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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 34, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycosylation, one of the most fundamental post-translational modifications, is altered in cancer and is subject in part, to epigenetic regulation. As there are many epigenetic-targeted therapies currently in clinical trials for the treatment of a variety of cancers, it is important to understand the impact epi-therapeutics have on glycosylation. RESULTS: Ovarian and triple negative breast cancer cells were treated with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-AZA-2-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-dC). Branching and sialylation were increased on secreted N-glycans from chemo-sensitive/non-metastatic cell lines following treatment with 5-AZA-dC. These changes correlated with increased mRNA expression levels in MGAT5 and ST3GAL4 transcripts in ovarian cancer cell lines. Using siRNA transient knock down of GATA2 and GATA3 transcription factors, we show that these regulate the glycosyltransferases ST3GAL4 and MGAT5, respectively. Moreover, 5-AZA-dC-treated cells displayed an increase in migration, with a greater effect seen in chemo-sensitive cell lines. Western blots showed an increase in apoptotic and senescence (p21) markers in all 5-AZA-dC-treated cells. The alterations seen in N-glycans from secreted glycoproteins in 5-AZA-dC-treated breast and ovarian cancer cells were similar to the N-glycans previously known to potentiate tumour cell survival. CONCLUSIONS: While the FDA has approved epi-therapeutics for some cancer treatments, their global effect is still not fully understood. This study gives insight into the effects that epigenetic alterations have on cancer cell glycosylation, and how this potentially impacts on the overall fate of those cells.

2.
Invest New Drugs ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052557

RESUMO

Background The MYC oncogene is one of the most frequently altered driver genes in cancer. MYC is thus a potential target for cancer treatment as well as a biomarker for the disease. However, as a target for treatment, MYC has traditionally been regarded as "undruggable" or difficult to target. We set out to evaluate the efficacy of a novel MYC inhibitor known as MYCMI-6, which acts by preventing MYC from interacting with its cognate partner MAX. Methods MYCMI-6 response was assessed in a panel of breast cancer cell lines using MTT assays and flow cytometry. MYC gene amplification, mRNA and protein expression was analysed using the TCGA and METABRIC databases. Results MYCMI-6 inhibited cell growth in breast cancer cell lines with IC50 values varying form 0.3 µM to >10 µM. Consistent with its ability to decrease cell growth, MYCMI-6 was found to induce apoptosis in two cell lines in which growth was inhibited but not in two cell lines that were resistant to growth inhibition. Across all breast cancers, MYC was found to be amplified in 15.3% of cases in the TCGA database and 26% in the METABRIC database. Following classification of the breast cancers by their molecular subtypes, MYC was most frequently amplified and exhibited highest expression at both mRNA and protein level in the basal subtype. Conclusions Based on these findings, we conclude that for patients with breast cancer, anti-MYC therapy is likely to be most efficacious in patients with the basal subtype.

3.
Thorax ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097604

RESUMO

False negatives from nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in SARS-CoV-2 are high. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains lower respiratory droplets that may improve detection. We performed EBC RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 genes (E, S, N, ORF1ab) on NPS-positive (n=16) and NPS-negative/clinically positive COVID-19 patients (n=15) using two commercial assays. EBC detected SARS-CoV-2 in 93.5% (29/31) using the four genes. Pre-SARS-CoV-2 era controls (n=14) were negative. EBC was positive in NPS negative/clinically positive patients in 66.6% (10/15) using the identical E and S (E/S) gene assay used for NPS, 73.3% (11/15) using the N/ORF1ab assay and 14/15 (93.3%) combined.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one mechanism of action of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies trastuzumab and pertuzumab. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), like lapatinib, may have added therapeutic value in combination with mAbs through enhanced ADCC activity. Using clinical data, we examined the impact of lapatinib on HER2/EGFR expression levels and natural killer (NK) cell gene signatures. We investigated the ability of three TKIs (lapatinib, afatinib, and neratinib) to alter HER2/immune-related protein levels in preclinical models of HER2-positive (HER2+) and HER2-low breast cancer, and the subsequent effects on trastuzumab/pertuzumab-mediated ADCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Preclinical studies (proliferation assays, Western blotting, high content analysis, and flow cytometry) employed HER2+ (SKBR3 and HCC1954) and HER2-low (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, and CAL-51) breast cancer cell lines. NCT00524303 provided reverse phase protein array-determined protein levels of HER2/pHER2/EGFR/pEGFR. RNA-based NK cell gene signatures (CIBERSORT/MCP-counter) post-neoadjuvant anti-HER2 therapy were assessed (NCT00769470/NCT01485926). ADCC assays utilized flow cytometry-based protocols. RESULTS: Lapatinib significantly increased membrane HER2 levels, while afatinib and neratinib significantly decreased levels in all preclinical models. Single-agent lapatinib increased HER2 or EGFR levels in 10 of 11 (91%) tumor samples. NK cell signatures increased posttherapy (P = 0.03) and associated with trastuzumab response (P = 0.01). TKI treatment altered mAb-induced NK cell-mediated ADCC in vitro, but it did not consistently correlate with HER2 expression in HER2+ or HER2-low models. The ADCC response to trastuzumab and pertuzumab combined did not exceed either mAb alone. CONCLUSIONS: TKIs differentially alter tumor cell phenotype which can impact NK cell-mediated response to coadministered antibody therapies. mAb-induced ADCC response is relevant when rationalizing combinations for clinical investigation.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008814

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with estrogen receptor- and/or progesterone receptor-positive, early breast cancer benefit from hormonal treatment, yet high global death burdens due to high prevalence and long-term recurrence risk call for biomarkers to guide additional treatment approaches. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From a prospective, observational study of postmenopausal early breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, gene expression analyses of 612 tumors was performed using the NanoString Breast Cancer 360 panel to interrogate 23 breast cancer pathways. Candidate signatures associated with disease subtype and event-free survival (EFS) were obtained by cluster analysis, Cox modeling, and conditional inference trees, and were independently tested in 613 patients from BreastMark. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were assessed on tissue sections, and mutational burden was assessed in 36 tumors by whole-exome sequencing. RESULTS: PAM50-derived classification distinguished lower-risk (Luminal A) from higher-risk subtypes (Luminal B, P = 0.04; HER2, P = 0.006; Basal, P = 0.008). In higher-risk patients, shorter EFS was associated with low androgen receptor [HR = 3.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-7.56; P = 0.001] or high BRCAness signature expression (HR = 3.58; 95% CI, 1.19-10.7; P = 0.023). BRCAness was independently confirmed as a predictor of shorter EFS (HR = 2.64; 95% CI, 1.31-5.34; P = 0.007). About 13%-15% of patients, enriched for high-grade, higher-risk subtypes (P ≤ 0.0001), had strong expression of the Tumor Inflammation Signature (TIS) suggestive of an inhibited antitumor immune response. TIS scores were strongly associated with TIL numbers (P < 1e-30) but not with tumor mutation status. CONCLUSIONS: BRCA-related DNA repair deficiency and suppressed tumor immune responses may be clinically relevant predictors of endocrine therapy complementing treatment options in subgroups of hormone-sensitive early breast cancer.

6.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850359

RESUMO

Background: Glycosylation is one of the most fundamental post-translational modifications. Importantly, glycosylation is altered in many cancers. These alterations have been proven to impact on tumor progression and to promote tumor cell survival. From the literature, it is known that there is a clear link between chemoresistance and hypoxia, hypoxia and epigenetics and more recently glycosylation and epigenetics. Methods and Results: Our objective was to investigate these differential parameters, in an in vitro model of ovarian and breast cancer. Ovarian (A2780, A2780cis, PEO1, PEO4) and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436) cells were exposed to differential hypoxic conditions (0.5-2% O2) and compared to normoxia (21% O2). Results demonstrated that in hypoxic conditions some significant changes in glycosylation on the secreted N-glycans from the ovarian and breast cancer cell lines were observed. These included, alterations in oligomannosylated, bisected glycans, glycans with polylactosamine extensions, in branching, galactosylation and sialylation in all cell lines except for PEO1. In general, hypoxia exposed ovarian and TNBC cells also displayed increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration, with a greater effect seen in the 0.5% hypoxia exposed samples compared to 1 and 2% hypoxia (p ≤ 0.05). SiRNA transient knock down of GATA2/3 transcription factors resulted in a decrease in the expression of glycosyltransferases ST3GAL4 and MGAT5, which are responsible for sialylation and branching, respectively. Conclusions: These glycan changes are known to be integral to cancer cell survival and metastases, suggesting a possible mechanism of action, linking GATA2 and 3, and invasiveness of both ovarian and TNBC cells in vitro.

7.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 92, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of histone modifications is poorly characterized in breast cancer, especially within the major subtypes. While epigenetic modifications may enhance the adaptability of a cell to both therapy and the surrounding environment, the mechanisms by which this is accomplished remains unclear. In this study we focus on the HER2 subtype and investigate two histone trimethylations that occur on the histone 3; the trimethylation located at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) found in active promoters and the trimethylation located at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) that correlates with gene repression. A bivalency state is the result of the co-presence of these two marks at the same promoter. METHODS: In this study we investigated the relationship between these histone modifications in promoter regions and their proximal gene expression in HER2+ breast cancer cell lines. In addition, we assessed these patterns with respect to the presence or absence of the estrogen receptor (ER). To do this, we utilized ChIP-seq and matching RNA-seq from publicly available data for the AU565, SKBR3, MB361 and UACC812 cell lines. In order to visualize these relationships, we used KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and Kaplan-Meyer plots. RESULTS: We found that the correlation between the three types of promoter trimethylation statuses (H3K4me3, H3K27me3 or both) and the expression of the proximal genes was highly significant overall, while roughly a third of all genes are regulated by this phenomenon. We also show that there are several pathways related to cancer progression and invasion that are associated with the bivalent status of the gene promoters, and that there are specific differences between ER+ and ER- HER2+ breast cancer cell lines. These specific differences that are differentially trimethylated are also shown to be differentially expressed in patient samples. One of these genes, HIF1AN, significantly correlates with patient outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of looking at epigenetic markings at a subtype specific level by characterizing the relationship between the bivalent promoters and gene expression. This provides a deeper insight into a mechanism that could lead to future targets for treatment and prognosis, along with oncogenesis and response to therapy of HER2+ breast cancer patients.

8.
Biomolecules ; 9(11)2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766231

RESUMO

The need for practical biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains largely unmet. Here we investigated the use of blood-based microRNAs as prognostic biomarkers for AD and their application in a novel electrochemical microfluidic device for microRNA detection. MicroRNA transcriptome was profiled in plasma from patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. MicroRNAs Let-7b and microRNA-206 were validated at elevated levels in MCI and AD, respectively. MicroRNA-206 displayed a strong correlation with cognitive decline and memory deficits. Longitudinal follow-ups over five years identified microRNA-206 increases preceding the onset of dementia. MicroRNA-206 was increased in unprocessed plasma of AD and MCI subjects, detected by our microfluidic device. While increased Let-7b levels in plasma may be used to identify patients with MCI, changes in plasma levels of microRNA-206 may be used to predict cognitive decline and progression towards dementia at an MCI stage. MicroRNA quantification via a microfluidic device could provide a practical cost-effective tool for the stratification of patients with MCI according to risk of developing AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(23): 7139-7150, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409615

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is a subtype of breast cancer accounting for 10% of breast tumors. The majority of patients are treated with endocrine therapy; however, endocrine resistance is common in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and new therapeutic strategies are needed. Bromodomain and extraterminal inhibitors (BETi) are effective in diverse types of breast cancer but they have not yet been assessed in ILC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We assessed whether targeting the BET proteins with JQ1 could serve as an effective therapeutic strategy in ILC in both 2D and 3D models. We used dynamic BH3 profiling and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify transcriptional reprograming enabling resistance to JQ1-induced apoptosis. As part of the RATHER study, we obtained copy-number alterations and RNA-seq on 61 ILC patient samples. RESULTS: Certain ILC cell lines were sensitive to JQ1, while others were intrinsically resistant to JQ1-induced apoptosis. JQ1 treatment led to an enhanced dependence on antiapoptotic proteins and a transcriptional rewiring inducing fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1). This increase in FGFR1 was also evident in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cell lines. The combination of JQ1 and FGFR1 inhibitors was highly effective at inhibiting growth in both 2D and 3D models of ILC and IDC. Interestingly, we found in the RATHER cohort of 61 ILC patients that 20% had FGFR1 amplification and we showed that high BRD3 mRNA expression was associated with poor survival specifically in ILC. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that BETi either alone or in combination with FGFR1 inhibitors or BH3 mimetics may be a useful therapeutic strategy for recurrent ILC patients.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azepinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Lobular/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Triazóis/farmacologia , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(10): 1731-1743, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289138

RESUMO

Divergent roles for androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer have been reported. Following aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment, the conversion of circulating androgens into estrogens can be diminished by >99%. We wished to establish whether the steroid environment can dictate the role of AR and the implications of this for subsequent therapy. This study utilizes models of AI resistance to explore responsiveness to PI3K/mTOR and anti-AR therapy when cells are exposed to unconverted weak androgens. Transcriptomic alterations driven by androstenedione (4AD) were assessed by RNA-sequencing. AR and estrogen receptor (ER) recruitment to target gene promoters was evaluated using ChIP, and relevance to patient profiles was performed using publicly available data sets. Although BEZ235 showed decreased viability across AI-sensitive and -resistant cell lines, anti-AR treatment elicited a decrease in cell viability only in the AI-resistant model. Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 3 (SGK3) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor ß (PKIB) were confirmed to be regulated by 4AD and shown to be mediated by AR; crucially, reexposure to estradiol suppressed expression of these genes. Meta-analysis of transcript levels showed high expression of SGK3 and PKIB to be associated with poor response to endocrine therapy (HR = 2.551, P = 0.003). Furthermore, this study found levels of SGK3 to be sustained in patients who do not respond to AI therapy. This study highlights the importance of the tumor steroid environment. SGK3 and PKIB are associated with poor response to endocrine therapy and could have utility in tailoring therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Androstenodiona/farmacologia , Inibidores da Aromatase/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Estradiol/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 965, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lapatinib has clinical efficacy in the treatment of trastuzumab-refractory HER2-positive breast cancer. However, a significant proportion of patients develop progressive disease due to acquired resistance to the drug. Induction of apoptotic cell death is a key mechanism of action of lapatinib in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. METHODS: We examined alterations in regulation of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in cell line models of acquired lapatinib resistance both in vitro and in patient samples from the NCT01485926 clinical trial, and investigated potential strategies to exploit alterations in apoptosis signalling to overcome lapatinib resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer. RESULTS: In this study, we examined two cell lines models of acquired lapatinib resistance (SKBR3-L and HCC1954-L) and showed that lapatinib does not induce apoptosis in these cells. We identified alterations in members of the BCL-2 family of proteins, in particular MCL-1 and BAX, which may play a role in resistance to lapatinib. We tested the therapeutic inhibitor obatoclax, which targets MCL-1. Both SKBR3-L and HCC1954-L cells showed greater sensitivity to obatoclax-induced apoptosis than parental cells. Interestingly, we also found that the development of acquired resistance to lapatinib resulted in acquired sensitivity to TRAIL in SKBR3-L cells. Sensitivity to TRAIL in the SKBR3-L cells was associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT, increased expression of FOXO3a and decreased expression of c-FLIP. In SKBR3-L cells, TRAIL treatment caused activation of caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3/7. In a second resistant model, HCC1954-L cells, p-AKT levels were not decreased and these cells did not show enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL. Furthermore, combining obatoclax with TRAIL improved response in SKBR3-L cells but not in HCC1954-L cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the possibility of targeting altered apoptotic signalling to overcome acquired lapatinib resistance, and identify potential novel treatment strategies, with potential biomarkers, for HER2-positive breast cancer that is resistant to HER2 targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Lapatinib/farmacologia , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/biossíntese , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes erbB-2 , Humanos , Lapatinib/uso terapêutico , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/uso terapêutico
12.
Transl Oncol ; 11(6): 1343-1349, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196236

RESUMO

TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer and thus an attractive target for novel cancer therapy. Several compounds that can reactive mutant p53 protein have been identified. APR-246 is currently being tested in a phase II clinical trial in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. We have used RNA-seq analysis to study the effects of APR-246 on gene expression in human breast cancer cell lines. Although the effect of APR-246 on gene expression was largely cell line dependent, six genes were upregulated across all three cell lines studied, i.e., TRIM16, SLC7A11, TXNRD1, SRXN1, LOC344887, and SLC7A11-AS1. We did not detect upregulation of canonical p53 target genes such as CDKN1A (p21), 14-3-3σ, BBC3 (PUMA), and PMAIP1 (NOXA) by RNA-seq, but these genes were induced according to analysis by qPCR. Gene ontology analysis showed that APR-246 induced changes in pathways such as response to oxidative stress, gene expression, cell proliferation, response to nitrosative stress, and the glutathione biosynthesis process. Our results are consistent with the dual action of APR-246, i.e., reactivation of mutant p53 and modulation of redox activity. SLC7A11, TRIM16, TXNRD1, and SRXN1 are potential new pharmacodynamic biomarkers for assessing the response to APR-246 in both preclinical and clinical studies.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9986, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968748

RESUMO

Seizures in neonates, mainly caused by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, are thought to be harmful to the brain. Phenobarbital remains the first line drug therapy for the treatment of suspected neonatal seizures but concerns remain with efficacy and safety. Here we explored the short- and long-term outcomes of phenobarbital treatment in a mouse model of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures. Seizures were induced in P7 mice by exposure to 5% O2 for 15 minutes. Immediately after hypoxia, pups received a single dose of phenobarbital (25 mg.kg-1) or saline. We observed that after administration of phenobarbital seizure burden and number of seizures were reduced compared to the hypoxic period; however, PhB did not suppress acute histopathology. Behavioural analysis of mice at 5 weeks of age previously subjected to hypoxia-seizures revealed an increase in anxiety-like behaviour and impaired memory function compared to control littermates, and these effects were not normalized by phenobarbital. In a seizure susceptibility test, pups previously exposed to hypoxia, with or without phenobarbital, developed longer and more severe seizures in response to kainic acid injection compared to control mice. Unexpectedly, mice treated with phenobarbital developed less hippocampal damage after kainic acid than untreated counterparts. The present study suggests phenobarbital treatment in immature mice does not improve the long lasting functional deficits induces by hypoxia-induced seizures but, unexpectedly, may reduce neuronal death caused by exposure to a second seizure event in later life.


Assuntos
Fenobarbital/farmacologia , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Ácido Caínico/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenobarbital/metabolismo
14.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 10: 1758834017746040, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383036

RESUMO

Background: The application of genomic technologies to patient tumor samples identified groups of signaling pathways which acquire activating mutations. Some cancers are dependent on these mutations and the aberrant proteins resulting from these mutations can be targeted by novel drugs which can eradicate the cancer. Methods: We used www.cbioportal.org to determine the frequency of ERBB mutations in solid tumors. We then determined the sensitivity of a panel of cell lines to clinically available PI3K inhibitors. Using proliferation and apoptosis assays as well as functional interrogation with reverse phase protein arrays we demonstrated the impact of targeting ERBB-mutant cancers with the combination of a PI3K inhibitor and the pan-HER family inhibitor afatinib. Results: In over 14,000 patients we found that 12% of their tumors have an ERBB family gene mutation (EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3 and ERBB4). In cancers not commonly associated with HER family protein overexpression, such as ovarian, endometrial, melanoma and head and neck cancers (n = 2116), we found that ERBB family mutations are enriched, occurring at rates from 14% to 34% and commonly co-occur with PIK3CA mutations. Importantly, we demonstrate that ERBB family mutant cancers are sensitive to treatment with PI3K inhibitors. Finally we show that the combination of afatinib and copanlisib represents a novel therapeutic strategy for patients whose cancers harbor both ERBB family and PIK3CA mutation. Conclusions: We demonstrate that ERBB family mutations are common in cancers not associated with overexpression or amplification of HER family proteins. These ERBB family mutant cancers are sensitive to treatment with PI3K inhibitors, and when combined with pan-HER inhibitors have synergistic antiproliferative effects.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(7): 1617-1628, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339440

RESUMO

Purpose: Unprecedented clinical outcomes have been achieved in a variety of cancers by targeting immune checkpoint molecules. This preclinical study investigates heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an immunosuppressive enzyme that is expressed in a wide variety of cancers, as a potential immune checkpoint target in the context of a chemotherapy-elicited antitumor immune response. We evaluate repurposing tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), which has demonstrated safety and efficacy targeting hepatic HO in the clinic for the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia, as an immune checkpoint blockade therapy for the treatment of cancer.Experimental Design: SnMP and genetic inactivation of myeloid HO-1 were evaluated alongside 5-fluorouracil in an aggressive spontaneous murine model of breast cancer (MMTV-PyMT). Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis, tumor microarray, and clinical survival data from breast cancer patients were used to support the clinical relevance of our observations.Results: We demonstrate that SnMP inhibits immune suppression of chemotherapy-elicited CD8+ T cells by targeting myeloid HO-1 activity in the tumor microenvironment. Microarray and survival data from breast cancer patients reveal that HO-1 is a poor prognostic factor in patients receiving chemotherapy. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis suggests that the myeloid lineage is a significant source of HO-1 expression, and is co-expressed with the immune checkpoints PD-L1/2 in human breast tumors. In vivo, we therapeutically compare the efficacy of targeting these two pathways alongside immune-stimulating chemotherapy, and demonstrate that the efficacy of SnMP compares favorably with PD-1 blockade in preclinical models.Conclusions: SnMP could represent a novel immune checkpoint therapy, which may improve the immunological response to chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1617-28. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Metaloporfirinas/farmacologia , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
16.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 442, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618601

RESUMO

Prolonged seizures (status epilepticus, SE) may drive hippocampal dysfunction and epileptogenesis, at least partly, through an elevation in neurogenesis, dysregulation of migration and aberrant dendritic arborization of newly-formed neurons. MicroRNA-22 was recently found to protect against the development of epileptic foci, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the contribution of microRNA-22 to SE-induced aberrant adult neurogenesis. SE was induced by intraamygdala microinjection of kainic acid (KA) to model unilateral hippocampal neuropathology in mice. MicroRNA-22 expression was suppressed using specific oligonucleotide inhibitors (antagomir-22) and newly-formed neurons were visualized using the thymidine analog iodo-deoxyuridine (IdU) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing retrovirus to visualize the dendritic tree and synaptic spines. Using this approach, we quantified differences in the rate of neurogenesis and migration, the structure of the apical dendritic tree and density and morphology of dendritic spines in newly-formed neurons.SE resulted in an increased rate of hippocampal neurogenesis, including within the undamaged contralateral dentate gyrus (DG). Newly-formed neurons underwent aberrant migration, both within the granule cell layer and into ectopic sites. Inhibition of microRNA-22 exacerbated these changes. The dendritic diameter and the density and average volume of dendritic spines were unaffected by SE, but these parameters were all elevated in mice in which microRNA-22 was suppressed. MicroRNA-22 inhibition also reduced the length and complexity of the dendritic tree, independently of SE. These data indicate that microRNA-22 is an important regulator of morphogenesis of newly-formed neurons in adults and plays a role in supressing aberrant neurogenesis associated with SE.

17.
Oncotarget ; 8(49): 85120-85135, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156708

RESUMO

Purpose: The MEK/MAPK pathway is commonly activated in HER2-positive breast cancer, but little investigation of targeting this pathway has been undertaken. Here we present the results of an in vitro preclinical evaluation of refametinib, an allosteric MEK1/2 inhibitor, in HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines including models of acquired resistance to trastuzumab or lapatinib. Methods: A panel of HER2-positive breast cancer cells were profiled for mutational status and also for anti-proliferative response to refametinib alone and in combination with the PI3K inhibitor (PI3Ki) copanlisib and the HER2-targeted therapies trastuzumab and lapatinib. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) was used to determine the effect of refametinib alone and in combination with PI3Ki and HER2-inhibitors on expression and phosphorylation of proteins in the PI3K/AKT and MEK/MAPK pathways. We validated our proteomic in vitro findings by utilising RPPA analysis of patients who received either trastuzumab, lapatinib or the combination of both drugs in the NCT00524303/LPT109096 clinical trial. Results: Refametinib has anti-proliferative effects when used alone in 2/3 parental HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines (HCC1954, BT474), along with 3 models of these 2 cell lines with acquired trastuzumab or lapatinib resistance (6 cell lines tested). Refametinib treatment led to complete inhibition of MAPK signalling. In HCC1954, the most refametinib-sensitive cell line (IC50= 397 nM), lapatinib treatment inhibits phosphorylation of MEK and MAPK but activates AKT phosphorylation, in contrast to the other 2 parental cell lines tested (BT474-P, SKBR3-P), suggesting that HER2 may directly activate MEK/MAPK and not PI3K/AKT in HCC1954 cells but not in the other 2 cell lines, perhaps explaining the refametinib-sensitivity of this cell line. Using RPPA data from patients who received either trastuzumab, lapatinib or the combination of both drugs together with chemotherapy in the NCT00524303 clinical trial, we found that 18% (n=38) of tumours had decreased MAPK and increased AKT phosphorylation 14 days after treatment with HER2-targeted therapies. The combination of MEK inhibition (MEKi) with refametinib and copanlisib led to synergistic inhibition of growth in 4/6 cell lines tested (CI @ED75 = 0.39-0.75), whilst the combinations of lapatinib and refametinib led to synergistic inhibition of growth in 3/6 cell lines (CI @ED75 = 0.39-0.80). Conclusion: Refametinib alone or in combination with copanlisib or lapatinib could represent an improved treatment strategy for some patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, and should be considered for clinical trial evaluation. The direct down-regulation of MEK/MAPK but not AKT signalling by HER2 inhibition (e.g. by lapatinib or trastuzumab), which we demonstrate occurs in 18% of HER2-positive breast cancers may serve as a potential biomarker of responsiveness to the MEK inhibitor refametinib.

18.
Cell Immunol ; 319: 35-42, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab is an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy capable of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and used in the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer. Through interactions with FcÆ´R+ immune cell subsets, trastuzumab functions as a passive immunotherapy. The EGFR/HER2-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lapatinib and the next generation TKIs afatinib and neratinib, can alter HER2 levels, potentially modulating the ADCC response to trastuzumab. Using LDH-release assays, we investigated the impact of antigen modulation, assay duration and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) activity on trastuzumab-mediated ADCC in breast cancer models of maximal (SKBR3) and minimal (MCF-7) target antigen expression to determine if modulating the ADCC response to trastuzumab using TKIs may be a viable approach for enhancing tumor immune reactivity. METHODS: HER2 levels were determined in lapatinib, afatinib and neratinib-treated SKBR3 and MCF-7 using high content analysis (HCA). Trastuzumab-mediated ADCC was assessed following treatment with TKIs utilising a colorimetric LDH release-based protocol at 4 and 12h timepoints. PBMC activity was assessed against non-MHC-restricted K562 cells. A flow cytometry-based method (CFSE/7-AAD) was also used to measure trastuzumab-mediated ADCC in medium-treated SKBR3 and MCF-7. RESULTS: HER2 antigen levels were significantly altered by the three TKIs in both cell line models. The TKIs significantly reduced LDH levels directly in SKBR3 cells but not MCF-7. Lapatinib and neratinib augment trastuzumab-related ADCC in SKBR3 but the effect was not consistent with antigen expression levels and was dependent on volunteer PBMC activity (vs. K562). A 12h assay timepoint produced more consistent results. Trastuzumab-mediated ADCC (PBMC:target cell ratio of 10:1) was measured at 7.6±4.7% (T12) by LDH assay and 19±3.2 % (T12) using the flow cytometry-based method in the antigen-low model MCF-7. CONCLUSIONS: In the presence of effector cells with high cytotoxic capacity, TKIs have the ability to augment the passive immunotherapeutic potential of trastuzumab in SKBR3, a model of HER2+ breast cancer. ADCC levels detected by LDH release assays are extremely low in MCF-7; the flow cytometry-based CFSE/7-AAD method is more sensitive and consistent for the determination of ADCC in HER2-low models.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Trastuzumab/farmacologia , Afatinib , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/genética , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Células K562 , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Lapatinib , Células MCF-7 , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Breast Cancer Res ; 19(1): 87, 2017 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28750640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis revealed that somatic EGFR, receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (ERBB2), Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (ERBB3) and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) gene mutations (ERBB family mutations) occur alone or co-occur with somatic mutations in the gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) in 19% of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers. Because ERBB family mutations can activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and likely have similar canonical signalling effects to PI3K pathway mutations, we investigated their combined impact on response to neoadjuvant HER2-targeted therapies. METHODS: Baseline tumour biopsies were available from 74 patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who were enrolled in the phase II TCHL neoadjuvant study (ICORG 10-05) assessing TCH (docetaxel, carboplatin, trastuzumab) (n = 38) versus TCL (docetaxel, carboplatin, lapatinib) (n = 10) versus TCHL (docetaxel, carboplatin, trastuzumab, lapatinib) (n = 40), each for six cycles. Activating mutations in PIK3CA and ERBB family genes were identified using mass spectrometry-based genotyping. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: PIK3CA and/or ERBB family mutations were detected in 23 (31.1%) tumour samples tested, whereas PTEN expression was low in 31.1% of cases tested. Mutation frequency was similar in each treatment arm (31.3% in TCH arm, 30% in TCL arm and 31.3% in TCHL arm) and was not influenced by oestrogen receptor (ER) status (27.6% in ER-negative patients, 33.3% in ER-positive patients) or progesterone receptor (PR) status (32.6% in PR-negative patients, 29% in PR-positive patients). There was no significant difference in pathological complete response (pCR) rates between 47 patients with wild-type (WT) tumours and 22 patients whose tumours carried mutations (in either PIK3CA or ERBB family genes) (42.5% vs. 54.5%; p = 0.439). Similarly, there was no significant difference in pCR rates between patients with PIK3CA/ERBB family mutated/PTEN-low (i.e., PI3K-activated) tumours and patients without PI3K activation (50% vs. 44%; p = 0.769). However, in the TCHL (but not the TCH) group, the pCR rate was higher for 9 patients with PIK3CA/ERBB family mutated tumours than for 20 patients with PIK3CA/ERBB family WT tumours (77.8% vs. 35%; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that patients who receive neoadjuvant TCHL and have PIK3CA/ERBB family mutated tumours may be more likely to have a pCR than patients with WT tumours. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01485926 . Registered on 2 December 2011.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lapatinib , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem
20.
Int J Oncol ; 50(6): 2221-2228, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498399

RESUMO

Although HER2 targeted therapies have improved prognosis for HER2 positive breast cancer, HER2 positive cancers which co-express ER have poorer response rates to standard HER2 targeted therapies, combined with chemotherapy, than HER2 positive/ER negative breast cancer. Administration of hormone therapy concurrently with chemotherapy and HER2 targeted therapy is generally not recommended. Using publically available gene expression datasets we found that high expression of IGF1R is associated with shorter disease-free survival in patients whose tumors are ER positive and HER2 positive. IGF1R is frequently expressed in HER2 positive breast cancer and there is significant evidence for crosstalk between IGF1R and both HER2 and ER. Therefore, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of targeting ER and IGF1R in cell line models of HER2/ER/IGF1R positive breast cancer, using tamoxifen and two IGF1R targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (NVP-AEW541 and BMS-536924). Dual inhibition of ER and IGF1R enhanced growth inhibition in the four HER2 positive cell lines tested and caused an increase in cell cycle arrest in G1 in BT474 cells. In addition, combined treatment with trastuzumab, tamoxifen and either of the IGF1R TKIs enhanced response compared to dual targeting strategies in three of the four HER2 positive breast cancer cell lines tested. Furthermore, in a cell line model of trastuzumab-resistant HER2 positive breast cancer (BT474/Tr), tamoxifen combined with an IGF1R TKI produced a similar enhanced response as observed in the parental BT474 cells suggesting that this combination may overcome acquired trastuzumab resistance in this model. Combining ER and IGF1R targeting with HER2 targeted therapies may be an alternative to HER2 targeted therapy and chemotherapy for patients with HER2/ER/IGF1R positive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores de Somatomedina/genética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor IGF Tipo 1 , Receptores de Somatomedina/antagonistas & inibidores , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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