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1.
Can J Surg ; 61(3): 185-194, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a mostly asymptomatic condition that is strongly associated with 30-day mortality; however, it remains mostly undetected without systematic troponin T monitoring. We evaluated the cost and consequences of postoperative troponin T monitoring to detect MINS. METHODS: We conducted a model-based cost-consequence analysis to compare the impact of routine troponin T monitoring versus standard care (troponin T measurement triggered by ischemic symptoms) on the incidence of MINS detection. Model inputs were based on Canadian patients enrolled in the Vascular Events in Noncardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study, which enrolled patients aged 45 years or older undergoing inpatient noncardiac surgery. We conducted probability analyses with 10 000 iterations and extensive sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The data were based on 6021 patients (48% men, mean age 65 [standard deviation 12] yr). The 30-day mortality rate for MINS was 9.6%. We determined the incremental cost to avoid missing a MINS event as $1632 (2015 Canadian dollars). The cost-effectiveness of troponin monitoring was higher in patient subgroups at higher risk for MINS, e.g., those aged 65 years or more, or with a history of atherosclerosis or diabetes ($1309). CONCLUSION: The costs associated with a troponin T monitoring program to detect MINS were moderate. Based on the estimated incremental cost per health gain, implementation of postoperative troponin T monitoring seems appealing, particularly in patients at high risk for MINS.

2.
Xenotransplantation ; 12(3): 189-96, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15807769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discordant xenogeneic islets transplanted intraportally into athymic nude rats experience primary non-function and are rapidly destroyed. Recently, it has been reported that adult porcine islets transplanted intraportally into nude mice are also rapidly destroyed and that this constitutes a new model for instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR). METHODS: Tilapia (fish) islets were harvested, mechanically broken into mammalian islet-sized fragments, cultured for 48 h, and transplanted via the portal vein into athymic or euthymic mice. RESULTS: There were several groups of recipient mice. Streptozotocin-diabetic nude mice received 400 islets via the portal vein (n = 12). Recipients were killed when hyperglycemic (>200 mg/dl); livers and native pancreases were examined histologically. Mean graft survival time, based on function, was 5.4 +/- 1.2 days; at autopsy, histology showed occasional viable islets. We also performed a group of transplants in non-diabetic nude mice (n = 6) and then killed the recipients 2 or 4 weeks later; all had abundant viable, well-granulated islet grafts based on histology. Therefore, the intraportal environs in nude mice are not incompatible with discordant fish islets; rather, it appears as if hyperglycemia adversely affects the intraportal islet grafts (i.e. ''glucose toxicity''). To test this hypothesis, transplants were performed into non-diabetic nude mice and allowed to engraft for either 3 days (n = 6) or 10 days (n = 8) prior to injection of streptozotocin (200 to 220 mg/kg i.v.) to destroy the beta-cells in the recipients' native islets (n.b. tilapia islets are exceedingly resistant to streptozotocin); these recipients were followed for 28 days post-transplantation (or until hyperglycemic) and then killed for histology. Mean graft function exceeded 25 days for both groups and viable well-granulated, tilapia islets grafts were readily identified in all recipients; in all but one, the native pancreases were markedly beta-cell depleted -- confirming that normoglycemia was due to functional fish islet xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ''glucose toxicity'' plays a role in the immediate demise of intraportal tilapia islet xenografts.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/cirurgia , Glucose/metabolismo , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Transplante Heterólogo , Animais , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/métodos , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Veia Porta , Tilápia , Fatores de Tempo
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