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1.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(8): e28163, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SMS text messaging is a low-cost and far-reaching modality that can be used to augment existing diabetes prevention programs and improve long-term diet and exercise behavior change adherence. To date, little research has been published regarding the process of SMS text message content development. Understanding how interventions are developed is necessary to evaluate their evidence base and to guide the implementation of effective and scalable mobile health interventions in public health initiatives and in future research. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the development and refinement of a bank of SMS text messages targeting diet and exercise behavior change to be implemented following a diabetes prevention program. METHODS: A bank of 124 theory-based SMS text messages was developed using the Behaviour Change Wheel and linked to active intervention components (behavior change techniques [BCTs]). The Behaviour Change Wheel is a theory-based framework that provides structure to intervention development and can guide the use of evidence-based practices in behavior change interventions. Once the messages were written, 18 individuals who either participated in a diabetes prevention program or were a diabetes prevention coach evaluated the messages on their clarity, utility, and relevance via survey using a 5-point Likert scale. Messages were refined according to participant feedback and recoded to obtain an accurate representation of BCTs in the final bank. RESULTS: 76/124 (61.3%) messages were edited, 4/124 (3.2%) were added, and 8/124 (6.5%) were removed based on participant scores and feedback. Of the edited messages, 43/76 (57%) received minor word choice and grammar alterations while retaining their original BCT code; the remaining 43% (33/76, plus the 4 newly written messages) were recoded by a reviewer trained in BCT identification. CONCLUSIONS: This study outlines the process used to develop and refine a bank of SMS text messages to be implemented following a diabetes prevention program. This resulted in a bank of 120 theory-based, user-informed SMS text messages that were overall deemed clear, useful, and relevant by both individuals who will be receiving and delivering them. This formative development process can be used as a blueprint in future SMS text messaging development to ensure that message content is representative of the evidence base and is also grounded in theory and evaluated by key knowledge users.

2.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(8): 1585-1595, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008852

RESUMO

Improving diet and physical activity (PA) can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, long-term diet and PA adherence is poor. To impact population-level T2D risk, scalable interventions facilitating behavior change adherence are needed. Text messaging interventions supplementing behavior change interventions can positively influence health behaviors including diet and PA. The Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) provides structure to intervention design and has been used extensively in health behavior change interventions. Describe the development process of a bank of text messages targeting dietary and PA adherence following a diabetes prevention program using the BCW. The BCW was used to select the target behavior, barriers and facilitators to engaging in the behavior, and associated behavior change techniques (BCTs). Messages were written to map onto BCTs and were subsequently coded for BCT fidelity. The target behaviors were adherence to diet and PA recommendations. A total of 16 barriers/facilitators and 28 BCTs were selected for inclusion in the messages. One hundred and twenty-four messages were written based on selected BCTs. Following the fidelity check a total of 43 unique BCTs were present in the final bank of messages. This study demonstrates the application of the BCW to guide the development of a bank of text messages for individuals with prediabetes. Results underscore the potential utility of having independent coders for an unbiased expert evaluation of what active components are in use. Future research is needed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of resulting bank of messages.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Terapia Comportamental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos
3.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(1): 239-252, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472008

RESUMO

Purpose This study investigated whether a 6-week coaching strategy resulted in positive changes in self-perceived knowledge and efficacy (SPKE) and positive communication behaviors in certified nursing assistants (CNAs) working with people with dementia in a skilled nursing facility. It also assessed the impact of the coaching strategy on negative responsive behaviors of people with dementia, such as yelling out, hitting, or spitting. Method Seven CNAs and seven people with dementia completed this study. Pretesting and posttesting were conducted for CNAs' SPKE. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design across five communication behaviors, the positive communication approach checklist, was completed to assess CNA communication behaviors after completion of a coaching strategy. Pretesting and posttesting of responsive behaviors of people with dementia were completed with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Results Six out of seven CNAs improved their SPKE from pre- to postcoaching; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Per the positive communication approach checklist, there was a statistically significant increase, from baseline to follow-up, in CNA positive communication behaviors when interacting with people with dementia. The frequency of overall responsive behaviors of people with dementia significantly decreased from pre- to postcoaching, per the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Conclusions There is preliminary evidence to support the feasibility of a coaching strategy for the implementation of positive communication behaviors by CNAs when communicating with people with dementia. Negative responsive behaviors of people with dementia also decreased. Speech-language pathologists should consider acting as coaches to support positive communication for people with dementia. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13564811.


Assuntos
Demência , Tutoria , Assistentes de Enfermagem , Comunicação , Demência/diagnóstico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Casas de Saúde
4.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 59(1): 257-270, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420617

RESUMO

Prolonged static weight-bearing at work may increase the risk of developing plantar fasciitis (PF). However, to establish a causal relationship between weight-bearing and PF, a low-cost objective measure of workplace behaviors is needed. This proof-of-concept study assesses the classification accuracy and sensitivity of low-resolution plantar pressure measurements in distinguishing workplace postures. Plantar pressure was measured using an in-shoe measurement system in eight healthy participants while sitting, standing, and walking. Data was resampled to simulate on/off characteristics of 24 plantar force sensitive resistors. The top 10 sensors were evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation with machine learning algorithms: support vector machines (SVMs), decision tree (DT), discriminant analysis (DA), and k-nearest neighbors (KNN). SVM and DT best classified sitting, standing, and walking. High classification accuracy was obtained with five sensors (98.6% and 99.1% accuracy, respectively) and even a single sensor (98.4% and 98.4%, respectively). The central forefoot and the medial and lateral midfoot were the most important classification sensor locations. On/off plantar pressure measurements in the midfoot and central forefoot can accurately classify workplace postures. These results provide the foundation for a low-cost objective tool to classify and quantify sedentary workplace postures.


Assuntos
Postura Sentada , Caminhada , , Humanos , Sapatos , Suporte de Carga
5.
J Voice ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among cognitive loading, autonomic arousal, and acoustic measures of voice in healthy older adults. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and observational. METHODS: Twelve healthy older adults (six females) produced a sentence containing an embedded Stroop task in each of two cognitive load conditions: congruent and incongruent. Three physiologic measures of autonomic arousal (pulse volume amplitude, pulse period, and skin conductance response amplitude) and four acoustic measures of voice (cepstral peak prominence, low-to-high spectral energy ratio, fundamental frequency, and sound pressure level) were analyzed in each cognitive load condition. RESULTS: A logistic regression model was used to predict the cognitive load condition using participant as a categorical predictor and the four acoustic measures and three autonomic measures as continuous predictors. Skin conductance response amplitude and pulse volume amplitude were both predictive of cognitive load; however, no acoustic measures of voice were statistically significant predictors of cognitive load for older adults. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the idea that increased cognitive load is associated with increased autonomic nervous system activity in older adults. The lack of changes in acoustic measures of voice with increased cognitive load may result from age-related changes in vocal quality and speech subsystems.

6.
Can J Diabetes ; 44(8): 719-726, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be reduced through diet and exercise changes. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of T2D and the associated burden on the health-care system, there is a need for affordable and scalable diet and exercise programs to be delivered in communities. Small Steps for Big Changes (SSBC) is an evidence-based diabetes prevention program for improving diet and exercise adherence in individuals at risk for developing T2D. Detailed reporting of intervention components as SSBC transitions from laboratory to communities is an essential step to understand its effectiveness and subsequent uptake. METHODS: The aim of this study was to identify comprehensively the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and motivational interviewing techniques used within the community-based SSBC. Intervention components were extracted from the SSBC session protocols using the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1 and the Table of Motivational Interviewing Techniques. RESULTS: Forty-three BCTs (interrater reliability [kappa]=0.77; prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa=0.78) and 20 MI techniques (kappa=0.63; prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa=0.64) were identified within SSBC session protocols (mean BCTs per session=30, mean MI techniques per session=16). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent and thorough reporting of intervention components as seen in the current analysis is crucial for future meta-analyses to accurately test which intervention components are eliciting change in desired outcomes and can inform which components should be adapted to different settings. SSBC sessions had an emphasis on BCT categories, including "Goals and Planning," "Feedback and Monitoring" and "Repetition and Substitution," and MI technique processes, including "Engaging" and "Evoking." Use of these categories and processes can inform development of future effective diabetes prevention programs.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Adulto , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Humanos , Prognóstico
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e039532, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203631

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Global rates of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are on the rise and there is a need for both effective and replicable interventions to decrease this incidence. Systematic reviews highlight the efficacy of diet and exercise interventions in decreasing T2D risk; however, no review to date provides clear information regarding intervention details (eg, what is delivered, by whom, to whom, when, and mode of delivery). This paper outlines the protocol for a scoping review summarising intervention characteristics of diet and exercise programmes for individuals at risk for T2D. From the included studies and through the use of the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR), the scoping review that results from this protocol paper will provide a narrative analysis of how diabetes prevention programmes are being reported and implemented. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy is outlined to identify studies within Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE and SPORTDiscus. The search strategy will include terms relating to diet and exercise interventions and diabetes risk. To determine eligible studies, predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria will be used independently by two review authors. To be included, studies must be delivering a diet and/or exercise intervention among adults who have been identified as at risk for developing T2D with an outcome related to diabetes prevention. Data extraction of those studies that meet inclusion criteria will be guided by the TIDieR). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required as this review will be using previously collected data. Review findings will be presented at scientific conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414068

RESUMO

In May 2018, Scotland became the first country in the world to implement minimum unit pricing (MUP) for all alcoholic drinks sold in licensed premises in Scotland. The use of a Sunset Clause in the MUP legislation was a factor in successfully resisting legal challenges by indicating that the final decision on a novel policy would depend on its impact. An overarching evaluation has been designed and the results will provide important evidence to inform the parliamentary vote on the future of MUP in Scotland. The evaluation uses a mixed methods portfolio of in-house, commissioned, and separately funded studies to assess the impact of MUP across multiple intended and unintended outcomes related to compliance, the alcoholic drinks industry, consumption, and health and social harms. Quantitative studies to measure impact use a suitable control where feasible. Qualitative studies assess impact and provide an understanding of the lived experience and mechanism of change for key sub-groups. As well as providing important evidence to inform the parliamentary vote, adding to the international evidence on impact and experience of alcohol pricing policy across a broad range of outcomes, this approach to evaluating novel policy interventions may provide guidance for future policy innovations.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Etanol , Política Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Escócia
9.
J Biomech Eng ; 142(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581289

RESUMO

Prolonged static weight bearing (WBR) is thought to aggravate plantar heel pain and is common in the workplace, which may put employees at greater risk of developing plantar heel pain. However, objective measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in the workplace are lacking, making it difficult to establish or refute the connection between work exposure and plantar heel pain. Characterizing loading patterns during common workplace postures will enhance the understanding of foot function and inform the development of new measurement tools. Plantar pressure data during periods of sitting, standing, and walking were measured in ten healthy participants using the F-Scan in-shoe measurement system (Tekscan Inc, Boston, MA). Peak and average pressure, peak and average contact area, and average pressure differential were analyzed in ten different regions of the foot. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed the posture by foot region interaction for each measurement parameter; significant effects of posture by foot region were identified for all five measurement parameters. Ten foot region by measurement parameter combinations were found to significantly differentiate all three postures simultaneously; seven used pressure measures to differentiate while three used area measures. The heel, lateral midfoot (LM), and medial and central forefoot (CFF) encompassed nine of ten areas capable of differentiating all postures simultaneously. This work demonstrates that plantar pressure is a viable means to characterize and differentiate three common workplace postures. The results of this study can inform the development of measurement tools for quantifying posture duration at work.

10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(9): e12956, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of mobile health (mHealth) apps exist that focus specifically on promoting exercise behavior. To increase user engagement, prompts, such as text messages, emails, or push notifications, are often used. To date, little research has been done to understand whether, and for how long, these prompts influence exercise behavior. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the impact of prompts on mHealth self-monitoring and self-reported exercise in the days following a prompt and whether these effects differ based on exercise modality. METHODS: Of the possible 99 adults at risk for developing type II diabetes who participated in a diabetes prevention program, 69 were included in this secondary analysis. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 2 exercise conditions: high-intensity interval training or moderate-intensity continuous training. In the year following a brief, community-based diabetes prevention program involving counseling and supervised exercise sessions, all participants self-monitored their daily exercise behaviors on an mHealth app in which they were sent personalized prompts at varying frequencies. mHealth self-monitoring and self-reported exercise data from the app were averaged over 1, 3, 5, and 7 days preceding and following a prompt and subsequently compared using t tests. RESULTS: In the year following the diabetes prevention program, self-monitoring (t68=6.82; P<.001; d=0.46) and self-reported exercise (t68=2.16; P=.03; d=0.38) significantly increased in the 3 days following a prompt compared with the 3 days preceding. Prompts were most effective in the first half of the year, and there were no differences in self-monitoring or self-reported exercise behaviors between exercise modalities (P values >.05). In the first half of the year, self-monitoring was significant in the 3 days following a prompt (t68=8.61; P<.001; d=0.60), and self-reported exercise was significant in the 3 days (t68=3.7; P<.001; d=0.37), 5 days (t67=2.15; P=.04; d=0.14), and 7 days (t68=2.46; P=.02; d=0.15) following a prompt, whereas no significant changes were found in the second half of the year. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence regarding the potential influence of prompts on mHealth self-monitoring and self-reported exercise and the duration for which prompts may be effective as exercise behavior change tools. Future studies should determine the optimal prompting frequency for influencing self-reported exercise behaviors. Optimizing prompt frequency can potentially reduce intervention costs and promote user engagement. Furthermore, it can encourage consumers to self-monitor using mHealth technology while ensuring prompts are sent when necessary and effective. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR2-10.2196/11226.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Adulto , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(5): 1258-1277, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051090

RESUMO

Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the impact of cognitive load imposed by a speech production task on the speech motor performance of healthy older and younger adults. Response inhibition, selective attention, and working memory were the primary cognitive processes of interest. Method Twelve healthy older and 12 healthy younger adults produced multiple repetitions of 4 sentences containing an embedded Stroop task in 2 cognitive load conditions: congruent and incongruent. The incongruent condition, which required participants to suppress orthographic information to say the font colors in which color words were written, represented an increase in cognitive load relative to the congruent condition in which word text and font color matched. Kinematic measures of articulatory coordination variability and movement duration as well as a behavioral measure of sentence production accuracy were compared between groups and conditions and across 3 sentence segments (pre-, during-, and post-Stroop). Results Increased cognitive load in the incongruent condition was associated with increased articulatory coordination variability and movement duration, compared to the congruent Stroop condition, for both age groups. Overall, the effect of increased cognitive load was greater for older adults than younger adults and was greatest in the portion of the sentence in which cognitive load was manipulated (during-Stroop), followed by the pre-Stroop segment. Sentence production accuracy was reduced for older adults in the incongruent condition. Conclusions Increased cognitive load involving response inhibition, selective attention, and working memory processes within a speech production task disrupted both the stability and timing with which speech was produced by both age groups. Older adults' speech motor performance may have been more affected due to age-related changes in cognitive and motoric functions that result in altered motor cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Desempenho Psicomotor , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Can J Occup Ther ; 86(2): 148-157, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND.: People who are diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can experience disruptions in their daily occupations. Occupational therapists may assist clients with PTSD to reengage in meaningful occupations. PURPOSE.: This scoping review aims to identify and describe the ways occupational therapy addresses PTSD in clinical practice. METHOD.: Scholarly databases were searched for documents relating to occupational therapy and PTSD. Two reviewers independently applied selection criteria and systematically extracted information. Data were extracted and synthesized in a narrative format. FINDINGS.: Fifty sources met inclusion criteria and three major themes were identified: recognizing trauma within specific populations, PTSD's impact on a range of occupations, and occupational therapy's response to PTSD. IMPLICATIONS.: Occupational therapists are working in multidisciplinary teams to reduce the impact of PTSD on the daily occupations of their clients. More effectiveness studies are required to understand the outcomes of occupational therapy interventions for clients with PTSD.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Voice ; 31(4): 504.e1-504.e9, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to determine the relationship among cognitive load condition and measures of autonomic arousal and voice production in healthy adults. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study design was conducted. METHODS: Sixteen healthy young adults (eight men, eight women) produced a sentence containing an embedded Stroop task in each of two cognitive load conditions: congruent and incongruent. In both conditions, participants said the font color of the color words instead of the word text. In the incongruent condition, font color differed from the word text, creating an increase in cognitive load relative to the congruent condition in which font color and word text matched. Three physiologic measures of autonomic arousal (pulse volume amplitude, pulse period, and skin conductance response amplitude) and four acoustic measures of voice (sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, cepstral peak prominence, and low-to-high spectral energy ratio) were analyzed for eight sentence productions in each cognitive load condition per participant. RESULTS: A logistic regression model was constructed to predict the cognitive load condition (congruent or incongruent) using subject as a categorical predictor and the three autonomic measures and four acoustic measures as continuous predictors. It revealed that skin conductance response amplitude, cepstral peak prominence, and low-to-high spectral energy ratio were significantly associated with cognitive load condition. CONCLUSIONS: During speech produced under increased cognitive load, healthy young adults show changes in physiologic markers of heightened autonomic arousal and acoustic measures of voice quality. Future work is necessary to examine these measures in older adults and individuals with voice disorders.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Acústica da Fala , Voz , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Psychol ; 7: 263, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26973564

RESUMO

Typically, understanding speech seems effortless and automatic. However, a variety of factors may, independently or interactively, make listening more effortful. Physiological measures may help to distinguish between the application of different cognitive mechanisms whose operation is perceived as effortful. In the present study, physiological and behavioral measures associated with task demand were collected along with behavioral measures of performance while participants listened to and repeated sentences. The goal was to measure psychophysiological reactivity associated with three degraded listening conditions, each of which differed in terms of the source of the difficulty (distortion, energetic masking, and informational masking), and therefore were expected to engage different cognitive mechanisms. These conditions were chosen to be matched for overall performance (keywords correct), and were compared to listening to unmasked speech produced by a natural voice. The three degraded conditions were: (1) Unmasked speech produced by a computer speech synthesizer, (2) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked byspeech-shaped noise and (3) Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by two-talker babble. Masked conditions were both presented at a -8 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR), a level shown in previous research to result in comparable levels of performance for these stimuli and maskers. Performance was measured in terms of proportion of key words identified correctly, and task demand or effort was quantified subjectively by self-report. Measures of psychophysiological reactivity included electrodermal (skin conductance) response frequency and amplitude, blood pulse amplitude and pulse rate. Results suggest that the two masked conditions evoked stronger psychophysiological reactivity than did the two unmasked conditions even when behavioral measures of listening performance and listeners' subjective perception of task demand were comparable across the three degraded conditions.

15.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 57(4): 1296-307, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24686989

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess autonomic arousal associated with speech and nonspeech tasks in school-age children and young adults. METHOD: Measures of autonomic arousal (electrodermal level, electrodermal response amplitude, blood pulse volume, and heart rate) were recorded prior to, during, and after the performance of speech and nonspeech tasks by twenty 7- to 9-year-old children and twenty 18- to 22-year-old adults. RESULTS: Across age groups, autonomic arousal was higher for speech tasks compared with nonspeech tasks, based on peak electrodermal response amplitude and blood pulse volume. Children demonstrated greater relative arousal, based on heart rate and blood pulse volume, for nonspeech oral motor tasks than adults but showed similar mean arousal levels for speech tasks as adults. Children demonstrated sex differences in autonomic arousal; specifically, autonomic arousal remained high for school-age boys but not girls in a more complex open-ended narrative task that followed a simple sentence production task. CONCLUSIONS: Speech tasks elicit greater autonomic arousal than nonspeech tasks, and children demonstrate greater autonomic arousal for nonspeech oral motor tasks than adults. Sex differences in autonomic arousal associated with speech tasks in school-age children are discussed relative to speech-language differences between boys and girls.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Volume Sanguíneo , Criança , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 7: 146, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23616759

RESUMO

The Embodied Cognition Framework maintains that understanding actions requires motor simulations subserved in part by premotor and primary motor regions. This hypothesis predicts that disturbances to these regions should impair comprehension of action verbs but not non-action verbs. We evaluated the performances of 10 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 normal comparison (NC) participants on a semantic similarity judgment task (SSJT) that included four classes of action verbs and two classes of non-action verbs. The patients were tested both ON and OFF medication. The most salient results involved the accuracies and reaction times (RTs) for the action verbs taken as a whole and the non-action verbs taken as a whole. With respect to accuracies, the patients did not perform significantly worse than the NC participants for either the action verbs or the non-action verbs, regardless of whether they were ON or OFF their medication. And with respect to RTs, although the patients' responses were significantly slower than those of the NC participants for the action verbs, comparable processing delays were also observed for the non-action verbs; moreover, there was again no notable influence of medication. The major dissociation was therefore not between action and non-action verbs, but rather between accuracies (relatively intact) and RTs (relatively delayed). Overall, the data suggest that semantic similarity judgments for both action and non-action verbs are correct but slow in individuals with PD. These results provide new insights about language processing in PD, and they raise important questions about the explanatory scope of the Embodied Cognition Framework.

17.
Eur J Neurosci ; 37(8): 1295-307, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23301775

RESUMO

Using electrophysiology, we have examined two questions in relation to musical training - namely, whether it enhances sensory encoding of the human voice and whether it improves the ability to ignore irrelevant auditory change. Participants performed an auditory distraction task, in which they identified each sound as either short (350 ms) or long (550 ms) and ignored a change in timbre of the sounds. Sounds consisted of a male and a female voice saying a neutral sound [a], and of a cello and a French Horn playing an F3 note. In some blocks, musical sounds occurred on 80% of trials, while voice sounds on 20% of trials. In other blocks, the reverse was true. Participants heard naturally recorded sounds in half of experimental blocks and their spectrally-rotated versions in the other half. Regarding voice perception, we found that musicians had a larger N1 event-related potential component not only to vocal sounds but also to their never before heard spectrally-rotated versions. We therefore conclude that musical training is associated with a general improvement in the early neural encoding of complex sounds. Regarding the ability to ignore irrelevant auditory change, musicians' accuracy tended to suffer less from the change in timbre of the sounds, especially when deviants were musical notes. This behavioral finding was accompanied by a marginally larger re-orienting negativity in musicians, suggesting that their advantage may lie in a more efficient disengagement of attention from the distracting auditory dimension.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Música , Estimulação Acústica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 56(1): 89-102, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22490621

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the potential effects of increased sentence length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor control of children who stutter (CWS). METHOD: Participants repeated sentences of varied length and syntactic complexity. Kinematic measures of articulatory coordination variability and movement duration during perceptually fluent speech were analyzed for 16 CWS and 16 typically developing children (CTD) between 4 and 6 years of age. Behavioral data from a larger pool of children were also examined. RESULTS: For both groups, articulatory coordination variability increased with sentence length. For syntactically simple sentences, CWS had higher coordination variability than CTD. There was no group difference in coordination variability for complex sentences. Coordination variability increased significantly with complexity for CTD, whereas that of CWS remained at the high level demonstrated for simple sentences. There was a trend for higher overall coordination variability in CWS compared with CTD. For both groups, movement duration was greater for syntactically complex, as compared with simple, sentences. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate more variable speech motor coordination during fluent speech production in many CWS as compared with CTD. Disproportionate effects of length and complexity on coordination variability and duration were not found for CWS. Considerable individual differences in performance were observed.


Assuntos
Vias Eferentes/fisiologia , Linguística , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Gagueira/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Medida da Produção da Fala
19.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 54(1): 19-32, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20699346

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of Parkinson's disease (PD) on the intonational marking of final and nonfinal syntactic boundaries and investigated whether the effect of PD on intonation was sex specific. METHOD: Eight women and 8 men with PD and 16 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage at comfortable pitch, rate, and loudness. Nuclear tones from final and nonfinal syntactic boundaries in clauses and lists were extracted. Measures of fundamental frequency (F0) were made on each tone contour. RESULTS: Individuals with PD demonstrated impaired differentiation of syntactic boundary finality/nonfinality with contour direction. They produced a lower proportion of falling contours in final boundaries and a higher proportion of falling contours in nonfinal boundaries than did control participants. Although not mediated by syntax, the effect of PD on F0 standard deviation (F0 SD) and pitch range in semitones (PRST) was sex specific. Women with PD produced greater F0 SD and PRST than did men with PD and women without PD. Men with PD produced lower PRST than did men without PD. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired intonational marking of syntactic boundaries likely contributes to dysprosody and reduced communicative effectiveness in PD. The effect of PD on intonation was sex specific. The results are not fully explained by PD-related motor execution impairments.


Assuntos
Disartria/diagnóstico , Disartria/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Fonética , Estimulação Acústica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Caracteres Sexuais , Medida da Produção da Fala , Qualidade da Voz
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