Health Perspect ; 124(6): 754-60, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26550779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of moving to a neighborhood more conducive to utilitarian walking on the risk of incident hypertension is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to examine the effect of moving to a highly walkable neighborhood on the risk of incident hypertension. METHODS: A population-based propensity-score matched cohort study design was used based on the Ontario population from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001-2010). Participants were adults ≥ 20 years of age who moved from a low-walkability neighborhood (defined as any neighborhood with a Walk Score < 90) to either a high- (Walk Score ≥ 90) or another low-walkability neighborhood. The incidence of hypertension was assessed by linking the cohort to administrative health databases using a validated algorithm. Propensity-score matched Cox proportional hazard models were used. Annual health examination was used as a control event. RESULTS: Among the 1,057 propensity-score matched pairs there was a significantly lower risk of incident hypertension in the low to high vs. the low to low-walkability groups [hazard ratio = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26, 0.81, p < 0.01]. The crude hypertension incidence rates were 18.0 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 11.6, 24.8) among the low- to low-walkability movers compared with 8.6 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 5.3, 12.7) among the low- to high-walkability movers (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the hazard of annual health examination between the two mover groups. CONCLUSIONS: Moving to a highly walkable neighborhood was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident hypertension. Future research should assess whether specific attributes of walkable neighborhoods (e.g., amenities, density, land-use mix) may be driving this relationship. CITATION: Chiu M, Rezai MR, Maclagan LC, Austin PC, Shah BR, Redelmeier DA, Tu JV. 2016. Moving to a highly walkable neighborhood and incidence of hypertension: a propensity-score matched cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 124:754-760; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510425.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada , Estudos de Coortes , Planejamento Ambiental , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Ontário/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Circulation ; 132(16): 1549­1559, 2015 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26324719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immigrants from ethnic minority groups represent an increasing proportion of the population in many high-income countries but little is known about the causes and amount of variation between various immigrant groups in the incidence of major cardiovascular events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team (CANHEART) Immigrant study, a big data initiative, linking information from Citizenship and Immigration Canada's Permanent Resident database to nine population-based health databases. A cohort of 824 662 first-generation immigrants aged 30 to 74 as of January 2002 from eight major ethnic groups and 201 countries of birth who immigrated to Ontario, Canada between 1985 and 2000 were compared to a reference group of 5.2 million long-term residents. The overall 10-year age-standardized incidence of major cardiovascular events was 30% lower among immigrants compared with long-term residents. East Asian immigrants (predominantly ethnic Chinese) had the lowest incidence overall (2.4 in males, 1.1 in females per 1000 person-years) but this increased with greater duration of stay in Canada. South Asian immigrants, including those born in Guyana had the highest event rates (8.9 in males, 3.6 in females per 1000 person-years), along with immigrants born in Iraq and Afghanistan. Adjustment for traditional risk factors reduced but did not eliminate differences in cardiovascular risk between various ethnic groups and long-term residents. CONCLUSIONS: Striking differences in the incidence of cardiovascular events exist among immigrants to Canada from different ethnic backgrounds. Traditional risk factors explain part but not all of these differences.

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