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Materials (Basel) ; 14(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803965


Nowadays, using fly ash for zeolites production has become a well-known strategy aimed on sustainable development. During zeolite synthesis in a hydrothermal conversion large amount of post-reaction solution is generated. In this work, the solution was used as a substrate for Na-A and Na-X zeolites synthesis at laboratory and technical scale. Obtained materials were characterized using particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm. Produced zeolites revealed high purity (>98%) and monomineral zeolitic phase composition. The SiO2 content was in the range 39-42% and 40-38%, whereas Al2O3 content was 23-22% and 25-26% for Na-X and Na-A, respectively. TEM and BET analyses revealed Na-X zeolite pores were almost identical to commercial 13X with SBET in the range 671-734 m2/g. FTIR indicated slight differences between materials obtained at laboratory and technical scale in Si-O-(Si/Al) bridges of the zeolitic skeleton. The results showed good replicability of the laboratory process in the larger scale. The proposed method allows for waste solution reusability with a view to highly pure zeolites production in line with circular economy assumptions.

Materials (Basel) ; 13(22)2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233399


Zeolites are materials with known sorption properties. The sorption is thought to progress mainly by ion exchange with Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ or H+ from the zeolite exchange sites. The aim of the study was to compare the sorption properties of natural and synthetic zeolites on the example of the removal of selected metals from aqueous acidic solutions. Uptake experiments for selected ions of chromium, manganese, selenium, nickel, cobalt, and iron were performed using the batch and kinetic column methods. The sorption of the individual metal ions in mg per 1g of sorbent was determined for each sorbent. The relative affinity sequence of the examined cations toward the various sorbent was presented. The Langmuir model was used to model the adsorption equilibrium. Vermiculite under 1 mm of diameter (SF), Na-X, and Na-A were proved to be the most suitable for the individual uptake of studied metal ions. It was observed that the behavior of selenium ions differed from the remaining ones which was interpreted that selenium undergoes adsorption in the anionic form. The fixed-bed column studies were performed using Na-A, ensuring the sorption of selenium in the presence of iron(III) ions. The experiments were conducted using Na-X zeolite pre-loaded by Fe(III) as well as unmodified sorbent eluted by an equimolar mixture containing 100 ppm of Fe and Se. Obtained results prove that selenium sorption improves if other metal ions such as iron appear in the acidic solution. That efficient selenium sorption conditions can be applied to remove selenium which was recognized as toxic at higher levels.

Materials (Basel) ; 13(5)2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106436


Coal combustion product in the form of fly ash has been sieved and successfully utilised as a main substrate and a carrier of silicon and aluminium in a set of hydrothermal syntheses of zeolites. The final product was abundant in zeolite X phase (Faujasite framework). Raw fly ash as well as its derivatives, after being sieved (fractions: ≤ 63, 63-125, 125-180 and ≥ 180 µm), and the obtained zeolite materials were subjected to mineralogical characterisation using powder X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, laser diffraction-based particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of fraction separation on the zeolitization process under hydrothermal synthesis was investigated. Analyses performed on the derived zeolite X samples revealed a meaningful impact of the given fly ash fraction on synthesis efficiency, chemistry, quality as well as physicochemical properties, while favouring a given morphological form of zeolite crystals. The obtained zeolites possess great potential for use in many areas of industry and environmental protection or engineering.

Materials (Basel) ; 13(3)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024066


Nowadays, the contamination of water with phenol is a serious environmental problem. This compound occurs very often with heavy metal ions which makes purification of water even more difficult. This article presents the problem of the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions in the presence of Cu(II) ions on synthetic zeolite NaP1 and zeolite NaP1 modified with chitosan. The adsorbents were determined with the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The studies on isotherms and batch kinetics under diversified experimental conditions with respect to initial concentration, contact time, and pH were discussed. Both Cu(II) and phenol adsorption increases with the initial concentration. Different isotherm models correspond well with the data acquired through experiments. The kinetics of adsorption follows the pseudo-second order rate equation. The studies indicate that the obtained sorbents can be employed for efficient removal of phenol from wastewater in the presence of Cu(II) ions.