Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 11 de 11
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(17): e2100383, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938638

RESUMO

Indwelling arterial lines, the clinical gold standard for continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), have significant drawbacks due to their invasive nature, ischemic risk, and impediment to natural body movement. A noninvasive, wireless, and accurate alternative would greatly improve the quality of patient care. Recently introduced classes of wireless, skin-interfaced devices offer capabilities in continuous, precise monitoring of physiologic waveforms and vital signs in pediatric and neonatal patients, but have not yet been employed for continuous tracking of systolic and diastolic BP-critical for guiding clinical decision-making in the PICU. The results presented here focus on materials and mechanics that optimize the system-level properties of these devices to enhance their reliable use in this context, achieving full compatibility with the range of body sizes, skin types, and sterilization schemes typically encountered in the PICU. Systematic analysis of the data from these devices on 23 pediatric patients, yields derived, noninvasive BP values that can be quantitatively validated against direct recordings from arterial lines. The results from this diverse cohort, including those under pharmacological protocols, suggest that wireless, skin-interfaced devices can, in certain circumstances of practical utility, accurately and continuously monitor BP in the PICU patient population.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Sinais Vitais , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele
2.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(7): 759-771, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045731

RESUMO

Evaluating the biomechanics of soft tissues at depths well below their surface, and at high precision and in real time, would open up diagnostic opportunities. Here, we report the development and application of miniaturized electromagnetic devices, each integrating a vibratory actuator and a soft strain-sensing sheet, for dynamically measuring the Young's modulus of skin and of other soft tissues at depths of approximately 1-8 mm, depending on the particular design of the sensor. We experimentally and computationally established the operational principles of the devices and evaluated their performance with a range of synthetic and biological materials and with human skin in healthy volunteers. Arrays of devices can be used to spatially map elastic moduli and to profile the modulus depth-wise. As an example of practical medical utility, we show that the devices can be used to accurately locate lesions associated with psoriasis. Compact electronic devices for the rapid and precise mechanical characterization of living tissues could be used to monitor and diagnose a range of health disorders.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Pele/química , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miniaturização , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos , Vibração , Adulto Jovem
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(5)2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468630

RESUMO

Precise, quantitative measurements of the hydration status of skin can yield important insights into dermatological health and skin structure and function, with additional relevance to essential processes of thermoregulation and other features of basic physiology. Existing tools for determining skin water content exploit surrogate electrical assessments performed with bulky, rigid, and expensive instruments that are difficult to use in a repeatable manner. Recent alternatives exploit thermal measurements using soft wireless devices that adhere gently and noninvasively to the surface of the skin, but with limited operating range (∼1 cm) and high sensitivity to subtle environmental fluctuations. This paper introduces a set of ideas and technologies that overcome these drawbacks to enable high-speed, robust, long-range automated measurements of thermal transport properties via a miniaturized, multisensor module controlled by a long-range (∼10 m) Bluetooth Low Energy system on a chip, with a graphical user interface to standard smartphones. Soft contact to the surface of the skin, with almost zero user burden, yields recordings that can be quantitatively connected to hydration levels of both the epidermis and dermis, using computational modeling techniques, with high levels of repeatability and insensitivity to ambient fluctuations in temperature. Systematic studies of polymers in layered configurations similar to those of human skin, of porcine skin with known levels of hydration, and of human subjects with benchmarks against clinical devices validate the measurement approach and associated sensor hardware. The results support capabilities in characterizing skin barrier function, assessing severity of skin diseases, and evaluating cosmetic and medication efficacy, for use in the clinic or in the home.


Assuntos
Eletrônica , Pele/patologia , Água , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Temperatura
4.
Sci Adv ; 6(49)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277260

RESUMO

Present-day dermatological diagnostic tools are expensive, time-consuming, require substantial operational expertise, and typically probe only the superficial layers of skin (~15 µm). We introduce a soft, battery-free, noninvasive, reusable skin hydration sensor (SHS) adherable to most of the body surface. The platform measures volumetric water content (up to ~1 mm in depth) and wirelessly transmits data to any near-field communication-compatible smartphone. The SHS is readily manufacturable, comprises unique powering and encapsulation strategies, and achieves high measurement precision (±5% volumetric water content) and resolution (±0.015°C skin surface temperature). Validation on n = 16 healthy/normal human participants reveals an average skin water content of ~63% across multiple body locations. Pilot studies on patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), psoriasis, urticaria, xerosis cutis, and rosacea highlight the diagnostic capability of the SHS (P AD = 0.0034) and its ability to study impact of topical treatments on skin diseases.

5.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(574)2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328330

RESUMO

Precise form-fitting of prosthetic sockets is important for the comfort and well-being of persons with limb amputations. Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressure and temperature at the skin-prosthesis interface can be valuable in the fitting process and in monitoring for the development of dangerous regions of increased pressure and temperature as limb volume changes during daily activities. Conventional pressure transducers and temperature sensors cannot provide comfortable, irritation-free measurements because of their relatively rigid construction and requirements for wired interfaces to external data acquisition hardware. Here, we introduce a millimeter-scale pressure sensor that adopts a soft, three-dimensional design that integrates into a thin, flexible battery-free, wireless platform with a built-in temperature sensor to allow operation in a noninvasive, imperceptible fashion directly at the skin-prosthesis interface. The sensor system mounts on the surface of the skin of the residual limb, in single or multiple locations of interest. A wireless reader module attached to the outside of the prosthetic socket wirelessly provides power to the sensor and wirelessly receives data from it, for continuous long-range transmission to a standard consumer electronic device such as a smartphone or tablet computer. Characterization of both the sensor and the system, together with theoretical analysis of the key responses, illustrates linear, accurate responses and the ability to address the entire range of relevant pressures and to capture skin temperature accurately, both in a continuous mode. Clinical application in two prosthesis users demonstrates the functionality and feasibility of this soft, wireless system.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Desenho de Prótese , Pele , Temperatura
6.
Small ; 14(47): e1803192, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369049

RESUMO

Precise, quantitative measurements of the thermal properties of human skin can yield insights into thermoregulatory function, hydration, blood perfusion, wound healing, and other parameters of clinical interest. The need for wired power supply systems and data communication hardware limits, however, practical applicability of existing devices designed for measurements of this type. Here, a set of advanced materials, mechanics designs, integration schemes, and wireless circuits is reported as the basis for wireless, battery-free sensors that softly interface to the skin to enable precise measurements of its temperature and thermal transport properties. Calibration processes connect these parameters to the hydration state of the skin, the dynamics of near-surface flow through blood vessels and implanted catheters, and to recovery processes following trauma. Systematic engineering studies yield quantitative metrics in precision and reliability in real-world conditions. Evaluations on five human subjects demonstrate the capabilities in measurements of skin hydration and injury, including examples of continuous wear and monitoring over a period of 1 week, without disrupting natural daily activities.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Tecnologia sem Fio , Humanos
7.
Science ; 354(6308): 99-102, 2016 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846499

RESUMO

Scaling of silicon (Si) transistors is predicted to fail below 5-nanometer (nm) gate lengths because of severe short channel effects. As an alternative to Si, certain layered semiconductors are attractive for their atomically uniform thickness down to a monolayer, lower dielectric constants, larger band gaps, and heavier carrier effective mass. Here, we demonstrate molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) transistors with a 1-nm physical gate length using a single-walled carbon nanotube as the gate electrode. These ultrashort devices exhibit excellent switching characteristics with near ideal subthreshold swing of ~65 millivolts per decade and an On/Off current ratio of ~106 Simulations show an effective channel length of ~3.9 nm in the Off state and ~1 nm in the On state.

8.
Adv Mater ; 28(21): 4053-8, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007751

RESUMO

Gold-mediated exfoliation of ultralarge optoelectronically perfect monolayers with lateral dimensions up to ≈500 µm is reported. Electrical, optical, and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy characterization show that the quality of the gold-exfoliated flakes is similar to that of tape-exfoliated flakes. Large-area flakes allow manufacturing of large-area mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenide electronics.

9.
Adv Mater ; 28(13): 2547-54, 2016 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26833783

RESUMO

Monolithic 3D integrated circuits using transition metal dichalcogenide materials and low-temperature processing are reported. A variety of digital and analog circuits are implemented on two sequentially integrated layers of devices. Inverter circuit operation at an ultralow supply voltage of 150 mV is achieved, paving the way to high-density, ultralow-voltage, and ultralow-power applications.

10.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10502, 2016 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26813257

RESUMO

The III-V compound semiconductors exhibit superb electronic and optoelectronic properties. Traditionally, closely lattice-matched epitaxial substrates have been required for the growth of high-quality single-crystal III-V thin films and patterned microstructures. To remove this materials constraint, here we introduce a growth mode that enables direct writing of single-crystalline III-V's on amorphous substrates, thus further expanding their utility for various applications. The process utilizes templated liquid-phase crystal growth that results in user-tunable, patterned micro and nanostructures of single-crystalline III-V's of up to tens of micrometres in lateral dimensions. InP is chosen as a model material system owing to its technological importance. The patterned InP single crystals are configured as high-performance transistors and photodetectors directly on amorphous SiO2 growth substrates, with performance matching state-of-the-art epitaxially grown devices. The work presents an important advance towards universal integration of III-V's on application-specific substrates by direct growth.

11.
Science ; 350(6264): 1065-8, 2015 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26612948

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a promising material system for optoelectronic applications, but their primary figure of merit, the room-temperature photoluminescence quantum yield (QY), is extremely low. The prototypical 2D material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is reported to have a maximum QY of 0.6%, which indicates a considerable defect density. Here we report on an air-stable, solution-based chemical treatment by an organic superacid, which uniformly enhances the photoluminescence and minority carrier lifetime of MoS2 monolayers by more than two orders of magnitude. The treatment eliminates defect-mediated nonradiative recombination, thus resulting in a final QY of more than 95%, with a longest-observed lifetime of 10.8 ± 0.6 nanoseconds. Our ability to obtain optoelectronic monolayers with near-perfect properties opens the door for the development of highly efficient light-emitting diodes, lasers, and solar cells based on 2D materials.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...