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1.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(1): 43-48, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920043

RESUMO

Ebstein's anomaly is a rare and complex congenital heart disease involving abnormal embryological development of the tricuspid valve. Its exact prevalence remains unknown given the under-diagnosis of minor forms and the broad clinical spectrum of this pathology resulting from the highly variable tricuspid morphology. Echocardiography plays an important role in diagnosis, assessment and prognostic evaluation of this condition. We present the case of a 6-year-old boy born from a twin pregnancy with a severe neonatal EA diagnosed by ultrasound at 29 weeks of gestation and we discuss the management on the light of the recent literature.


Assuntos
Anomalia de Ebstein , Criança , Anomalia de Ebstein/diagnóstico , Anomalia de Ebstein/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Valva Tricúspide
2.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 47-55, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486682

RESUMO

Outbreaks of avian trichomonosis are being reported worldwide; meanwhile, the genetic and virulence variations are under investigation. In this study, the occurrence and genetic variability of oral or faecal trichomonads among various avian species were investigated. Samples obtained from either the oropharyngeal cavity, crop/oesophagus, droppings/cloaca, or conjunctival swabs of avian species were inspected for flagellates. Phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2 sequences from selected samples was performed to investigate the genetic diversity of the isolates. Investigation of 737 birds revealed an infection rate of 15.7% in the upper gastrointestinal tract, 7.3% in the faecal samples, and 0.7% involvement of the conjunctiva. Phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2 sequences from selected samples, identified genotypes A and B of Trichomonas gallinae and genogroups A-C and E of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. A novel ITS genotype of intestinal trichomonads was also detected in hooded crow (Corvus cornix) and common mynah (Acridotheres tristis). In the present study, in addition to Columbiformes and Falconiformes, trichomonads were detected in Passeriformes and Galliformes with the involvement of organs other than the gastrointestinal tract. Genotype A T. gallinae was detected in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), a laughing dove (Spilopelia senegalensis), a common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates), and a canary (Serinus canaria). Distinct genotype B was detected in a common mynah and a budgerigar. Genogroups A-C of T. gallinarum were also demonstrated in Galliformes and Anseriformes. Furthermore, two novel trichomonad ITS genotypes were detected in hooded crows and a common mynah warranting detailed multi-locus molecular analysis.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSITS diversity of trichomonads was shown in various avian species.Diversity of the parasites' target organ and clinical manifestations was demonstrated.Two novel ITS genotype trichomonads from common mynah and hooded crow were identified.

3.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 4(7): 2412-2423, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019005

RESUMO

Pulsatile chemotherapeutic delivery profiles may provide a number advantages by maximizing the anticancer toxicity of chemotherapeutics, reducing off-target side effects, and combating adaptive resistance. While these temporally dynamic deliveries have shown some promise, they have yet to be clinically deployed from implantable hydrogels, whose localized deliveries could further enhance therapeutic outcomes. Here, several pulsatile chemotherapeutic delivery profiles were tested on melanoma cell survival in vitro and compared to constant (flatline) delivery profiles of the same integrated dose. Results indicated that pulsatile delivery profiles were more efficient at killing melanoma cells than flatline deliveries. Furthermore, results suggested that parameters like the duration of drug "on" periods (pulse width), delivery rates during those periods (pulse heights), and the number/frequency of pulses could be used to optimize delivery profiles. Optimization of pulsatile profiles at tumor sites in vivo would require hydrogel materials capable of producing a wide variety of pulsatile profiles (e.g., of different pulse heights, pulse widths, and pulse numbers). This work goes on to demonstrate that magnetically responsive, biphasic ferrogels are capable of producing pulsatile mitoxantrone delivery profiles similar to those tested in vitro. Pulse parameters such as the timing and rate of delivery during "on" periods could be remotely regulated through the use of simple, hand-held magnets. The timing of pulses was controlled simply by deciding when and for how long to magnetically stimulate. The rate of release during pulse "on" periods was a function of the magnetic stimulation frequency. These findings add to the growing evidence that pulsatile chemotherapeutic delivery profiles may be therapeutically beneficial and suggest that magnetically responsive hydrogels could provide useful tools for optimizing and clinically deploying pulsatile chemotherapeutic delivery profiles.

4.
Iran J Vet Res ; 19(1): 22-26, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805458

RESUMO

Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), a member of genus circovirus, is a small, non-enveloped, single stranded DNA virus. Although BFDVs are among the most well studied circoviruses, there is little to no information about BFDVs in Iran. The aim of the present study was to detect and identify BFDV molecules from the birds referred to the avian clinic of The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University, Iran. A total of 55 DNA samples were extracted from birds from nine different species of the order psittaciformes. A robust conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect the rep gene of the virus. Ten out of 55 samples, from four different species, were tested positive for BFDVs in PCR (Melopsittacus undulates (4), Psittacula Krameri (3), Psittacus erithacus (2), Platycercus eximius (1)). Molecular identification of the detected BFDVs was performed based on their rep gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Iranian BFDVs from this study were clustered into four genetically distinct clades belonging to different genetic subtypes of BFDVs (L1, N1, T1, and I4). Although the relation between the samples and their related subtypes in the tree are discussed, further studies are needed to elucidate the host specificity and incidence of the BFDVs from different genetic subtypes.

5.
J Mol Graph Model ; 79: 264-272, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288937

RESUMO

To obtain accurate results from the nonlocal plate theory, the nonlocal parameter should be properly determined. In this paper, practicing a molecular dynamics simulation, the nonlocal plate theory was presented for free vibration analysis of annular graphene sheets. Accuracy and stability of results are validated by published results. Calculations are performed for different boundary conditions and geometrical properties. Results reveal that inner and outer radius induce significant effects on the nonlocal parameter. This nonlocal parameter extracted based on Molecular Dynamics (MD) in the nonlocal theory can determine the natural frequencies of annular graphene sheets, conveniently, whereas the molecular dynamics simulation demands a lot of time.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Conformação Molecular , Vibração
6.
New Microbes New Infect ; 19: 117-120, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794886

RESUMO

Despite a Mycobacterium tuberculosis control programme and anti-tuberculosis drugs, drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of M. tuberculosis is needed for the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and to find the optimal treatment protocol. The purpose of this study was to detect resistance to rifampicin in new cases of TB using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (M. tuberculosis/rifampicin) assay and the standard proportional method in west and northwest Iran. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, sputum samples were enrolled and screened for M. tuberculosis using Ziehl-Neelsen stain and mycobacterial culture. Samples from individuals with smear-positive TB were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen medium; afterwards, the presence of resistance to rifampicin was examined by the GeneXpert MTB/RIF and standard proportional methods. A total of 400 new cases of suspected TB were collected, 162 (40.5%) of which were smear- and culture-positive for M. tuberculosis. The frequencies of rifampicin resistance in new smear-positive TB cases were 3.1% and 4.3% for GeneXpert and standard proportional method, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert were 71% and 100%, respectively, compared with the proportional method. GeneXpert can be a quick and helpful method for the diagnosis of rifampicin-resistant TB in regions with high rates of DR-TB or MDR-TB. GeneXpert MTB-RIF assay must be used as an early diagnostic method whose results must be confirmed by the standard proportional method. The GeneXpert and proportional methods complement but do not replace each other.

7.
J Pharm Sci ; 106(6): 1545-1552, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238898

RESUMO

An efficient drug delivery system was introduced. The carrier was synthesized by combination of an ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK3) and a thermosensitive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), known as PNIPAAm. The polymers with 2 different chain lengths (PNIPAAm-100n and PNIPAAm-400n) were synthesized and each of the polymers was embedded in CMK3 to form composite materials. Nitrogen adsorption isotherm and scanning electron microscopy of the samples showed a uniform embedding of PNIPAAm-100n but a nonuniform embedding of PNIPAAm-400n. The latter observation is attributed to large intramolecular interactions of PNIPAAm-400n and their aggregation on the external surface of the porous structure. Doxorubicin was used as the model drug and was loaded onto the samples. The ultimate loading capacities for the polymer-embedded samples were reduced. However, the loading rates and the release capacities were significantly improved. Thermosensitivity of the polymer was introduced as the governing drug release mechanism; regardless of the polymer chain length, drug release at 37°C was significantly higher than 4°C. Cytotoxicity results confirmed materials' biocompatibility for future biological tests. It is clearly shown that the properly synthesized composite of ordered mesoporous carbon and thermosensitive polymer can be used as an efficient carrier for drug loading and release experiments. The loading and release profiles can be controlled by tailoring the polymer chain length.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carbono/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacocinética , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Porosidade , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Arch Razi Inst ; 72(4): 249-253, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315702

RESUMO

Enzootic ovine abortion is caused by Chlamydia abortus and may result in abortion among small ruminants during the last 2-3 weeks of pregnancy. Enzootic abortion is diagnosed by isolation of the agent or detection of its nucleic acid in the products of abortion or vaginal excretions of freshly aborted females. Isolation of chlamydial agents in cell culture is the gold standard, so in the present study this method was employed. Twenty-eight vaginal and conjunctival swab samples were selected from ewes and does that had recently aborted. The samples were inoculated to McCoy cells. The inoculated cells were fixed, stained by Giemsa staining, and mounted on slides. Finally, the slides were observed by an optical microscope for the presence chlamydial inclusion bodies. Chlamydia was isolated from four conjunctival and three vaginal samples. All the negative cultures were passaged a further two times. Cell culture was identified as the most convenient method for the isolation of Chlamydia and remains essential to document the viability of the organism. Isolation of Chlamydia in the present study, highlights the importance of paying more attention to the bacterium as one of the main abortifacient pathogens along with other infectious causes of abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Cabras , Irã (Geográfico) , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
9.
Diabet Med ; 34(4): 500-504, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27278467

RESUMO

AIMS: To develop an empirically derived short version of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey II that still accurately measures fear of hypoglycaemia. METHODS: Item response theory methods were used to generate an 11-item version of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey from a sample of 487 people with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subsequently, this scale was tested on a sample of 2718 people with Type 1 or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes taking part in DIALOG, a large observational prospective study of hypoglycaemia in France. RESULTS: The short form of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey II matched the factor structure of the long form for respondents with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, while maintaining adequate internal reliability on the total scale and all three subscales. The two forms were highly correlated on both the total scale and each subscale (Pearson's R > 0.89). CONCLUSIONS: The short form of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey II is an important first step in more efficiently measuring fear of hypoglycaemia. Future prospective studies are needed for further validity testing and exploring the survey's applicability to different populations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Hipoglicemia/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , França , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 104(11): 2764-74, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27325374

RESUMO

Providing a controllable and definable three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment for chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remains a great challenge for cartilage tissue engineering. In this work, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) polymers with the degrees of polymerization of 100 and 400 (NI100 and NI400) were prepared and the polymer solutions were introduced into the preprepared chitosan porous scaffolds (CS) to form hybrids (CSNI100 and CSNI400, respectively). SEM images indicated that the PNIPAAm gel partially occupied chitosan pores while the interconnected porous structure of chitosan was preserved. MSCs were incorporated within the hybrid and cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation were monitored. After 7-day incubation of the cell-laden constructs in a growth medium, the cell viability in CSNI100 and CSNI400 were 54 and 108% higher than that in CS alone, respectively. Glycosaminoglycan and total collagen contents increased 2.6- and 2.5-fold after 28-day culture of cell-laden CSNI400 in the chondrogenic medium. These results suggest that the hybrid structure composed of the chitosan porous scaffold and the well-defined PNIPAAm hydrogel, in particular CSNI400, is suitable for 3D stem cell culture and cartilage tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2764-2774, 2016.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Cartilagem/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Condrogênese , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Cartilagem/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Tecidos Suporte/química
11.
Child Care Health Dev ; 42(4): 565-71, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26879326

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to find out the overall prevalence rates for the major forms of abuse among adolescents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the differences in prevalence by age, gender and living arrangement. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in secondary high schools in five of the 13 main regions of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2012. Through a multistage stratified sampling technique, a sample (n = 16 939) of adolescents (15-19 years) were identified and invited to participate. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Child was used for data collection. The previous year's occurrence of violence exposure, psychological, physical and sexual abuse, and neglect were assessed. RESULTS: Nearly 90% of the adolescents were between 16 and 18 years of age, and over 80% were cared for by both of their biological parents. Annual prevalence of various forms of abuse in the year before the 2012 assessment ranged between 0.10 and 0.65, with the lowest rate for sexual abuse and the highest for psychological abuse. Significantly, greater rates of all forms of abuse/exposure were found when participants lived with their mother or father only (versus with both), and even greater rates for all when they lived with their biological parent and a step-parent. Rates for violence exposure, psychological abuse and neglect were significantly greater for girls, and rate of sexual abuse was greater for boys. CONCLUSIONS: More attention should be given to the effect of adolescent maltreatment particularly among girls. In addition, sexual abuse prevention programme should be targeted among boys.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Árabes , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Maus-Tratos Infantis/etnologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Formulação de Políticas , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Distribuição por Sexo
12.
Curr Med Mycol ; 2(4): 15-23, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28959791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is a rare disease with acute and fulminant manifestation. This infection is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Herein, we reviewed the manifestations, underlying conditions, medical treatments, and surgical interventions in ROCM patients admitted to a tertiary referral center in northern Iran over a seven-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, 15 cases of ROCM were identified from 2007 to 2013 in Bu Ali Sina Hospital, Sari, Iran. All the ROCM cases were clinically diagnosed and confirmed by histopathological and/or mycological examination. The relevant demographic data, clinical, ophthalmic, and neurologic manifestations, underlying conditions, medical treatments, and surgical interventions were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 54±11 years (age range: 28-70 years); 26.7% of the patients were male and 73.3% female (male: female ratio of 1: 2.7). Uncontrolled diabetes was noted in at least 86.7% (13/15) of the cases. The maxillary sinuses were the most frequently involved sites (66.7% of the cases) followed by the ethmoid sinus. Amphotericin B in combination with surgical debridement was used in the treatment of 80% of the cases. Furthermore, 73.3% of the patients who were diagnosed early and underwent medical and extensive surgical debridement of the infected tissues survived. CONCLUSION: Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is considered to be the main predisposing factor for ROCM. To prevent and reduce mortality rate of this acute disease, early diagnosis based on clinical findings and biopsy is recommended.

13.
Chemphyschem ; 16(18): 3797-805, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26538339

RESUMO

A qualitative interpretation is proposed to interpret isosteric heats of adsorption by considering contributions from three general classes of interaction energy: fluid-fluid heat, fluid-solid heat, and fluid-high-energy site (HES) heat. Multiple temperature adsorption isotherms are defined for nitrogen, T=(75, 77, 79) K, argon at T=(85, 87, 89) K, and for water and methanol at T=(278, 288, 298) K on a well-characterized polymer-based, activated carbon. Nitrogen and argon are subjected to isosteric heat analyses; their zero filling isosteric heats of adsorption are consistent with slit-pore, adsorption energy enhancement modelling. Water adsorbs entirely via specific interactions, offering decreasing isosteric heat at low pore filling followed by a constant heat slightly in excess of water condensation enthalpy, demonstrating the effects of micropores. Methanol offers both specific adsorption via the alcohol group and non-specific interactions via its methyl group; the isosteric heat increases at low pore filling, indicating the predominance of non-specific interactions.

14.
Chemphyschem ; 16(18): 3984-91, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26394883

RESUMO

Repeated and controlled immersion calorimetry experiments were performed to determine the specific surface area and pore-size distribution (PSD) of a well-characterized, microporous poly(furfuryl alcohol)-based activated carbon. The PSD derived from nitrogen gas adsorption indicated a narrow distribution centered at 0.57±0.05 nm. Immersion into liquids of increasing molecular sizes ranging from 0.33 nm (dichloromethane) to 0.70 nm (α-pinene) showed a decreasing enthalpy of immersion at a critical probe size (0.43-0.48 nm), followed by an increase at 0.48-0.56 nm, and a second decrease at 0.56-0.60 nm. This maximum has not been reported previously. After consideration of possible reasons for this new observation, it is concluded that the effect arises from molecular packing inside the micropores, interpreted in terms of 2D packing. The immersion enthalpy PSD was consistent with that from quenched solid density functional theory (QSDFT) analysis of the nitrogen adsorption isotherm.

15.
Diabetes Metab ; 41(2): 116-25, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25465273

RESUMO

AIM: DIALOG assessed the prevalence and predictors of hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 (T1DM) or insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a real-life setting. METHODS: In this observational study, insulin-treated patients (n=3048) completed prospective daily questionnaires reporting the frequency and consequences of severe/confirmed non-severe hypoglycaemia over 30 days. Patients (n=3743) also retrospectively reported severe hypoglycaemia over the preceding year. RESULTS: In this prospective survey, 85.3% and 43.6% of patients with T1DM and T2DM, respectively, reported experiencing at least one confirmed hypoglycaemic event over 30 days, while 13.4% and 6.4%, respectively, reported at least one severe event. Hypoglycaemia frequency increased with longer duration of diabetes and insulin therapy. Strongly predictive factors for hypoglycaemia were previous hypoglycaemia, >2 injections/day, BMI<30kg/m(2) and duration of insulin therapy>10 years. HbA1c level was not predictive of hypoglycaemia in either T1DM or T2DM. The confirmed hypoglycaemia rate was increased in the lowest compared with the highest tertile of HbA1c in T1DM, but not T2DM. At the time of enrolment, physicians reported severe hypoglycaemia in 23.6% and 11.9% of T1DM and T2DM patients, respectively, during the preceding year; the retrospective survey yielded frequencies of 31.5% and 21.7%, respectively. Also, severe hypoglycaemia led to medical complications in 10.7% and 7.8% of events in T1DM and T2DM patients, respectively, over 30 days. CONCLUSION: Using a unique combined prospective and retrospective approach, the DIALOG study found a relatively high frequency of hypoglycaemia among insulin-treated patients. These findings emphasize the importance of a patient-centred approach for managing diabetes in which hypoglycaemia risk evaluation is critical. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01628341.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(5): 1130-41, 2014 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24432763

RESUMO

The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Taninos/isolamento & purificação , Vitis/química , Parede Celular/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Taninos/análise , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Avian Pathol ; 42(1): 38-44, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23391180

RESUMO

Chlamydiosis is one of the most important infectious diseases of birds. In this study, 253 clinical samples were taken from 27 bird species belonging to seven orders. Thirty-two (12.6%) samples were positive for Chlamydia psittaci major outer membrane gene (ompA) DNA by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve nested PCR-positive specimens were typed by ompA gene-based PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism, using CTU/CTL primers and AluI restriction enzyme. Four restriction patterns were identified, including genotype A (two specimens from an African grey parrot [Psittacus erithacus] and a lorikeet [Trichoglossus haematodus]), genotype B (two specimens from a rock dove [Columbia livia] and a canary [Serinus canaria]), a third new restriction pattern (six specimens from African grey parrots), and a fourth new restriction pattern (two specimens from a ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri] and an Alexandrine parakeet [Psittacula eupatria]). The third and the fourth restriction patterns are suggested to be provisional genotypes I and J, respectively. Partial sequencing of the ompA gene of seven specimens completely correlated with the results of PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism and confirmed the presence of genotypes A and B and the two new provisional genotypes I and J. The two new genotypes have the closest identity with C. psittaci genotype F and Chlamydia abortus, respectively. From an evolutionary perspective, both new genotypes, particularly genotype J, are intermediate between the two species, C. psittaci and C. abortus.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves , Chlamydia/classificação , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Psitacose/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
18.
IET Syst Biol ; 6(5): 175-86, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23101872

RESUMO

Recently, a large number of researches have focused on finding cellular modules within protein-protein interaction networks. Until now, most of the works have concentrated on finding small modules and protein complexes. The authors have extended the concept of functional module and have identified larger functional modules which are the most similar to the entire network. To this end, a new hybrid spectral-based method is proposed here. First, the original graph is transformed into a line graph. Next, the nodes of the new graph are represented in the Euclidean space by using spectral methods and finally, a self-organising map is applied to the points in the new feature space. The experimental results show that similar modules, obtained from the proposed method, have own local hubs and lots of significant functional subunits concerning each other. These modules not only detect general biological processes that each protein is involved in, but also due to great similarities to the original network, it can be used as significant subnetworks for predicting protein function as detailed as possible. Some interesting properties of these modules are also investigated in this research.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Modelos Biológicos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador
19.
Iran J Public Health ; 40(2): 18-24, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23113069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a major public health concern around the world. It has been shown that bone mineral density is correlated to anthropometric measures like height and weight, but this association may vary depending on ethnic and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to identify probable relations between anthropometric measures and bone mineral density. METHODS: In this population-based study, we compiled the data collected from Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study to assess the possible associations between different anthropometric indices and bone mineral density at femur and lumbar spine. The gathered data was analyzed using t-test and one way ANOVA. RESULTS: Data was available for 4445 subjects, consisting 1900 males (42.7%) and 2545 females (57.3%). We observed statistically significant correlations between bone mineral density and height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio and body mass index (BMI). Based on the result of linear regression modeling studies, BMI could be considered an independent predictor of bone mineral density. CONCLUSION: Iranian population shows similar measures compared to analogous studies in other populations. Lower weight should be carefully considered as a predisposing factor for bone loss and osteoporosis.

20.
Med Vet Entomol ; 24(1): 88-90, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20377736

RESUMO

Newcastle disease (Paramyxoviridae) is a highly infectious virus shed in the faeces of infected birds. Non-biting Muscid flies characteristically visit manure and decaying organic material to feed and oviposit, and may contribute to disease transmission. The housefly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae), has been implicated as a mechanical vector of numerous pathogens. In this study 2000 aerial net-captured houseflies were examined for their ability to harbour Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In an adjacent study, laboratory-reared flies were experimentally exposed to NDV La Sota strain. The virus was detected in the dissected gastrointestinal tract of laboratory-exposed flies for up to 72 h post-exposure, whereas the untreated control flies were negative.


Assuntos
Moscas Domésticas/virologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Doença de Newcastle/transmissão , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão
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