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2.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469129

RESUMO

Background: Fatty liver has been shown to be associated with severe COVID-19 disease without any impact on mortality. This is based on heterogenous criteria for defining both fatty liver as well as the severity parameters. Aim: To study the impact of fatty liver on the mortality and severity of disease in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: In a case control study design, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (COVID-19 CT severity index on HRCT chest of >1) with fatty liver (defined as liver to spleen attenuation index < 5 on non-contrast CT cuts of upper abdomen) were compared to those without fatty liver. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcome measures were CTSI score need for ICU care, need for ventilatory support, duration of ICU stay and duration of Hospital stay. Results: 289 (64.7%) of 446 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Max Hospital, Saket, India, between 1/1/2021 and 30/10/2021 had fatty liver. 59 of 446 patients died during the index admission. In-hospital mortality was not different between patients with fatty liver [38 1(3.24%)] or without fatty liver [21 (13.81%)]. COVID-19 CTSI score was found to be significantly higher among patients who had fatty liver [13.40 (5.16) vs 11.81 (5.50); p= 0.003]. There was no difference in the requirement of ICU [94 (32%) vs 62 (39.49%); p=0.752], requirement of ventilatory support [27 (9.34%) vs 14 (8.91%); p=0.385], duration of ICU stay [8.29 (6.87) vs 7.07 (5.71) days; p=0.208] and duration of hospital stay [10.10 (7.14) vs 10.69 (8.13) days; p=0.430] between the groups with fatty liver or no fatty liver. Similarly, no difference was found in primary or secondary outcomes measure between the group with severe fatty liver vs mild/moderate or no fatty liver. High Total leucocyte count and FIB-4 index were independently associated with mortality. Conclusions: Fatty liver may not be associated with increased mortality or clinical morbidity of patients who have COVID-19 pneumonia.

4.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(2): 384-389, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with higher mortality among patients who have comorbidities. However, evidences related to COVID-19 among post liver transplant recipients are scarce and evolving. METHODS: Adult Indian patients who had undergone liver transplantation at our centre since 2006 and were under regular follow-up, were contacted either telephonically or on email. Data were recorded related to symptoms and diagnosis of COVID-19, need for hospitalization, and need for ICU stay and mortality. RESULTS: Eighty one (3.71%) of the 2182 adult Liver transplant (LT) recipients on regular follow-up reported SARS-CoV-2 infection between 1st April 2020 and 31st May 2021. Mean age was 51.3(±9.8) years, and 74(91.4%) were males. Thirty five (43.2%) patients had one or more comorbidities. Twenty one (25.9%) patients were transplanted less than 1 year ago. Forty four (54.3% ) patients had mild disease only while 23(28.4%) patients had severe COVID-19 disease. Of the 81 patients 14 patients died and overall mortality was 17.3. CONCLUSION: Uncomplicated liver transplant recipients without comorbidities who acquire SARS-CoV-2 do not have poor outcome.

5.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(5): 519-540, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890020

RESUMO

Portal hypertensive bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension (PHT) with high morbidity and mortality. A lot of advances have been made in our understanding of screening, risk stratification, and management strategies for portal hypertensive bleeding including acute variceal bleeding leading to improved overall outcomes in patients with PHT. A number of guidelines on variceal bleeding have been published by various societies in the past few years. The Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) Task Force on Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (UGIB) felt that it was necessary to bring out a standard practice guidance document for the use of Indian health care providers especially physicians, gastroenterologists, and hepatologists. For this purpose, an expert group meeting was convened by the ISG Task Force to deliberate on this matter and write a consensus guidance document for Indian practice. The delegates including gastroenterologists, hepatologists, radiologists, and surgeons from different parts of the country participated in the consensus development meeting at Coorg in 2018. A core group was constituted which reviewed all published literature on portal hypertensive UGIB with special reference to the Indian scenario and prepared unambiguous statements on different aspects for voting and consensus in the whole group. This consensus was produced through a modified Delphi process and reflects our current understanding and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of portal hypertensive UGIB in Indians. Intended for use by the health care providers especially gastroenterologists and hepatologists, these consensus statements provide an evidence-based approach to risk stratification, diagnosis, and management of patients with portal hypertensive bleeding.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Gastroenterologia , Hipertensão Portal , Consenso , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Portal/terapia
6.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(3): 354-386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994718

RESUMO

Renal dysfunction is very common among patients with chronic liver disease, and concomitant liver disease can occur among patients with chronic kidney disease. The spectrum of clinical presentation and underlying etiology is wide when concomitant kidney and liver disease occur in the same patient. Management of these patients with dual onslaught is challenging and requires a team approach of hepatologists and nephrologists. No recent guidelines exist on algorithmic approach toward diagnosis and management of these challenging patients. The Indian National Association for Study of Liver (INASL) in association with Indian Society of Nephrology (ISN) endeavored to develop joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of patients who have simultaneous liver and kidney disease. For generating these guidelines, an INASL-ISN Taskforce was constituted, which had members from both the societies. The taskforce first identified contentious issues on various aspects of simultaneous liver and kidney diseases, which were allotted to individual members of the taskforce who reviewed them in detail. A round-table meeting of the Taskforce was held on 20-21 October 2018 at New Delhi to discuss, debate, and finalize the consensus statements. The evidence and recommendations in these guidelines have been graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system with minor modifications. The strength of recommendations (strong and weak) thus reflects the quality (grade) of underlying evidence (I, II, III). We present here the INASL-ISN Joint Position Statements on Management of Patients with Simultaneous Liver and Kidney Disease.

7.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(1): 97-143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679050

RESUMO

Malnutrition and sarcopenia are common in patients with chronic liver disease and are associated with increased risk of decompensation, infections, wait-list mortality and poorer outcomes after liver transplantation. Assessment of nutritional status and management of malnutrition are therefore essential to improve outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease. This consensus statement of the Indian National Association for Study of the Liver provides a comprehensive review of nutrition in chronic liver disease and gives recommendations for nutritional screening and treatment in specific clinical scenarios of malnutrition in cirrhosis in adults as well as children with chronic liver disease and metabolic disorders.

9.
Clin Transplant ; 35(5): e14271, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) is often used to support the intraoperative course during liver transplantation (LT) for patients with HRS. However, the use of intraoperative CRRT (IOCRRT) is not without its problems. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a planned operation and is possible without IOCRRT as the recipient can be optimized. AIM: To study the peritransplant outcomes of patients with CLD and HRS undergoing LT without IOCRRT. METHODS: Analysis of LT program database for perioperative outcomes in patients with HRS from Feb 2017 to Dec 2018. RESULTS: 87/363 (23.9%) adult LDLT patients had HRS, of whom 31 (35.6%) did not respond (NR) to standard medical therapy (SMT) prior to LT. Modified perioperative protocol enabled the NR patients (who were sicker and in persistent renal failure) to undergo LT without IOCRRT. Postoperative renal dysfunction was similar (2 in NR and 2 in R) at 1 year. Post-LT survival was also not different at one month (83.87% in NR and 87.5% in R [p = .640]) and at 1 year (77% in NR vs 80.4% in non-responders [p = .709]). CONCLUSION: IOCRRT can be avoided in HRS patients undergoing LDLT without compromising their outcomes (post-LT survival and RD), even in patients who have not responded to SMT, preoperatively.


Assuntos
Síndrome Hepatorrenal , Transplante de Fígado , Transplantes , Adulto , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 10(5): 477-517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029057

RESUMO

Acute liver failure (ALF) is not an uncommon complication of a common disease such as acute hepatitis. Viral hepatitis followed by antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity are the commonest causes of ALF in India. Clinically, such patients present with appearance of jaundice, encephalopathy, and coagulopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and cerebral edema are central and most important clinical event in the course of ALF, followed by superadded infections, and determine the outcome in these patients. The pathogenesis of encephalopathy and cerebral edema in ALF is unique and multifactorial. Ammonia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis, and several therapies aim to correct this abnormality. The role of newer ammonia-lowering agents is still evolving. These patients are best managed at a tertiary care hospital with facility for liver transplantation (LT). Aggressive intensive medical management has been documented to salvage a substantial proportion of patients. In those with poor prognostic factors, LT is the only effective therapy that has been shown to improve survival. However, recognizing suitable patients with poor prognosis has remained a challenge. Close monitoring, early identification and treatment of complications, and couseling for transplant form the first-line approach to manage such patients. Recent research shows that use of dynamic prognostic models is better for selecting patients undergoing liver transplantation and timely transplant can save life of patients with ALF with poor prognostic factors.

12.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 10(4): 339-376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655238

RESUMO

Acute liver failure (ALF) is an infrequent, unpredictable, potentially fatal complication of acute liver injury (ALI) consequent to varied etiologies. Etiologies of ALF as reported in the literature have regional differences, which affects the clinical presentation and natural course. In this part of the consensus article designed to reflect the clinical practices in India, disease burden, epidemiology, clinical presentation, monitoring, and prognostication have been discussed. In India, viral hepatitis is the most frequent cause of ALF, with drug-induced hepatitis due to antituberculosis drugs being the second most frequent cause. The clinical presentation of ALF is characterized by jaundice, coagulopathy, and encephalopathy. It is important to differentiate ALF from other causes of liver failure, including acute on chronic liver failure, subacute liver failure, as well as certain tropical infections which can mimic this presentation. The disease often has a fulminant clinical course with high short-term mortality. Death is usually attributable to cerebral complications, infections, and resultant multiorgan failure. Timely liver transplantation (LT) can change the outcome, and hence, it is vital to provide intensive care to patients until LT can be arranged. It is equally important to assess prognosis to select patients who are suitable for LT. Several prognostic scores have been proposed, and their comparisons show that indigenously developed dynamic scores have an edge over scores described from the Western world. Management of ALF will be described in part 2 of this document.

13.
J Gastroenterol ; 55(9): 811-823, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666200

RESUMO

Asia has intermediate-to-high prevalence and high morbidity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The use of guideline-recommended nucleos(t)ide analogs with high barrier to resistance, such as entecavir (ETV), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), is one of the key interventions for curbing HBV infection and associated morbidity in Asia. However, there are some challenges to the use of ETV and TDF; while ETV is associated with high resistance in lamivudine (LAM)-exposed (especially LAM-refractory) patients; bone and renal safety issues are a major concern with TDF. Hence, a panel of twenty-eight expert hepatologists from Asia convened, reviewed the literature, and developed the current expert opinion-based review article for the use of TAF in the resource-constrained settings in Asia. This article provides a comprehensive review of two large, phase 3, double-blind, randomized controlled trials of TAF versus TDF in HBeAg-negative (study 0108) and HBeAg-positive (study 0110) chronic HBV patients (> 70% Asians). These studies revealed as follows: (1) non-inferiority for the proportion of patients who had HBV DNA < 29 IU/mL; (2) significantly high rate of normalization of alanine aminotransferase levels; (3) no incidence of resistance; and (4) significantly better bone and renal safety, with TAF vs. TDF up to 144 weeks. Considering the benefits of TAF, the expert panel proposed recommendations for optimizing the use of TAF in Asia, along with guidance on specific patient groups at risk of renal or bone disease suitable for TAF therapy. The guidance provided in this article may help clinicians optimize the use of TAF in Asia.


Assuntos
Alanina/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/análogos & derivados , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/farmacologia , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ásia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/farmacologia
15.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 10(3): 266-270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362732

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which started in December 2019 in China, has resulted in a pandemic leading to significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. Although it mainly causes respiratory symptoms, respiratory failure and death due to multiorgan failure, there is evolving evidence to suggest gastrointestinal (GI) and liver involvement by this virus. Owing to this, health-care professionals taking care of GI and liver diseases are also at an increased risk of getting exposed. Hence, there is a need for protocols to be prepared to guide the handling of COVID-19 patients by the GI and liver specialists, as well as to manage the pre-existing GI and liver diseases during the ongoing pandemic. We present here the guidelines prepared jointly by the three Indian professional bodies in the field of GI diseases, namely the Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy of India, Indian Society of Gastroenterology, and Indian National Association for the Study of the Liver.

16.
J Viral Hepat ; 27(5): 466-475, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785182

RESUMO

Asia has an intermediate-to-high prevalence of and high morbidity and mortality from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Optimization of diagnosis and initiation of treatment is one of the crucial strategies for lowering disease burden in this region. Therefore, a panel of 24 experts from 10 Asian countries convened, and reviewed the literature, to develop consensus guidance on diagnosis and initiation of treatment of HBV infection in resource-limited Asian settings. The panel proposed 11 recommendations related to diagnosis, pre-treatment assessment, and indications of therapy of HBV infection, and management of HBV-infected patients with co-infections. In resource-limited Asian settings, testing for hepatitis B surface antigen may be considered as the primary test for diagnosis of HBV infection. Pre-treatment assessments should include tests for complete blood count, liver and renal function, hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg), anti-HBe, HBV DNA, co-infection markers and assessment of severity of liver disease. Noninvasive tests such as AST-to-platelet ratio index, fibrosis score 4 or transient elastography may be used as alternatives to liver biopsy for assessing disease severity. Considering the high burden of HBV infection in Asia, the panel adopted an aggressive approach, and recommended initiation of antiviral therapy in all HBV-infected, compensated or decompensated cirrhotic individuals with detectable HBV DNA levels, regardless of HBeAg status or alanine transaminase levels. The panel also developed a simple algorithm for guiding the initiation of treatment in noncirrhotic, HBV-infected individuals. The recommendations proposed herein, may help guide clinicians, to optimize the diagnosis and improvise the treatment rates for HBV infection in Asia.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/terapia , Ásia , Consenso , DNA Viral/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos
17.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 9(4): 476-483, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516264

RESUMO

Background: The study aimed at assessing the prevalence and clinical profile of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in patients with cirrhosis using neuropsychological assessment and at understanding the management practices of MHE in the Indian clinical setting. Methods: This cross-sectional, clinicoepidemiological study conducted at 20 sites enrolled liver cirrhosis patients with Grade 0 hepatic encephalopathy according to West-Haven Criteria. Patients were subjected to mini-mental state examination and those with a score of ≥24 were assessed using psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score. Short Form-36 questionnaire was administered to assess the impact on health-related quality of life. Results: Of the 1260 enrolled patients, 1114 were included in the analysis. The mean age was 49.5 years and majority were males (901 [81%]). The prevalence of MHE was found to be 59.7% (665/1114) based on the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score of ≤-5. Alcohol-related liver disease was the most common etiology (482 [43.27%]) followed by viral infection (239 [21.45%]). Past smokers as well as those currently smoking were more likely to have MHE than nonsmokers. A significant association was found between tobacco chewing, smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, and the presence of MHE. Multivariable analysis revealed smoking as the only parameter associated with MHE. A total of 300 (26.9%) patients were on prophylaxis with lactulose/lactitol or rifaximin. These patients were less likely to have MHE as compared to those not on prophylaxis (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.88; P = 0.005). Conclusion: The disease burden of MHE is quite substantial in patients with cirrhosis with no apparent cognitive defect. Smoking, whether past or current, has significant association with the presence of MHE. Although MHE has been shown to adversely affect quality of life, prophylaxis for MHE is not routinely practiced in the Indian setting.The study has been registered under clinical trials registry of India (CTRI/2014/01/004306).

18.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 9(3): 383-406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360030

RESUMO

Liver diseases occurring during pregnancy can be serious and can progress rapidly, affecting outcomes for both the mother and fetus. They are a common cause of concern to an obstetrician and an important reason for referral to a hepatologist, gastroenterologist, or physician. Liver diseases during pregnancy can be divided into disorders unique to pregnancy, those coincidental with pregnancy, and preexisting liver diseases exacerbated by pregnancy. A rapid differential diagnosis between liver diseases related or unrelated to pregnancy is required so that specialist and urgent management of these conditions can be carried out. Specific Indian guidelines for the management of these patients are lacking. The Indian National Association for the Study of the Liver (INASL) in association with the Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI) had set up a taskforce for development of consensus guidelines for management of patients with liver diseases during pregnancy, relevant to India. For development of these guidelines, a two-day roundtable meeting was held on 26-27 May 2018 in New Delhi, to discuss, debate, and finalize the consensus statements. Only those statements that were unanimously approved by most members of the taskforce were accepted. The primary objective of this review is to present the consensus statements approved jointly by the INASL and FOGSI for diagnosing and managing pregnant women with liver diseases. This article provides an overview of liver diseases occurring in pregnancy, an update on the key mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis, and the recommended treatment options.

19.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 8(4): 403-431, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568345

RESUMO

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) reactivation in patients receiving chemotherapy, biologicals, immunosupressants, or corticosteroids is emerging to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with current or prior exposure to HBV infection. These patients suffer a dual onslaught of illness: one from the primary disease for which they are receiving the culprit drug that led to HBV reactivation, and the other from HBV reactivation itself. The HBV reactivation not only leads to a compromised liver function, which may culminate into hepatic failure; it also adversely impacts the treatment outcome of the primary illness. Hence, identification of patients at risk of reactivation before starting these drugs, and starting treatment aimed at prevention of HBV reactivation is the best strategy of managing these patients. There are no Indian guidelines on management of HBV infection in patients receiving chemotherapy, biologicals, immunosupressants, or corticosteroids for the treatment of rheumatologic conditions, malignancies, inflammatory bowel disease, dermatologic conditions, or solid-organ or bone marrow transplantation. The Indian National Association for Study of the Liver (INASL) had set up a taskforce on HBV in 2016, with a mandate to develop consensus guidelines for management of various aspects of HBV infection, relevant to India. In 2017 the taskforce had published the first INASL guidelines on management of HBV infection in India. In the present guidelines, which are in continuation with the previous guidelines, the issues on management of HBV infection in patients receiving chemotherapy, biologicals, immunosupressants, or corticosteroids are addressed.

20.
J Viral Hepat ; 25(12): 1533-1542, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141214

RESUMO

There is a paucity of information on chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients treated with direct antiviral agents (DAAs) in Asia. We invited Asia-Pacific physicians to collate databases of patients enrolled for CHC treatment, recording baseline clinical, virologic and biochemical characteristics, sustained virologic response at week 12 (SVR12) and virologic failure. SVR12 outcome was based on intention to treat (ITT). Multivariate analysis was used to assess independent risk factors for SVR12 using SPSS version 20. A total of 2171 patients from India (n = 977), Myanmar (n = 552), Pakistan (n = 406), Thailand (n = 139), Singapore (n = 72) and Malaysia (n = 25) were collected. At baseline, mean age was 49 years, 50.2% were males, and 41.8% had cirrhosis. Overall, SVR12 was 89.5% and by genotype (GT) based on ITT and treatment completion, respectively, was 91% and 92% for GT1, 100% and 100% for GT2, 91% and 97% for GT3, 64% and 95% for GT4, 87% and 87% for GT6 and 79% and 91% for GT untested. Patients with cirrhosis had SVR12 of 85% vs 93% for noncirrhosis (P < 0.001) (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.1, P = 0.0002). Patients with GT1 and GT3 treated with sofosbuvir/ribavirin (SR) had 88% and 89% SVR12, respectively, but those GT6 treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SL) had only 77.6% SVR12. Multivariate analysis showed absence of cirrhosis was associated with higher SVR12 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1, P = 0.002). In conclusion, patients with GT1 and GT3 with/without cirrhosis had surprisingly high efficacy using SR, suggesting that Asians may respond better to some DAAs. However, poor GT6 response to SL suggests this regimen is suboptimal for this genotype.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Adulto , Ásia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
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