*Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2207121, 2023 Feb 24.*

##### RESUMO

Weyl semimetal is a unique topological phase with topologically protected band crossings in the bulk and robust surface states called Fermi arcs. Weyl nodes always appear in pairs with opposite chiralities, and they need to have either time-reversal or inversion symmetry broken. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken the minimum number of Weyl points (WPs) is two. If these WPs are located at the Fermi level, they form an ideal Weyl semimetal (WSM). In this study, intrinsic ferromagnetic (FM) EuCd2 As2 are grown, predicted to be an ideal WSM and studied its electronic structure by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy which agrees closely with the first principles calculations. Moreover, anomalous Hall conductivity and Nernst effect are observed, resulting from the non-zero Berry curvature, and the topological Hall effect arising from changes in the band structure caused by spin canting produced by magnetic fields. These findings can help realize several exotic quantum phenomena in inorganic topological materials that are otherwise difficult to assess because of the presence of multiple pairs of Weyl nodes.

*Science ; 377(6611): 1218-1222, 2022 09 09.*

##### RESUMO

Incorporating relativistic physics into quantum tunneling can lead to exotic behavior such as perfect transmission through Klein tunneling. Here, we probed the tunneling properties of spin-momentum-locked relativistic fermions by designing and implementing a tunneling geometry that uses nanowires of the topological Kondo insulator candidate samarium hexaboride. The nanowires are attached to the end of scanning tunneling microscope tips and used to image the bicollinear stripe spin order in the antiferromagnet Fe1.03Te with a Neel temperature of about 50 kelvin. The antiferromagnetic stripes become invisible above 10 kelvin concomitant with the suppression of the topological surface states in the tip. We further demonstrate that the direction of spin polarization is tied to the tunneling direction. Our technique establishes samarium hexaboride nanowires as ideal conduits for spin-polarized currents.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(22): e2121740119, 2022 May 31.*

##### RESUMO

SignificanceThere is an intense ongoing search for two-level quantum systems with long lifetimes for applications in quantum communication and computation. Much research has been focused on studying isolated spins in semiconductors or band insulators. Mott insulators provide an interesting alternative platform but have been far less explored. In this work we use a technique capable of resolving individual spins at atomic length scales, to measure the two-level switching of spin states in 1T-TaS2. We find quasi-1D chains of spin-1/2 electrons embedded in 1T-TaS2 which have exceptionally long lifetimes. The discovery of long-lived spin states in a tractable van der Waal material opens doors to using Mott systems in future quantum information applications.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4420, 2021 Jul 20.*

##### RESUMO

Higher order topological insulators (HOTIs) are a new class of topological materials which host protected states at the corners or hinges of a crystal. HOTIs provide an intriguing alternative platform for helical and chiral edge states and Majorana modes, but there are very few known materials in this class. Recent studies have proposed Bi as a potential HOTI, however, its topological classification is not yet well accepted. In this work, we show that the (110) facets of Bi and BiSb alloys can be used to unequivocally establish the topology of these systems. Bi and Bi0.92Sb0.08 (110) films were grown on silicon substrates using molecular beam epitaxy and studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The surfaces manifest rectangular islands which show localized hinge states on three out of the four edges, consistent with the theory for the HOTI phase. This establishes Bi and Bi0.92Sb0.08 as HOTIs, and raises questions about the topological classification of the full family of BixSb1-x alloys.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4269, 2021 Jul 13.*

##### RESUMO

The physical realization of Chern insulators is of fundamental and practical interest, as they are predicted to host the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect and topologically protected chiral edge states which can carry dissipationless current. Current realizations of the QAH state often require complex heterostructures and sub-Kelvin temperatures, making the discovery of intrinsic, high temperature QAH systems of significant interest. In this work we show that time-reversal symmetry breaking Weyl semimetals, being essentially stacks of Chern insulators with inter-layer coupling, may provide a new platform for the higher temperature realization of robust chiral edge states. We present combined scanning tunneling spectroscopy and theoretical investigations of the magnetic Weyl semimetal, Co3Sn2S2. Using modeling and numerical simulations we find that depending on the strength of the interlayer coupling, chiral edge states can be localized on partially exposed kagome planes on the surfaces of a Weyl semimetal. Correspondingly, our dI/dV maps on the kagome Co3Sn terraces show topological states confined to the edges which display linear dispersion. This work provides a new paradigm for realizing chiral edge modes and provides a pathway for the realization of higher temperature QAH effect in magnetic Weyl systems in the two-dimensional limit.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(13): 137402, 2020 Apr 03.*

##### RESUMO

We elucidate the mechanism by which a Mott insulator transforms into a non-Fermi liquid metal upon increasing disorder at half filling. By correlating maps of the local density of states, the local magnetization, and the local bond conductivity, we find a collapse of the Mott gap toward a V-shaped pseudogapped density of states that occurs concomitantly with the decrease of magnetism around the highly disordered sites but an increase of bond conductivity. These metallic regions percolate to form an emergent non-Fermi liquid phase with a conductivity that increases with temperature. Bond conductivity measured via local microwave impedance combined with charge and spin local spectroscopies are ideal tools to corroborate our predictions.

*Nature ; 579(7800): 523-527, 2020 03.*

##### RESUMO

Spin-triplet superconductors are condensates of electron pairs with spin 1 and an odd-parity wavefunction1. An interesting manifestation of triplet pairing is the chiral p-wave state, which is topologically non-trivial and provides a natural platform for realizing Majorana edge modes2,3. However, triplet pairing is rare in solid-state systems and has not been unambiguously identified in any bulk compound so far. Given that pairing is usually mediated by ferromagnetic spin fluctuations, uranium-based heavy-fermion systems containing f-electron elements, which can harbour both strong correlations and magnetism, are considered ideal candidates for realizing spin-triplet superconductivity4. Here we present scanning tunnelling microscopy studies of the recently discovered heavy-fermion superconductor UTe2, which has a superconducting transition temperature of 1.6 kelvin5. We find signatures of coexisting Kondo effect and superconductivity that show competing spatial modulations within one unit cell. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy at step edges reveals signatures of chiral in-gap states, which have been predicted to exist at the boundaries of topological superconductors. Combined with existing data that indicate triplet pairing in UTe2, the presence of chiral states suggests that UTe2 is a strong candidate for chiral-triplet topological superconductivity.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(10): 5222-5227, 2020 Mar 10.*

##### RESUMO

Sr2RuO4 has long been the focus of intense research interest because of conjectures that it is a correlated topological superconductor. It is the momentum space (k-space) structure of the superconducting energy gap [Formula: see text] on each band i that encodes its unknown superconducting order parameter. However, because the energy scales are so low, it has never been possible to directly measure the [Formula: see text] of Sr2RuO4 Here, we implement Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference (BQPI) imaging, a technique capable of high-precision measurement of multiband [Formula: see text] At T = 90 mK, we visualize a set of Bogoliubov scattering interference wavevectors [Formula: see text] consistent with eight gap nodes/minima that are all closely aligned to the [Formula: see text] crystal lattice directions on both the α and ß bands. Taking these observations in combination with other very recent advances in directional thermal conductivity [E. Hassinger et al., Phys. Rev. X 7, 011032 (2017)], temperature-dependent Knight shift [A. Pustogow et al., Nature 574, 72-75 (2019)], time-reversal symmetry conservation [S. Kashiwaya et al., Phys. Rev B, 100, 094530 (2019)], and theory [A. T. Rømer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 247001 (2019); H. S. Roising, T. Scaffidi, F. Flicker, G. F. Lange, S. H. Simon, Phys. Rev. Res. 1, 033108 (2019); and O. Gingras, R. Nourafkan, A. S. Tremblay, M. Côté, Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 217005 (2019)], the BQPI signature of Sr2RuO4 appears most consistent with [Formula: see text] having [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] symmetry.

*Science ; 367(6473): 104-108, 2020 01 03.*

##### RESUMO

The possible realization of Majorana fermions as quasiparticle excitations in condensed-matter physics has created much excitement. Most studies have focused on Majorana bound states; however, propagating Majorana states with linear dispersion have also been predicted. Here, we report scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements of crystalline domain walls (DWs) in FeSe0.45Te0.55 We located DWs across which the lattice structure shifts by half a unit cell. These DWs have a finite, flat density of states inside the superconducting gap, which is a hallmark of linearly dispersing modes in one dimension. This signature is absent in DWs in the related superconductor, FeSe, which is not in the topological phase. Our combined data are consistent with the observation of dispersing Majorana states at a π-phase shift DW in a proximitized topological material.

*Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(37): 13107-13112, 2019 Sep 09.*

##### RESUMO

Conductivity, carrier mobility, and a suitable Gibbs free energy are important criteria that determine the performance of catalysts for a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, it is a challenge to combine these factors into a single compound. Herein, we discover a superior electrocatalyst for a HER in the recently identified Dirac nodal arc semimetal PtSn4 . The determined turnover frequency (TOF) for each active site of PtSn4 is 1.54â H2 s-1 at 100â mV. This sets a benchmark for HER catalysis on Pt-based noble metals and earth-abundant metal catalysts. We make use of the robust surface states of PtSn4 as their electrons can be transferred to the adsorbed hydrogen atoms in the catalytic process more efficiently. In addition, PtSn4 displays excellent chemical and electrochemical stabilities after long-term exposure in air and long-time HER stability tests.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(44): 11198-11202, 2018 10 30.*

##### RESUMO

A correlated material in the vicinity of an insulator-metal transition (IMT) exhibits rich phenomenology and a variety of interesting phases. A common avenue to induce IMTs in Mott insulators is doping, which inevitably leads to disorder. While disorder is well known to create electronic inhomogeneity, recent theoretical studies have indicated that it may play an unexpected and much more profound role in controlling the properties of Mott systems. Theory predicts that disorder might play a role in driving a Mott insulator across an IMT, with the emergent metallic state hosting a power-law suppression of the density of states (with exponent close to 1; V-shaped gap) centered at the Fermi energy. Such V-shaped gaps have been observed in Mott systems, but their origins are as-yet unknown. To investigate this, we use scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to study isovalent Ru substitutions in Sr3(Ir1-xRux)2O7 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) which drive the system into an antiferromagnetic, metallic state. Our experiments reveal that many core features of the IMT, such as power-law density of states, pinning of the Fermi energy with increasing disorder, and persistence of antiferromagnetism, can be understood as universal features of a disordered Mott system near an IMT and suggest that V-shaped gaps may be an inevitable consequence of disorder in doped Mott insulators.

*Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1550, 2018 04 19.*

##### RESUMO

Orbital degrees of freedom can have pronounced effects on the fundamental properties of electrons in solids. In addition to influencing bandwidths, gaps, correlation strength and dispersion, orbital effects have been implicated in generating novel electronic and structural phases. Here we show how the orbital nature of bands can result in non-trivial effects of strain on band structure. We use scanning-tunneling microscopy to study the effects of strain on the electronic structure of a heteroepitaxial thin film of a topological crystalline insulator, SnTe. By studying the effects of uniaxial strain on the band structure we find a surprising effect where strain applied in one direction has the most pronounced influence on the band structure along the perpendicular direction. Our theoretical calculations indicate that this effect arises from the orbital nature of the conduction and valence bands. Our results imply that a microscopic model capturing strain effects must include a consideration of the orbital nature of bands.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 118(10): 106405, 2017 Mar 10.*

##### RESUMO

We report a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy study of the charge density wave (CDW) order in 1T-TiSe_{2} and Cu_{0.08}TiSe_{2}. In pristine 1T-TiSe_{2} we observe a long-range coherent commensurate CDW (CCDW) order. In contrast, Cu_{0.08}TiSe_{2} displays an incommensurate CDW (ICDW) phase with localized CCDW domains separated by domain walls. Density of states measurements indicate that the domain walls host an extra population of fermions near the Fermi level which may play a role in the emergence of superconductivity in this system. Fourier transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy studies suggest that the dominant mechanism for CDW formation in the ICDW phase may be electron-phonon coupling.

*Nat Nanotechnol ; 10(10): 849-53, 2015 Oct.*

##### RESUMO

The unique crystalline protection of the surface states in topological crystalline insulators has led to a series of predictions of strain-generated phenomena, from the appearance of pseudo-magnetic fields and helical flat bands to the tunability of Dirac surface states by strain that may be used to construct 'straintronic' nanoswitches. However, the practical realization of this exotic phenomenology via strain engineering is experimentally challenging and is yet to be achieved. Here, we have designed an experiment to not only generate and measure strain locally, but also to directly measure the resulting effects on Dirac surface states. We grew heteroepitaxial thin films of topological crystalline insulator SnTe in situ and measured them using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy to determine picoscale changes in the atomic positions, which reveal regions of both tensile and compressive strain. Simultaneous Fourier-transform scanning tunnelling spectroscopy was then used to determine the effects of strain on the Dirac electrons. We find that strain continuously tunes the momentum space position of the Dirac points, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our work demonstrates the fundamental mechanism necessary for using topological crystalline insulators in strain-based applications.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 114(25): 257203, 2015 Jun 26.*

##### RESUMO

The electronic phase diagram of the weak spin-orbit Mott insulator (Sr(1-x)La(x))(3)Ir(2)O(7) is determined via an exhaustive experimental study. Upon doping electrons via La substitution, an immediate collapse in resistivity occurs along with a narrow regime of nanoscale phase separation comprised of antiferromagnetic, insulating regions and paramagnetic, metallic puddles persisting until x≈0.04. Continued electron doping results in an abrupt, first-order phase boundary where the Néel state is suppressed and a homogenous, correlated, metallic state appears with an enhanced spin susceptibility and local moments. As the metallic state is stabilized, a weak structural distortion develops and suggests a competing instability with the parent spin-orbit Mott state.

*Nat Commun ; 6: 6559, 2015 Mar 27.*

##### RESUMO

Bismuth chalcogenides and lead telluride/selenide alloys exhibit exceptional thermoelectric properties that could be harnessed for power generation and device applications. Since phonons play a significant role in achieving these desired properties, quantifying the interaction between phonons and electrons, which is encoded in the Eliashberg function of a material, is of immense importance. However, its precise extraction has in part been limited due to the lack of local experimental probes. Here we construct a method to directly extract the Eliashberg function using Landau level spectroscopy, and demonstrate its applicability to lightly doped thermoelectric bulk insulator PbSe. In addition to its high energy resolution only limited by thermal broadening, this novel experimental method could be used to detect variations in mass enhancement factor at the nanoscale level. This opens up a new pathway for investigating the local effects of doping and strain on the mass enhancement factor.

*Nat Mater ; 14(3): 318-24, 2015 Mar.*

##### RESUMO

The tunability of topological surface states and controllable opening of the Dirac gap are of fundamental and practical interest in the field of topological materials. In the newly discovered topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), theory predicts that the Dirac node is protected by a crystalline symmetry and that the surface state electrons can acquire a mass if this symmetry is broken. Recent studies have detected signatures of a spontaneously generated Dirac gap in TCIs; however, the mechanism of mass formation remains elusive. In this work, we present scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) measurements of the TCI Pb1-xSnxSe for a wide range of alloy compositions spanning the topological and non-topological regimes. The STM topographies reveal a symmetry-breaking distortion on the surface, which imparts mass to the otherwise massless Dirac electrons-a mechanism analogous to the long sought-after Higgs mechanism in particle physics. Interestingly, the measured Dirac gap decreases on approaching the trivial phase, whereas the magnitude of the distortion remains nearly constant. Our data and calculations reveal that the penetration depth of Dirac surface states controls the magnitude of the Dirac mass. At the limit of the critical composition, the penetration depth is predicted to go to infinity, resulting in zero mass, consistent with our measurements. Finally, we discover the existence of surface states in the non-topological regime, which have the characteristics of gapped, double-branched Dirac fermions and could be exploited in realizing superconductivity in these materials.

*Nat Commun ; 5: 3377, 2014 Feb 25.*

##### RESUMO

Interest in many strongly spin-orbit-coupled 5d-transition metal oxide insulators stems from mapping their electronic structures to a J(eff)=1/2 Mott phase. One of the hopes is to establish their Mott parent states and explore these systems' potential of realizing novel electronic states upon carrier doping. However, once doped, little is understood regarding the role of their reduced Coulomb interaction U relative to their strongly correlated 3d-electron cousins. Here we show that, upon hole-doping a candidate J(eff)=1/2 Mott insulator, carriers remain localized within a nanoscale phase-separated ground state. A percolative metal-insulator transition occurs with interplay between localized and itinerant regions, stabilizing an antiferromagnetic metallic phase beyond the critical region. Our results demonstrate a surprising parallel between doped 5d- and 3d-electron Mott systems and suggest either through the near-degeneracy of nearby electronic phases or direct carrier localization that U is essential to the carrier response of this doped spin-orbit Mott insulator.

*J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 13(1): 85-90, 2014.*

##### RESUMO

We conducted a study to investigate HIV and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) coinfection among patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the triple infection's (HIV/HBV/HDV) clinical implications in India, an intermediate HBV endemic region, with an estimated HIV-positive population of 2.5 million. A total of 450 patients (men: 270; women: 180) with chronic HBV infections and 135 healthy volunteers were screened for HIV and HDV. The incidence of the triple infection was low (4 [0.8%]) compared with dual infections of HIV-1/HBV (7 [1.5%]) and HBV/HDV (22[4.8%]). Among 21- to 40-year-olds, HBV/HDV coinfection (45.8%) and HBV/HDV/HIV-1 triple infection was predominant (75%). Among 11 patients coinfected with HIV-1/HBV, 4 (36%) were tri-infected and were also associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. The HDV coinfection was higher among patients coinfected with HBV/HIV-1, despite the declining trend in HDV infection among HIV-negative patients, as previously reported. Thus, it is important to assess the impact of HIV, chronic HBV, and HDV tri-infection in India.