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3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186458

RESUMO

Digital medical records have enabled us to employ clinical data in many new and innovative ways. However, these advances have brought with them a complex set of demands for healthcare institutions regarding data sharing with topics such as data ownership, the loss of privacy, and the protection of the intellectual property. The lack of clear guidance from government entities often creates conflicting messages about data policy, leaving institutions to develop guidelines themselves. Through discussions with multiple stakeholders at various institutions, we have generated a set of guidelines with 10 key principles to guide the responsible and appropriate use and sharing of clinical data for the purposes of care and discovery. Industry, universities, and healthcare institutions can build upon these guidelines toward creating a responsible, ethical, and practical response to data sharing.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146666

RESUMO

Importance: After disparate results from observational and small randomized studies, the COMPLETE trial demonstrated superiority of multivessel (MV) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) over culprit-only PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Objective: To describe temporal trends and institutional variation of MV PCI use for STEMI in the United States to inform how new evidence may influence clinical practice. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included STEMI admissions involving MV disease from 1598 institutions in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry from the third quarter of 2009 to the first quarter of 2018. An MV PCI was defined as a PCI to a nonculprit lesion within 45 days of the index procedure. Exposures: Multivessel PCI, defined as placement of coronary stents in 2 or more major epicardial vessels or the staged placement of 1 or more coronary stents in a major epicardial vessel distinct from the index culprit vessel, within 45 days of the index PCI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes included the proportional use of MV PCI among STEMI admissions with MV disease, and the timing of MV PCI (an index procedure, a staged procedure during index hospitalization, or a postdischarge procedure within 45 days). Results: Among 359 879 admissions with STEMI and MV disease, MV PCI was performed in 38.5% (n = 138 380; mean [SD] age of patients, 62.3 [12.3] years; 102 266 men [73.9%]) within 45 days. Of those receiving MV PCIs, 30.8% (n = 42 629) had a procedure performed during the index procedure, 31.6% (n = 43 696) as a staged procedure during the index hospitalization, and 37.6% (n = 52 055) within 45 days of discharge. Complete revascularization of all diseased arteries was performed in 76.2% (n = 105 389). From the third quarter of 2009 to the second quarter of 2013, MV PCI use declined by 10%, from 42.7% (3230 of 7572 cases) to a nadir of 32.7% (3386 of 10 342 cases), followed by an increase to 44.0% (5062 of 11 497 cases) by the fourth quarter of 2017. During this time, there was a 13.6% decline in use of postdischarge staged MV PCI (from 23.4% of STEMI cases [1772 of 7572 cases] in the third quarter of 2009 to 9.9% [1094 of 11 171 cases] in the fourth quarter of 2014) and an 12.5% increase in MV PCI performed during the index admission (from 19.3% [1458 of 7572 cases] in the third quarter of 2009 to 31.8% [3557 of 11 171 cases] in the first quarter of 2018). Multivessel PCI use varied substantially across institutions, with a median use of 37.9% (interquartile range, 30.0%-46.5%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this large, nationwide analysis, MV PCI use for patients with STEMI has been increasing through early 2018 but was used in the minority of patients and with wide variability across US institutions. The adoption of new trial results into guidelines and practice may further promote the growth of MV PCI.

5.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(12): 1885-1893, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accurate estimations of surgical case durations can lead to the cost-effective utilization of operating rooms. We developed a novel machine learning approach, using both structured and unstructured features as input, to predict a continuous probability distribution of surgical case durations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data set consisted of 53 783 surgical cases performed over 4 years at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital. Features extracted included categorical (American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] Physical Status, inpatient status, day of week), continuous (scheduled surgery duration, patient age), and unstructured text (procedure name, surgical diagnosis) variables. A mixture density network (MDN) was trained and compared to multiple tree-based methods and a Bayesian statistical method. A continuous ranked probability score (CRPS), a generalized extension of mean absolute error, was the primary performance measure. Pinball loss (PL) was calculated to assess accuracy at specific quantiles. Performance measures were additionally evaluated on common and rare surgical procedures. Permutation feature importance was measured for the best performing model. RESULTS: MDN had the best performance, with a CRPS of 18.1 minutes, compared to tree-based methods (19.5-22.1 minutes) and the Bayesian method (21.2 minutes). MDN had the best PL at all quantiles, and the best CRPS and PL for both common and rare procedures. Scheduled duration and procedure name were the most important features in the MDN. CONCLUSIONS: Using natural language processing of surgical descriptors, we demonstrated the use of ML approaches to predict the continuous probability distribution of surgical case durations. The more discerning forecast of the ML-based MDN approach affords opportunities for guiding intelligent schedule design and day-of-surgery operational decisions.

6.
Chest ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributes to pulmonary hypertension (PH) pathogenesis. While animal data suggest RAAS inhibition attenuates PH, it is unknown if RAAS inhibition is beneficial in PH patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is RAAS inhibitor use associated with lower mortality in a large cohort of patients with hemodynamically confirmed PH? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We used the Department of Veterans Affairs Clinical Assessment Reporting and Tracking Database to retrospectively study relationships between RAAS inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs], angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs] and aldosterone antagonists [AAs]) and mortality in 24,221 patients with hemodynamically confirmed PH. We evaluated relationships in the full and in propensity-matched cohorts. Analyses were adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, disease severity and co-medication use in staged models. RESULTS: ACEI/ARB use was associated with improved survival in unadjusted Kaplan-Meier survival analyses in the full cohort and the propensity-matched cohort. This relationship was insensitive to adjustment, independent of pulmonary artery wedge pressure and also observed in a cohort restricted to individuals with pre-capillary PH. AA use was associated with worse survival in unadjusted Kaplan-Meier survival analyses in the full cohort; however, AA use was less robustly associated with mortality in the propensity-matched cohort and not associated with worse survival after adjustment for disease severity, indicating that that AAs in real-world practice are preferentially used in sicker patients and that the unadjusted association with increased mortality may be an artifice of confounding by indication of severity. INTERPRETATION: ACEI/ARB use is associated with lower mortality in veterans with PH. AA use is a marker of disease severity in PH. ACEIs/ARBs may represent a novel treatment strategy for diverse PH phenotypes.

9.
10.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(10): 1317-1327, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833024

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with high mortality, particularly among patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Recent evidence suggests that use of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be associated with harm. However, little is known about recent patterns of care and outcomes for this patient population. Objective: To evaluate patterns in the use of multivessel PCI vs culprit-vessel PCI in AMI and cardiogenic shock and outcomes in the US from 2009 to 2018. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study identified all patients in the CathPCI Registry) with AMI and cardiogenic shock who had multivessel coronary artery disease and underwent PCI between July 1, 2009, and March 31, 2018. Exposures: Multivessel or culprit-vessel PCI for AMI and shock. Primary Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Temporal trends and hospital variation in PCI strategies were evaluated, while accounting for differences in case mix using hierarchical models. As a secondary outcome, the association of PCI strategy with postdischarge outcomes was evaluated in the subset of patients who were Medicare beneficiaries. Results: Of 64 301 patients (mean [SD] age, 66.4 [12.5] years; 20 366 [31.7%] female; 54 538 [84.8%] White) with AMI and shock at 1649 US hospitals, 34.9% had primary multivessel PCI. In the subgroup of 48 943 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 31.5% underwent multivessel PCI. Between 2009 and 2018, this percentage increased by 6.7% per year for AMI and 5.8% for STEMI. Overall, multivessel PCI was associated with a greater adjusted risk of in-hospital complications (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.14-1.23) and with greater in-hospital mortality in patients with STEMI (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.06-1.16). Among Medicare beneficiaries, multivessel PCI use was not associated with postdischarge 1-year mortality (51.5% vs 49.8%; risk-adjusted OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.04; P = .37). Significant hospital variation was found in the use of multivessel PCI, with a higher multivessel PCI rate for similar patients across hospitals (median OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.33-1.41). Patients at hospitals with high rates of PCI in STEMI use had higher risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality (highest vs lowest hospital multivessel PCI quartile: OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that multivessel PCI was increasingly used as the revascularization strategy in AMI and shock and that hospitals that used multivessel PCI more, especially among patients with STEMI, had worse outcomes. With recent evidence suggesting harm with this strategy, there appears to be an urgent need to change practice and improve outcomes in this high-risk population.

12.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(7): 743-751, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies examining the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in atrial fibrillation (AF) have largely focused on patients newly initiating therapy. Little is known about the prevalence/patterns of switching to DOACs among AF patients initially treated with warfarin. HYPOTHESIS: To examine patterns of anticoagulation among patients chronically managed with warfarin upon the availability of DOACs and identify patient/practice-level factors associated with switching from chronic warfarin therapy to a DOAC. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of AF patients in the NCDR PINNACLE registry prescribed warfarin between May 1, 2008 and May 1, 2015. Patients were followed at least 1 year (median length of follow-up 375 days, IQR 154-375) through May 1, 2016 and stratified as follows: continued warfarin, switched to DOAC, or discontinued anticoagulation. To identify significant predictors of switching, a three-level multivariable hierarchical regression was developed. RESULTS: Among 383 008 AF patients initially prescribed warfarin, 16.3% (n = 62 620) switched to DOACs, 68.8% (n = 263 609) continued warfarin, and 14.8% (n = 56 779) discontinued anticoagulation. Among those switched, 37.6% received dabigatran, 37.0% rivaroxaban, 24.4% apixaban, and 1.0% edoxaban. Switched patients were more likely to be younger, women, white, and have private insurance (all P < .001). Switching was less likely with increased stroke risk (OR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.91-0.93 per 1-point increase CHA2 DS2 -VASc), but more likely with increased bleeding risk (OR, 1.12; 95%CI, 1.10-1.13 per 1-point increase HAS-BLED). There was substantial variation at the practice-level (MOR, 2.33; 95%CI, 2.12-2.58) and among providers within the same practice (MOR, 1.46; 95%CI, 1.43-1.49). CONCLUSIONS: Among AF patients treated with warfarin between October 1, 2010 and May 1, 2016, one in six were switched to DOACs, with differences across sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and substantial practice-level variation. In the context of current guidelines which favor DOACs over warfarin, these findings help benchmark performance and identify areas of improvement.

14.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(6): e006284, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy is an increasingly viable alternative for patients who are not candidates for heart transplantation or who are waiting for a suitable donor. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between sex, race/ethnicity, insurance coverage, and neighborhood income and access to/outcomes of LVAD implantation. We further analyzed whether access to LVAD improved in states that did versus did not expand Medicaid. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective cohort study using State Inpatient Databases to identify patients 18 to 85 years of age admitted for heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or LVAD implantation from 2012 to 2015. Logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, all the sociodemographic factors above, medical comorbidities, and a hospital random effect were used to quantify odds of receipt of LVADs, as well as outcomes conditional on receiving an LVAD, for the sociodemographic groups of interest. A total of 925 770 patients were included; 3972 (0.43%) received LVADs. After adjusting for age, comorbidities, and hospital effects, women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.45 [0.41-0.49]), black patients (aOR, 0.83 [0.74-0.92]), and Hispanic patients (aOR, 0.74 [0.64-0.87]) were less likely to receive LVADs than whites. Medicare (aOR, 0.79 [0.72-0.86]), Medicaid (aOR, 0.52 [0.46-0.58]), and uninsured patients (aOR, 0.17 [0.11-0.25]) were less likely to receive LVADs than the privately insured, and patients in low-income ZIP codes were less likely than those in higher income areas (aOR, 0.71 [0.65-0.77]). Among those who received LVADs, women (aOR, 1.78 [1.38-2.30]), patients of unknown race or race other than white, black, or Hispanic (aOR, 1.97 [1.42-2.74]), and uninsured patients (aOR, 4.86 [1.92-12.28]) had higher rates of in-hospital mortality. Medicaid expansion was not associated with an increase in LVAD implantation. CONCLUSIONS: There are meaningful sociodemographic disparities in access and outcomes for LVAD implantation. Medicaid expansion was not associated with an increase in LVAD rates.

15.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 150, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury (CA-AKI) is a serious complication associated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an elevated risk for developing this complication. Although CA-AKI prophylactic measures are available, the supporting literature is variable and inconsistent for periprocedural hydration and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), but is stronger for contrast minimization. METHODS: We assessed the prevalence and variability of CA-AKI prophylaxis among CKD patients undergoing PCI between October 2007 and September 2015 in any cardiac catheterization laboratory in the VA Healthcare System. Prophylaxis included periprocedural hydration with normal saline or sodium bicarbonate, NAC, and contrast minimization (contrast volume to glomerular filtration rate ratio ≤ 3). Multivariable hierarchical logistic regression models quantified site-specific prophylaxis variability. As secondary analyses, we also assessed CA-AKI prophylaxis measures in all PCI patients regardless of kidney function, periprocedural hydration in patients with comorbid CHF, and temporal trends in CA-AKI prophylaxis. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2015, 15,729 patients with CKD underwent PCI. 6928 (44.0%) received periprocedural hydration (practice-level median rate 45.3%, interquartile range (IQR) 35.5-56.7), 5107 (32.5%) received NAC (practice-level median rate 28.3%, IQR 22.8-36.9), and 4656 (36.0%) received contrast minimization (practice-level median rate 34.5, IQR 22.6-53.9). After adjustment for patient characteristics, there was significant site variability with a median odds ratio (MOR) of 1.80 (CI 1.56-2.08) for periprocedural hydration, 1.95 (CI 1.66-2.29) for periprocedural hydration or NAC, and 2.68 (CI 2.23-3.15) for contrast minimization. These trends were similar among all patients (with and without CKD) undergoing PCI. Among patients with comorbid CHF (n = 5893), 2629 (44.6%) received periprocedural hydration, and overall had less variability in hydration (MOR of 1.56 (CI 1.38-1.76)) compared to patients without comorbid CHF (1.89 (CI 1.65-2.18)). Temporal trend analysis showed a significant and clinically relevant decrease in NAC use (64.1% of cases in 2008 (N = 1059), 6.2% of cases in 2015 (N = 128, p = < 0.0001)) and no significant change in contrast-minimization (p = 0.3907). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CKD undergoing PCI, there was low utilization and significant site-level variability for periprocedural hydration and NAC independent of patient-specific risk. This low utilization and high variability, however, was also present for contrast minimization, a well-established measure. These findings suggest that a standardized approach to CA-AKI prophylaxis, along with continued development of the evidence base, is needed.

16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(8): 2266-2273, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between risk factor or biomarker trajectories and contemporaneous short-term clinical outcomes is poorly understood. In diabetes patients, it is unknown whether hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) trajectories are associated with clinical outcomes and can inform care in scenarios in which a single HbA1c is uninformative, for example, after a diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVE: To compare associations of HbA1c trajectories and single HbA1c values with short-term mortality in diabetes patients evaluated for CAD DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study PARTICIPANTS: Diabetes patients (n = 7780) with and without angiographically defined CAD MAIN MEASURES: We used joint latent class mixed models to simultaneously fit HbA1c trajectories and estimate association with 2-year mortality after cardiac catheterization, adjusting for clinical and demographic covariates. KEY RESULTS: Three HBA1c trajectory classes were identified: individuals with stable glycemia (class A; n = 6934 [89%]; mean baseline HbA1c 6.9%), with declining HbA1c (class B; n = 364 [4.7%]; mean baseline HbA1c 11.6%), and with increasing HbA1c (class C; n = 482 [6.2%]; mean baseline HbA1c 8.5%). HbA1c trajectory class was associated with adjusted 2-year mortality (3.0% [95% CI 2.8, 3.2] for class A, 3.1% [2.1, 4.2] for class B, and 4.2% [3.4, 4.9] for class C; global P = 0.047, P = 0.03 comparing classes A and C, P > 0.05 for other pairwise comparisons). Baseline HbA1c was not associated with 2-year mortality (P = 0.85; hazard ratios 1.01 [0.96, 1.06] and 1.02 [0.95, 1.10] for HbA1c 7-9% and ≥ 9%, respectively, relative to HbA1c < 7%). The association between HbA1c trajectories and mortality did not differ between those with and without CAD (interaction P = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: In clinical settings where single HbA1c measurements provide limited information, HbA1c trajectories may help stratify risk of complications in diabetes patients. Joint latent class modeling provides a generalizable approach to examining relationships between biomarker trajectories and clinical outcomes in the era of near-universal adoption of electronic health records.

18.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(4): e005977, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicare patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have been a significant focus of value-based payment programs for outpatient practices. Physicians and policymakers, however, have voiced concern that value-based payment programs may penalize practices that serve vulnerable populations. This study evaluated whether outpatient practices that serve socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have worse CAD outcomes, and if this reflects the delivery of lower-quality care or rather, patient and community factors beyond the care provided by physician practices. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective cohort study of Medicare fee-for-service patients ≥65 years with CAD at outpatient practices participating in the the Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence registry from January 1, 2010 to January 1, 2015. Outpatient practices were stratified into quintiles by the proportion of most disadvantaged patients-defined by an area deprivation score in the highest 20% nationally-served at each practice site. Prescription of guideline recommended therapies for CAD as well as clinical outcomes (emergency department presentation for chest pain, hospital admission for unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction [AMI], 30-day readmission after AMI, and 30-day mortality after AMI) were evaluated by practice-level socioeconomic disadvantage with hierarchical logistic regression models, using practices serving the fewest socioeconomically disadvantaged patients as a reference. The study included 453 783 Medicare fee-for-service patients ≥65 years of age with CAD (mean [SD] age, 75.3 [7.7] years; 39.7% female) cared for at 271 outpatient practices. At practices serving the highest proportion of socioeconomically disadvantaged patients (group 5), compared with practices serving the lowest proportion (group 1), there was no significant difference in the likelihood of prescription of antiplatelet therapy (odds ratio [OR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.69-1.27]), ß-blocker therapy if prior myocardial infarction or left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.69-1.35]), ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker if left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and/or diabetes mellitus (OR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.74-1.19]), statin therapy (OR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.68-1.14]), or cardiac rehabilitation (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.20-1.00]). Patients cared for at the most disadvantaged-serving practices (group 5) were more likely to be admitted for unstable angina (adjusted OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.04-2.05]). There was no significant difference in the likelihood of emergency department presentation for chest pain or hospital admission for AMI between practices. Thirty day mortality rates after AMI were higher among patients at the most disadvantaged-serving practices (aOR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.02-1.68]), but 30-day readmission rates did not differ. All associations were attenuated after additional adjustment for patient-level area deprivation index. CONCLUSIONS: Physician outpatient practices that serve the most socioeconomically disadvantaged patients with CAD perform worse on some clinical outcomes, despite providing similar guideline-recommended care as other practices, and consequently could fare poorly under value-based payment programs. Social factors beyond care provided by outpatient practices may partly explain worse outcomes. Policymakers should consider accounting for socioeconomic disadvantage in value-based payment programs initiatives that target outpatient practices.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Medicare/normas , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Classe Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/normas , Seguro de Saúde Baseado em Valor , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/economia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/normas , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Seguro de Saúde Baseado em Valor/economia
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(10): 1500-1507, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276760

RESUMO

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have a favorable bleeding risk profile in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the safety of individual DOACs relative to warfarin for specific bleeding outcomes is less certain. We identified 423,450 patients with AF between 2013 to 2015 in the NCDR PINNACLE national ambulatory registry matched to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services database. Outcomes included time to first major bleed, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), major gastrointestinal bleed (GIB), or other major bleed. We estimated the association of OAC with bleeding using Cox proportional hazard models. The median duration of follow-up was 1.4 years. OACs were used in 64% of AF patients (66% warfarin, 15% rivaroxaban, 12% dabigatran, and 7% apixaban). A major bleeding event occurred in 6.9% of patients. Compared with warfarin users, fewer patients experienced ICH with the use of rivaroxaban (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.84), dabigatran (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.65), and apixaban (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.55 to 0.90). The risk of major GIB was higher in rivaroxaban users (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.27), and lower in dabigatran (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.95) and apixaban (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.95) users. For any DOAC versus warfarin, age (≥75 or <75 years) interacted with major bleeding (HR 0.93 vs 0.78; p <0.001), GIB (HR 1.10 vs 0.82; p <0.001), and other major bleeding (HR 0.93 vs 0.80; p <0.001). In conclusion, our results suggest that the safety of DOACs is superior to warfarin in AF patients, except with rivaroxaban and GIB. Age ≥75 years attenuated the relative safety benefits of DOACs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Flutter Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Administração Oral , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos , Varfarina/administração & dosagem
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(3): e006275, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156164

RESUMO

Background Ticagrelor and prasugrel are potent P2Y12 inhibitors with superior efficacy compared with clopidogrel among patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), though use in recent practice is not well described. In this retrospective study, we assessed trends, predictors, and variation in use of P2Y12 inhibitors in patients with STEMI in the United States. Methods and Results We identified 169 505 STEMI patients in the Chest Pain-Myocardial Infarction Registry from October 2013 through March 2017. We determined national utilization rates of P2Y12 inhibitors at discharge, patient predictors for each medication, and variation in use between hospitals. In a subset of 9655 Medicare patients ≥65 years old, we compared 1-year adjusted risks of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and bleeding based on hospital quartile of potent P2Y12 inhibitor use. Rates of ticagrelor use increased from 18.0% to 44.0%, while rates of prasugrel and clopidogrel use decreased from 24.6% to 13.5% and 57.4% to 42.6%, respectively. Prior percutaneous coronary intervention was the strongest clinical predictor for use of ticagrelor (adjusted odds ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.09-1.18]) and prasugrel (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.21-1.34]) compared with clopidogrel. Predictors of clopidogrel use included no insurance, insurance with Medicare or Medicaid, and features associated with higher bleeding risk. The median hospital usage rate for newer P2Y12 inhibitors was 51.3% (interquartile range, 35.0%-65.9%), with substantial variation between hospitals (adjusted median odds ratio, 2.92 [95% CI, 2.77-3.10]). Among patients ≥65 years old, there were no differences in adjusted 1-year risks of adverse outcomes across hospital quartiles of potent P2Y12 inhibitor use. Conclusions Almost one-half of STEMI patients by 2017 were discharged on ticagrelor while far fewer received prasugrel. Patient characteristics are associated with P2Y12 inhibitor selection, though substantial hospital variation exists. Identifying barriers to use of more potent P2Y12 inhibitors may improve patient-centered decision-making for STEMI patients.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/tendências , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Idoso , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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