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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326693

RESUMO

The recurrent genetic anomalies used to classify prostate cancer (PC) into distinct molecular subtypes have limited relevance for clinical practice. In consideration of WHO 2016 histological classification, which includes the introduction of Gleason Score 4 for patients with cribriform component and the definition of intraductal carcinoma as a new entity, a retrospective pilot study was conducted to investigate, by histological review, if there were any variations of Gleason Score and the incidence of intraductal carcinoma and cribriform pattern, intended as "phenotypic" markers of potentially lethal PC, among metastatic castration-sensitive PC (mCSPC) and metastatic castration-resistant PC (mCRPC) samples. Potentially predictive factors were also assessed. Among 125 cases, a variation in the Gleason Score was reported in 26% of cases. A cribriform (36%) or intraductal (2%) pattern was reported in a higher percentage. Of them, a primary Gleason pattern 4 was reported in 80% of cases. All patients with intraductal carcinoma present a BRCA2 mutation, also found in 80% of cases with a cribriform pattern. This pilot study documented some hypothesis-generating data, as the evaluation of de novo mCSPC and mCRPC as phenotypic/biologic model to be translated in clinical practice. A cribriform pattern/intraductal carcinoma might be a marker of potentially lethal PC. The high incidence of TP53 and BRCA2 mutations in de novo mCSPC may also have a therapeutic implication.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 168, 2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) accounts for only about 5-10% of all urothelial cancers and is characterized by an aggressive and frequently rapidly fatal behavior. However, detailed knowledge of its molecular profile is still lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified, by chart analysis, patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy or diagnostic biopsy for UTUC between January 2015 and August 2020 at the Santa Maria Hospital of Terni, in Italy. Eligible patients were required to have also adequate clinical informations and follow-up details. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and Nectin-4 immunohistochemical expression in UTUC, looking also for an eventual correlation between these molecular features. The secondary objective was to investigate genomic instability in the case of a MMR protein loss. Expression of proteins was assessed by using immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability (MSI) performed by next generation sequencing. Nectin-4 expression was reported using an intensity scoring system (score, 0-3+), instead the expression of DNA MMR proteins was indicated as present (no loss) or not present (loss). RESULTS: Thirty four cases have been evaluated and 27 considered eligible for the study with their tumor samples analyzed. Nectin-4 was found to be expressed in 44% of cases and 18.5% of patients showed defective-MMR phenotype. We found a significant correlation between Nectin-4 expression and MSH2/MSH6 protein loss. Out of 7 patients with DNA MMR proteins loss or equivocal phenotype, 3 showed MSI. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot study suggest a possible relationship between Nectin-4 and DNA MMR protein expression in UTUC and a clinically significant correlation between defective MMR phenotype and genomic instability. Because of the possible implications of these data for innovative treatment approaches, the need for further studies in this area is warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Itália , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefroureterectomia , Fenótipo , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Urológicas/cirurgia , Urotélio/metabolismo
3.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 71(4): 865-874, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211054302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the growing genitourinary (GU) cancer population undergoing systemic treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we planned a clinical audit in 24 Italian institutions treating GU malignancies. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was investigating the clinical impact of COVID-19 in GU cancer patients undergoing ICI-based therapy during the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Italy. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The included centers were 24 Oncology Departments. Two online forms were completed by the responsible Oncology Consultants, respectively, for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients receiving at least one administration of ICIs between 31 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. RESULTS AND LIMITATION: In total, 287 mRCC patients and 130 mUC patients were included. The COVID-19 incidence was, respectively, 3.5%, with mortality 1%, in mRCC patients and 7.7%, with mortality 3.1%, in mUC patients. In both groups, 40% of patients developing COVID-19 permanently discontinued anticancer treatment. The pre-test SARS-CoV-2 probability in the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal/pharyngeal swab ranged from 14% in mRCC to 26% in mUC. The main limitation of the work was its nature of audit: data were not recorded at the single-patient level. CONCLUSION: GU cancer patients undergoing active treatment with ICIs have meaningful risk factors for developing severe events from COVID-19 and permanent discontinuation of therapy after the infection. Treatment delays due to organizational issues during the pandemic were unlikely to affect the treatment outcome in this population.

5.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 270, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The favourable safety profile and the increasing confidence with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) might have boosted their prescription in frail patients with short life expectancies, who usually are not treated with standard chemotherapy. METHODS: The present analysis aims to describe clinicians' attitudes towards ICIs administration during late stages of life within a multicenter cohort of advanced cancer patients treated with single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in Italy. RESULTS: Overall, 1149 patients with advanced cancer who received single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors were screened. The final study population consisted of 567 deceased patients. 166 patients (29.3%) had received ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (28.3% vs 11.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (69.3% vs 59.4%, p = 0.0266). In total, 35 patients (6.2%) started ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (45.7% vs 14.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (82.9% vs 60.9%, p = 0.0266). Primary tumors were significantly different across subgroups (p = 0.0172), with a higher prevalence of NSCLC patients (80% vs 60.9%) among those who started ICIs within 30 days of death. Lastly, 123 patients (21.7%) started ICIs within 3 months of death. Similarly, within this subgroup there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (29.3% vs 12.8%, p < 0.0001), with a higher burden of disease (74.0% vs 59.0%, p = 0.0025) and with NSCLC (74.0% vs 58.8%, p = 0.0236). CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed a trend toward an increasing ICIs prescription in frail patients, during the late stages of life. Caution should be exercised when evaluating an ICI treatment for patients with a poor PS and a high burden of disease.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 142: 18-28, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concomitant medications are known to impact on clinical outcomes of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We aimed weighing the role of different concomitant baseline medications to create a drug-based prognostic score. METHODS: We evaluated concomitant baseline medications at immunotherapy initiation for their impact on objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in a single-institution cohort of patients with advanced cancer treated with ICIs (training cohort, N = 217), and a drug-based prognostic score with the drugs resulting significantly impacting the OS was computed. Secondly, we externally validated the score in a large multicenter external cohort (n = 1012). RESULTS: In the training cohort (n = 217), the median age was 69 years (range: 32-89), and the primary tumours were non-small-cell lung cancer (70%), melanoma (14.7%), renal cell carcinoma (9.2%) and others (6%). Among baseline medications, corticosteroids (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60-3.30), systemic antibiotics (HR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.31-3.25) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (HR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13-2.18) were significantly associated with OS. The prognostic score was calculated using these three drug classes, defining good, intermediate and poor prognosis patients. Within the training cohort, OS (p < 0.0001), PFS (p < 0.0001) and ORR (p = 0.0297) were significantly distinguished by the score stratification. The prognostic value of the score was also demonstrated in terms of OS (p < 0.0001), PFS (p < 0.0001) and ORR (p = 0.0006) within the external cohort. CONCLUSION: Cumulative exposure to corticosteroids, antibiotics and PPIs (three likely microbiota-modulating drugs) leads to progressively worse outcomes after ICI therapy. We propose a simple score that can help stratifying patients in routine practice and clinical trials of ICIs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concomitant medications, such as steroids, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and antibiotics, might affect clinical outcomes with immune checkpoint inhibitors. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational retrospective study aimed at evaluating the impact of concomitant medications on clinical outcomes, by weighing their associations with baseline clinical characteristics (including performance status, burden of disease and body mass index) and the underlying causes for their prescription. This analysis included consecutive stage IV patients with cancer, who underwent treatment with single agent antiprogrammed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) with standard doses and schedules at the medical oncology departments of 20 Italian institutions. Each medication taken at the immunotherapy initiation was screened and collected into key categories as follows: corticosteroids, antibiotics, gastric acid suppressants (including proton pump inhibitors - PPIs), statins and other lipid-lowering agents, aspirin, anticoagulants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ACE inhibitors/Angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium antagonists, ß-blockers, metformin and other oral antidiabetics, opioids. RESULTS: From June 2014 to March 2020, 1012 patients were included in the analysis. Primary tumors were: non-small cell lung cancer (52.2%), melanoma (26%), renal cell carcinoma (18.3%) and others (3.6%). Baseline statins (HR 1.60 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.25), p=0.0064), aspirin (HR 1.47 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.08, p=0.0267) and ß-blockers (HR 1.76 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.69), p=0.0080) were confirmed to be independently related to an increased objective response rate. Patients receiving cancer-related steroids (HR 1.72 (95% CI 1.43 to 2.07), p<0.0001), prophylactic systemic antibiotics (HR 1.85 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.78), p=0.0030), prophylactic gastric acid suppressants (HR 1.29 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.53), p=0.0021), PPIs (HR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.48), p=0.0050), anticoagulants (HR 1.43 (95% CI: 1.16 to 1.77), p=0.0007) and opioids (HR 1.71 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.28), p=0.0002) were confirmed to have a significantly higher risk of disease progression. Patients receiving cancer-related steroids (HR 2.16 (95% CI 1.76 to 2.65), p<0.0001), prophylactic systemic antibiotics (HR 1.93 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.98), p=0.0030), prophylactic gastric acid suppressants (HR 1.29 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.57), p=0.0091), PPI (HR 1.26 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.52), p=0.0172), anticoagulants (HR 1.45 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.84), p=0.0024) and opioids (HR 1.53 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.11), p=0.0098) were confirmed to have a significantly higher risk of death. CONCLUSION: We confirmed the association between baseline steroids administered for cancer-related indication, systemic antibiotics, PPIs and worse clinical outcomes with PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors, which can be assumed to have immune-modulating detrimental effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Eur J Cancer ; 134: 19-28, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on spectrum and grade of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in long-term responders to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter study to characterized irAEs occurring after a 12-months minimum treatment period with PD-(L)1 ICIs in patients with advanced cancer. IrAEs were categorized into 'early' (≤12 months) and 'late' (>12 months). RESULTS: From September 2013 to October 2019, 436 consecutive patients were evaluated. Two hundred twenty-three experienced any grade early-irAEs (51.1%), whereas 132 experienced any grade late-irAEs (30.3%) (p < 0.0001). Among the latter, 29 (22%) experienced a recurrence of an early-irAEs, whereas 103 (78%) experienced de novo late-irAEs involving different system/organ. Among patients with late-irAEs, 21 experienced GIII/GIV irAEs (4.8%). Median time to onset of early-irAEs was 3.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.2), whereas the median time to onset of late-irAEs was 16.6 months (95% CI: 15.8-17.6). Cumulative time-adjusted risk of disease progression according to both the early-irAEs (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.30-1.29], p = 0.204) and late-irAEs occurrence revealed no statistically significant differences (HR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.37-1.56], p = 0.452). In addition, the time-adjusted cumulative risk of death in accordance with both early-irAEs (HR = 0.79 [95% CI: 0.34-1.86], p = 0.598) and late-irAEs (HR = 0.92 [95% CI: 0.49-1.74], p = 0.811) did not show statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: Although less frequent than early-irAEs, late-irAEs are quite common in long responders to PD-(L)1 ICIs and are different in terms of spectrum and grade. Time-adjusted analysis revealed that the cumulative risk of disease progression and death were not significantly reduced in patients who experienced late-irAEs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 205, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients experience oligo-progression during androgen receptor targeted therapy (ARTT) treatments. This progression might not indicate a real systemic drug resistance, but a selective monoclonal resistance. With the aim to delay the start of new line treatments we treated oligo-progressive sites with radiotherapy. METHODS: From June 2011 to Febrary 2019, 29 consecutive metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients were submitted to radiotherapy for oligo-progression (1-3 sites) during ARTT for a total of 37 lesions treated. Thirty-one (83.8%) lesions were treated with conformal radiotherapy and 6 (16.2%) with stereotactic radiotherapy. After radiotherapy all patients continued ARTT. RESULTS: Median OS (calculated from ARTT start) was 46,6 months (range 4.4-97.5 months), 2 and 3-year OS were 82.8 and 70.7%, respectively. Median PFS was 18,4 months (range 4.4-45.3 months), 2 and 3-year PFS were 38.3 and 8.5%, respectively. Median overall duration of ARTT treatment was 14.8 months (range 4.4-45.3 months) and median duration of ARTT after radiotherapy was 4.6 months (range 1-33.8 months). Patients submitted to radiotherapy > 6 months from the start of ARTT presented a better PFS (p < 0.001) and a trend toward a better OS (p = 0.101). None patient presented RT and drug related toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy of oligoprogressive sites may prolong the duration of disease control under ARTT in mCRPC patients with a possible delay in the start of new line treatment. Patients progressing within 6 months from the start of ARTT did not benefit from this approach. More studies are necessary to confirm our results and to evaluate other prognostic factor in order to select patients with high benefit from this approach.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/radioterapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas , Terapia Combinada , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Radiocirurgia , Radioterapia Conformacional , Receptores Androgênicos/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Anticancer Res ; 38(11): 6029-6039, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396917

RESUMO

Inhibiting androgen receptor (AR) signaling with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) represents the mainstay of therapy for advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. However, about 20-60% of patients receiving first-line treatment for prostate cancer will relapse, evolving in a more aggressive and lethal form of the disease, the castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), despite the use of ADT. Multiple approved systemic therapies able to prolong survival of patients with metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) exist, but almost invariably, patients treated with these drugs develop primary or acquired resistance. Multiple factors are involved in CRPC treatment resistance and elucidating the mechanisms of action of these factors is a key question and an active area of research. Due to such a complex scenario, treatment personalization is necessary to improve treatment effectiveness and reduce relapse rates in CRPC. In this review, current evidence about the major mechanisms of resistance to the available prostate cancer treatments were examined by introducing insights on new and future therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Medicina de Precisão , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo
12.
Anticancer Drugs ; 28(5): 551-556, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296649

RESUMO

Fluoropyrimidines combined with other agents are commonly used for gastrointestinal cancer treatment. Considering that severe toxicities occur in 30% of patients, we aimed to structure a nomogram to predict toxicity, based on metabolic parameter and patients' characteristics. We retrospectively enrolled patients affected by gastrointestinal tract cancers. Pretreatment 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) degradation rate and DPYD, TSER, MTHFR A1298T, and C677T gene polymorphisms were characterized. Data on toxicities were collected according to CTCAE v3.0. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to structure a nomogram. 642 patients were enrolled (384 men; 258 female; median age: 67 years, range: 27-87): 449 (69.9%) patients were affected by colorectal cancer; 118 (18.4%) by gastroesophageal cancer; 66 (10.3%) by pancreatic cancer; and nine (1.4%) by other cancers. Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 118 (18.4%) patients and were most frequently observed in patients with altered 5-FU degradation rate (43.5 and 26.7% of the patients in the poor metabolizer and in the ultrarapid metabolizer group respectively, vs. 17% in the normal metabolizer group) and in DPYD heterozygous mutated patients (83.3% of the patients). Age, DPYD status, the number of drugs administered, and 5-FU degradation rate value were associated to severe toxicities. On the basis of these findings, we structured a nomogram to assess a score to predict the risk of developing severe toxicity. Compared with the available pharmacogenetic tests, this approach can be applied to the whole population, predicting the risk for severe toxicity, with an easy, low-cost, and not invasive technique.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/genética , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Nomogramas , Farmacogenética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 73(2): 157-164, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On account of the lack of predictive biomarkers of toxicity, we investigated whether polymorphisms of genes involved in fluoropyrimidine metabolism and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) degradation rate were associated with outcomes of adjuvant capecitabine in patients with early stage gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Genotyping of DPYD GIVS14A, MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were performed by pyro-sequencing technology. PCR analysis was used for genotyping TYMS-TSER. We also evaluated the 5-FU degradation rate, which determines the amount of drug consumed by PBMC in a time unit. Association of these variables with clinical outcome was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: One hundred forty-two patients with early stage colon (39%), rectal (28%), stomach (20%) and pancreatic (13%) cancer, treated with adjuvant capecitabine, were included in this retrospective analysis. Seventy and 20% of the patients suffered from at least one G1-4 and G3-4 adverse events, respectively. According to the 5-FU degradation rate, three and 13 patients were assigned as poor (<0.86 ng/mL/106 cells/min) and ultra-rapid (>2.1 ng/mL/106 cells/min) metabolizers, respectively. At a multivariate logistic regression analysis, an altered 5-FU degradation rate (values <0.86 or >2.10 ng/mL/106 cells/min) was associated with grade 3-4 adverse events (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.14-3.82, P = 0.01). No correlation was reported between toxicity and gene polymorphisms except for hand-foot syndrome that was more frequent in the MTHFR 1298CC homozygous variant genotype (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.04-3.96, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: 5-FU degradation rate may be regarded as possible predictive biomarker of capecitabine toxicity in early stage gastrointestinal cancer.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos , Capecitabina , Fluoruracila , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/farmacocinética , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Genótipo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Timidilato Sintase/genética
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