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1.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 2150132720984757, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601930

RESUMO

METHODS: We conducted 8 focus group discussions with a total of 51 HCWs comprising nurses, lay counsellors, social workers, and dieticians. The HCWs were selected from 23 health facilities in a rural South African health district by purposive sampling. Data were transcribed verbatim, and data analysis followed qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS: A high proportion of HCWs had no formal training in pediatric disclosure and some had never disclosed to children. Those who routinely disclosed approached disclosure as an ongoing process that unfolded over time. They ensured caregiver readiness as a necessary step in the disclosure process. The main barriers for HCWs to participate fully in the disclosure process were the lack of relevant disclosure guidelines, inadequate disclosure skills, and a shortage of skilled staff. Inadequate skills affected the confidence of the HCWs to disclose, while a lack of standardized disclosure guidelines and HCWs' reliance on personal experience during disclosure resulted in confusion and uncertainty among them due to the inconsistencies in their approach to disclosure. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the urgent need to train HCWs to attain skills and confidence in disclosure. Training HCWs in standardized disclosure counselling would lead to an increase in the rate of disclosure to children. It is essential that the district adapt the disclosure guidelines to the local context for use in health facilities.

2.
Children (Basel) ; 7(12)2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260717

RESUMO

Informing adolescents of their HIV serostatus forms part of their HIV care and is a critical step in the transition to adult clinical care services. This article describes the experiences of adolescents with perinatal HIV in regard to disclosure, and examines the impact disclosure has on their emotional health and behaviors. We used a qualitative design to conduct interviews with 21 adolescents aged 12-19 years recruited from a rural district in South Africa. NVivo 10 computer software was used for thematic analyses. All adolescents were aware of their HIV-serostatus. The findings show that delayed disclosure, was a one-time event, and was unplanned. Disclosure occurred at the clinic rather than the adolescent's home. For most adolescents, feelings of anger, pain, sadness, negative perceptions of self, internalized stigma, and denial persisted long after disclosure occurred. They lived in constant fear of having their serostatus being discovered, and they developed a sense of fear of self-disclosure. Their negative emotions undermined treatment adherence. In contrast, other adolescents that described disclosure as a positive event, had accepted their HIV status, and lived similar to other adolescents. The prolonged negative reactions underscore the importance of ongoing post-disclosure interventions for adolescents in rural settings where psychosocial support services are insufficient to address their emotional wellbeing.

3.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 62(1): e1-e6, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infection patient-initiated partner notification (PN) approach has been implemented over a decade in South Africa, however, use and update by patients has been limited. This study assessed the perceived use of patient-initiated PN by using referral slips and measured the level of acceptability of provider-initiated PN by using short message service (SMS) to the personal mobile phones of sexual partners. METHODS: A formative evaluation approach using a quantitative survey amongst 722 minibus taxi drivers in nine major taxi ranks in Tshwane Municipality, Gauteng Province. STATA IC version 13 was used for data analyses. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 37.2 years (59%) were single, 59.5% had multiple sexual partners, 52.2% did not use a condom during the last sexual act, 42.8% reported inconsistent use of condoms and 65% tested for HIV in the past 12 months. The majority (98.2%) understood the importance of PN, but 51% would prefer telling a sexual partner face to face. Perceived easiness of delivering a PN slip was 69.1%, and 93% would use a PN slip received from a partner. Acceptability of provider-initiated PN by using an SMS was 62.7% and about a third (32.5%) were not in favour of provider-initiated PN by SMS. Twenty four point 7 percent (24.7%) preferred patient-initiated PN and 24.3% preferred provider-initiated PN. CONCLUSION: Preferred patient-initiated and provider-initiated PN was almost equal, hence, the provider-initiated PN should be augmented to support the current patient-initiated PN to increase the overall STI notification.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202528

RESUMO

Postnatal depression (PND) remains underdiagnosed and undertreated in different socio-economic backgrounds in South Africa. This study determined the prevalence of and clinical and obstetric risk factors for PND symptoms among HIV positive women in health facilities in a rural health district in South Africa. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure PND from 386 women who had delivered a live infant. More than half (58.5%) tested HIV positive during the current pregnancy. The prevalence of PND symptoms was 42.5%. Logistic regression analysis yielded significant associations between clinical and obstetric variables of pre-term baby (p-value < 0.01), baby health status p-value < 0.01), baby hospitalization, (p-value < 0.01), and knowing the baby's HIV status (p-value = 0.047). Maternal variables associated with PND were level of education (p-value < 0.01), monthly income (p-value < 0.01), and source of income (p-value = 0.05). At multivariate analysis, none of the clinical and obstetrical risk factors were independently associated with the PND. The high prevalence of PND symptoms underscore the need to integrate routine screening for PND in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV programmes to enable early diagnosing and treatment of PND.

5.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167601

RESUMO

The re-engineering of primary health care (PHC) called for the establishment of ward-based outreach teams as a reform strategy to bridge the gap between health facilities and communities. The Nkangala district established ward-based outreach teams in 2012. We used process evaluation to assess the acceptability of the outreach teams from the perspectives of those involved in the implementation as well as the clients who are the recipients of the outreach services in order to describe how the programme benefits the recipients, the staff, and the health system. Data were collected through interviews with multiple data sources. A thematic analysis was done using NVivo 11. The outreach programme is acceptable to the recipients and staff. The acceptability translated into measurable benefits for the recipients and the health system. Health benefits included increased access to services, support for treatment adherence, and linkages to various sector departments for social support. Since the inception of outreach teams, the district has recorded low utilisation of PHC services and improved priority indicators such as immunisation coverage, early antenatal bookings, treatment adherence, TB cure rates, and decreased default rates. The positive effects of the outreach teams on indicators underscore the need to roll the programme out to all sub-districts.

6.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720975552, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa adopted the ward-based outreach team (WBOT) program as one aspect of the three-stream approach to primary health care (PHC) re-engineering. PHC re-engineering seeks to modify the hospicentric and curative approach into a more preventive and promotive approach to improve health outcomes. There has not been an evaluation of the implementation of the WBOTs in Nkangala District since its inception in 2012. METHODS: A process evaluation approach using qualitative methods was used to examine and describe the contextual, organizational, health provider, and program-related barriers considered to affect the implementation of the WBOTs 3 sub-districts in one of the health districts in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. The framework for this evaluation was informed by the logic model framework developed by the Center for Disease Control as well as the 3 domains of evaluation recommended by the Medical Research Council Guidance on process evaluation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with multiple data sources directly involved in the implementation of the WBOTs. A thematic analysis was done using NVivo 11. RESULTS: The key critical barriers identified by the evaluation include the inadequate provision of resources, the lack of supervision, the heavy workload for outreach teams, the inadequate and irregular payment of stipends, threats to the safety of the CHWs, and the cultural beliefs and practices of the communities who are to receive the services. The lack of adequate financial resources was the main challenge, and will continue to pose a risk to the successful implementation of the WBOTs. CONCLUSIONS: Although the barriers are being reported as separate contextual factors, the internal and external contexts are interdependent, interact with one each other, and should not be considered in isolation. The need to improve stakeholder engagement on the WBOT program underscores the importance of the external context in the successful implementation of WBOTs.

7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117487

RESUMO

Introduction: fermented indigenous foods are known to confer health and nutritional benefits to young children. However, perception and usage of these foods is not well understood. This study aimed to determine the perceptions and usage of fermented foods, by child caregivers, for children feeding in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Methods: a standard questionnaire was used to obtain data from child caregivers on the perceptions and usage of fermented foods to feed young children in Tshwane metro. Results: a total of 1248 child caregivers completed the questionnaires. Their age ranged from 15-65 years, 71.7% being single, with majority (74%) having attained secondary school education and unemployed (65%). Over 60% of children were fed sour milk (maas), sour porridge and yoghurt at a frequency of 1-3 times a week, with the feeding starting at the age of 6-12 months. Majority (59-74%) had positive perceptions on benefits of feeding children with fermented foods. Conclusion: there is a high acceptability of fermented foods for feeding children in this community. Further promotion of these foods may improve the frequency of their usage.

8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756349

RESUMO

The study investigated the motivation to disclose or the decision to withhold one's HIV serostatus to one's partners and assessed the implications of non-disclosure on young peoples' sexual behaviour and access to treatment. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted with 253 youth aged 18-25 years receiving antiretroviral therapy in a health district in North West Province, South Africa. The majority were female (75%), the mean time since the HIV diagnosis was 22 months, 40% did not know their partner's HIV status, 32% had more than two sexual partners, and 63% had not used a condom during the last sexual act. The prevalence of disclosure was 40%, 36% delayed disclosure for over a year, and most disclosed to protect the partner from HIV transmission, to receive support, and to be honest and truthful. The prevalence of non-disclosure was high, as 60% withheld disclosure due to fear of abandonment, stigma and discrimination, accusations of unfaithfulness, and partner violence. Over half (55%) had no intentions to disclose at all. The lower disclosure rates imply that HIV transmission continues to persist among sexual partners in these settings. The findings suggest that high levels of perceived stigma impact on disclosure and HIV treatment, which increases the risk of on-going HIV transmission among youth receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa.

9.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784965

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore how older orphans in youth-headed households (YHHs) experience and respond to maternal death and to examine the strategies they employ to care for their younger siblings. We interviewed 18 older orphans who were purposively selected from YHHs located in informal settlements in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. After the death of their mothers, the orphans lost the family home, lost support from their relatives, lost friendships, lost educational opportunities, and lost childhood. The orphans experienced prolonged pain, sadness, anxieties, fear, loneliness despondency, and deep-rooted and persistent anger towards their mother for dying. They suffered from prolonged bereavement because they had been denied the opportunity to mourn the loss of their parents and yearned persistently but silently for their dead mothers. Dropping out of school to seek employment in order to care for their siblings was one of the main coping strategies that older orphans used. However, dropping out of school early robbed them of their future goals of getting an educational qualification. The orphans had not been prepared for taking on an adult role and were given no support or counselling to help them recover from their parents' death. Continuous grief counselling should form an integral component of the psychosocial support services that are provided to orphans soon after the death of a parent.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796518

RESUMO

The study explored how older adults experience an HIV diagnosis, deal with issues of stigma and disclosure, and navigate the healthcare system. Descriptive phenomenology was used to collect data from 20 older adults receiving antiretroviral treatment in health facilities in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Data analysis was inductive and followed the thematic approach. After diagnosis with HIV, the older adults experienced shock and disbelief, internalized their new reality of being HIV-positive, and found it difficult to disclose their HIV status. Stigma was embedded in their patterns of disclosure, and they chose not to disclose in order to manage stigma, protect their status, and maintain their privacy. Moreover, nondisclosure allowed them to achieve some normality in their lives without the fear of rejection. The older adults adopted various survival skills that aided them to accept their HIV status. Self-acceptance was important for the older adults who did not want to feel cheated out of life by the HIV diagnosis. The positive supportive attitudes of the healthcare professionals provided the much-needed support network for the older adults immediately after they had received their HIV test results. This was instrumental in their acceptance of their HIV status, their adherence to clinic visits, and their ability to live a healthy, positive life.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Estigma Social , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Antirretrovirais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul
11.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846888

RESUMO

The study determined the nutritional status of adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients, and investigated the association between the duration on ART and the nutritional status. This study was based in primary health facilities in Gauteng, South Africa. The data collected included sociodemographic variables; the duration of the treatment; and the body mass index (BMI), classified as undernutrition (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), or overweight/obesity (≥25 kg/m2). ART recipients (n = 480) had a mean age of 35 (± 8.4SD) years. All had taken ART for six months or more (range 6-48 months). The data were analyzed using STATA 13.0. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 39%, it was higher in females (46%) than in males (30%), 26% were overweight, and 13% were obese. Underweight was 13%, and was higher in males (18%) than females (9%). Being overweight was more likely in those aged ≥35 years and those in smaller households. Being obese was less likely in males, in the employed, and in those with a higher income, but was more likely in those with a longer duration on ART. Abdominal obesity was high, but less likely in males. Interventions to prevent overweight/obesity should be integrated into routine HIV care, while at the same time addressing the burden of undernutrition among ART recipients.

12.
Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res ; 2020: 3430847, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670369

RESUMO

Purpose: This paper examines the older persons' knowledge of HIV and AIDS and explores the effect of delayed disclosure of HIV status and lack of resources during care. Methods: The study site was health facilities in Thembisile Hani subdistrict, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Older persons aged 60 years and above were selected using purposive sampling for in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results: Providing physical care to sick adults is labour intensive for the already weak older persons. They undertake the caring role within constraints arising from lack of resource such as gloves, diapers, and soap with which to perform the caring role. Taking care of the sick needed resources for specialized care and money for transport to the health facilities. This put a strain on the finances and rendered the older persons food insecure. Furthermore, disclosure of HIV status was delayed, and some older persons cared for the sick adult children without knowing that they were HIV-infected and had AIDS-related illnesses. The nondisclosure of their HIV status by the sick prevented them from taking precautionary measures to prevent the risk of infection during the provision of care. This was heightened by the limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS of the older persons. Conclusion: Older persons undertake the caring role with diligence under trying conditions due to lack of resources and the nondisclosure of HIV status of the adult children they take care of. Healthcare workers should educate older persons to take preventive precautionary measures when caring for family members even when there is no suspicion of HIV infection. In addition, access to the incapacity grants provided for individuals sick with AIDS-related illnesses could relieve the older persons from financial constraints.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456063

RESUMO

The disrespect and abuse (D&A) of women during childbirth is common and a great concern in midwifery-led obstetric units (MOUs) in South Africa. This paper used the seven chapters of the Respectful Maternity Care Charter as a framework to explore women's experiences of care during childbirth and examine the occurrence of D&A during childbirth in MOUs. Five focus group interviews were conducted with postnatal women aged 18 to 45 years selected purposively from MOUs in Tshwane District in South Africa. The discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic approach and NVivo11 computer software. D&A of women was common during labor and childbirth. Verbal abuse in the form of shouting, labeling, judging, and rude remarks was the common form of D&A. Some of the women were abandoned and neglected, which resulted in their giving birth without assistance. Furthermore, the midwives violated their rights and denied them care such as pain relief medication, birth companions during childbirth, and access to ambulance services. Midwives are at the center of the provision of maternity care in MOUs in South Africa. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen interventions to adopt and implement policies that promotes respectful, nonabusive care during childbirth in MOUs.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Parto Obstétrico , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Tocologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tocologia/normas , Parto , Gravidez , Relações Profissional-Paciente , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
14.
AIDS Res Treat ; 2020: 6126210, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099675

RESUMO

The routine antenatal screening through the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services results in pregnancy being often the point at which an HIV diagnosis is made. Disclosure to partners presents particular complexities during pregnancy. However, research on the pattern and experiences of disclosure in pregnancy is limited in Lesotho, despite the high prevalence of HIV among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the disclosure experiences of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) after receiving a positive HIV test result during pregnancy. Methods. Descriptive phenomenology using semistructured in-depth interview was used to collect data from AGYM sampled purposively from PMTCT sites located in urban areas of Maseru, Lesotho. Data analysis was inductive and followed the thematic approach. Findings. There were 15 AGYW involved in this study with the mean age of 20 years. Fourteen reported being pregnant with their first child and perceived HIV testing in antenatal care as compulsory. Ten AGYM disclosed their HIV status in the immediate posttesting period to protect their partners from HIV infection. The narratives revealed that the AGYM hoped that after disclosing, the partner would be tested for HIV. Furthermore, the AGYM disclosed because they wanted freedom to take their medication. Their experience of disclosure was relief, as they did not have to hide their HIV status. The AGYM reported being supported to adhere to medication and clinic attendance by their partners who also provided emotional support to them to deal with being HIV positive and pregnant. Conclusion. The AGYM recounted an overall positive experience of disclosure to their partners who agreed to test for HIV and adopted safe sex practices. This has positive implications for the PMTCT programme and the involvement of men in reproductive health. Therefore, there is need to integrate disclosure and partner testing interventions in the cascade of services in PMTCT programmes.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229487, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of a large population of orphaned youth in sub-Saharan Africa is due to the natural maturity of orphaned children. Research indicates that orphaned youth face more negative psychosocial challenges than their younger counterparts do. Furthermore, these challenges are intensified for early school leavers. This paper describes how experiencing maternal death affects the psychosocial wellbeing of orphaned youth who left school before completing high school. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken among purposively sampled orphaned youth using in-depth interviews with open-ended questions. Fifty participants were recruited through social workers, community based organisations, and tribal authorities in a rural local municipality of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. All data analyses were performed using NVivo10, following an inductive thematic approach. RESULTS: The narratives with the participants revealed that they live in a socially depressed environment and are subjected to extreme poverty characterised by frequent hunger. Furthermore, they do not enjoy family support and when they live with their extended families, they experience ill treatment and unsympathetic gestures. The death of their mothers has made a negative psychological impact on their psychosocial wellbeing, resulting in the development of internalising depressive symptoms. They suffer from emotional distress and prolonged bereavement characterised by perpetual yearning for the mother and, they resort to silence as a coping strategy. The study established that they were forced to leave school early for a variety of reasons. However, leaving school early became a major stressor and contributed to their negative psychosocial wellbeing. CONCLUSION: Maternal death has a negative impact on the psychosocial wellbeing of the participants even after they have crossed the 18 years threshold of orphan hood. Yearning for their mothers negatively affected their ability to develop coping strategies, which led to isolation, sadness, hopelessness, lack of peace, and fear of an uncertain future. The lack of routine screening for mental health in schools and other settings in South Africa increases their vulnerability to undiagnosed depression. The school health services should develop interventions for mental health screening in schools. For early school leavers, relevant policies should consider the continuation of support through NGOs and community networks.


Assuntos
Crianças Órfãs/educação , Crianças Órfãs/psicologia , Evasão Escolar/psicologia , Adolescente , Luto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pobreza/psicologia , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Apoio Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Evasão Escolar/educação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505567

RESUMO

Introduction: South Africa adopted and implemented the Universal Test and Treat (UTT) strategy for HIV since 2016. However, the care outcomes for patients initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) through the UTT strategy have not been established. We determined the rate of lost to follow up (LTFU) and associated factors in patients who were initiated on ART through the UTT and the pre-ART strategy at 12 months post ART initiation. Methods: this retrospective study analyzed the records of a cohort of patients at 12 months post the initiation of ART. We extracted data from the TIER.Net electronic database of selected facilities in a sub-district in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Factors associated with LFTU at 12 months of ART were assessed and logistic regression performed to identify predictors of LFTU. Results: records of 367 patients were evaluated, and 54% were initiated ART through the UTT strategy. The mean age was 36.3 years, mean CD4 cell count at ART initiation was 341 cells/mm3, and 25% were initiated at CD4 cell count above 500 cells/mm3. LTFU at 12 months was 28%, 50% were LFTU within six months, and 28% within three months of ART. LFTU in the UTT cohort was higher than in the pre-ART cohort, patients initiated through UTT were twice more likely to be LTFU (AOR = 1.84, CI: 1.13-3.00) than pre-ART patients. Conclusion: the rate of LTFU at 12 months of ART was 28%, which indicate that the retention in care rate (60%) falls far short of the triple 90 targets required for viral suppression.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861151

RESUMO

The uptake of vasectomy in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa is low. In Eswatini, a kingdom with strong patriarchal norms, the use of vasectomy is at 0.3%. This is despite great efforts to introduce vasectomy and involve men in reproductive health. This study explored the views of men about the acceptability of vasectomy and their willingness to adopt vasectomy as a family planning option. Focus group discussions were conducted with adult men recruited from health facilities located in rural, semi urban, and urban areas in two of the regions of Eswatini. A thematic approach was used to analyze the data. The acceptability of and intention to use vasectomy as a family planning option was very low. Cultural beliefs, societal norms, lack of knowledge about the procedure for vasectomy, and misconceptions influenced the acceptability of vasectomy greatly. The participants could not grasp the concept of a family planning method that is as permanent as vasectomy. However, the decisions to accept or reject vasectomy were influenced by their misconceptions and fears about vasectomy and were not based on facts. To address the need to involve men in reproductive health and improve the acceptability and adoption of vasectomy, planning should be conducted with them and informed by their understanding of their needs.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vasectomia/psicologia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Essuatíni , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva , População Rural
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9623159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886271

RESUMO

Background: Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is a challenge for adolescents with perinatally HIV (ALPHIV), and there is little consensus on what factors contribute to adherence in this population. This study assessed self-reported medication adherence among ALPHIV and explored structural factors that hinder or motivate them to adhere. Methods: This qualitative study used in-depth interviews with ALPHIV at the infectious disease control centre of a teaching hospital in Botswana. Thirty adolescents aged 12-19 years who were aware of their HIV status were recruited purposively. Transcribed interviews were analysed using the thematic approach and NVivo data analysis software. Findings: Nonadherence was a problem across age groups and gender. Perceived stigma was a major barrier to ART adherence. The fear of stigma and unintended disclosure were more pronounced in those attending boarding school. The adolescents were not willing to take medication in front of roommates and outside of the home. They opted for hiding and taking medication in privacy which led to missed doses. The heightened fear of being seen collecting ART medication affected keeping appointments for clinic visits. Fear of stigma also influenced the choice of action when there was a clash between school activities, dosing times, and scheduled clinic appointments for ART refill. The home environment was the main facilitator for adherence. Support was the strongest motivator for adolescents to adhere and keep up with clinic visits. On a personal level, the desire to be healthy and live long was a major motivator to adhere. Conclusions: The fear of stigma shaped the adolescents' adherence behaviour. Perceived stigma affected the time and place to take medication, the visit to the clinic for ART refill, and self-disclosure of HIV status. There is need to encourage adolescents to self-disclose their HIV status to friends since the fear of unintended disclosure fuelled perceived stigma. Planning of clinic appointments should also be consistent with realistic daily activities of adolescents.


Assuntos
Revelação , Medo/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Botsuana , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480218

RESUMO

Since the start of the HIV and AIDS epidemic, very little research has been conducted on the older persons' provision of HIV-related care to adult children. This is despite the fact that a large proportion of adults who die of AIDS-related illnesses stay with their elderly parents during the terminal stage of their illnesses. This paper explores how older persons in rural settings experience caring for their adult children with AIDS-related illnesses. In-depth interviews took place with older persons aged 60 years and above. The qualitative data analysis was informed by thematic approach to identify and report themes using inductive approach. The paper found that the older persons undertake the caring role without resources and support. As a result, they are burdened with having to care for adult children with AIDS-related illness. Fatigue arising from the hard work of physically caring for their sick adult children day and night adds to the physical burden on the older persons. Older persons will continue to carry the burden of caring for people with AIDS-related illnesses due to the increase in the number of new infections in South Africa. There is a need to involve them in HIV/AIDS programmes; their experience and wisdom would surely contribute positively and assist in addressing HIV prevention.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Crianças Adultas , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1087, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, the occurrence of the double burden of malnutrition is on the rise at a household level predisposing children and their mothers to negative health outcomes. However, few studies have been conducted at a household level. Therefore, we studied a double burden of malnutrition using child-mother pairs in a rural setting. METHODS: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted among 508 child-mother pairs selected from primary schools using a multistage sampling in a rural Dikgale Health and Demographic Site in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements of children and mothers, and socio-demographic data were collected. WHO AnthroPlus was used to generate body-mass-index z-scores of children and the BMI was used to indicate overweight and obesity among the mothers. Mann Whitney test was used to compare the means of variables between sexes and age groups, while the prevalence of thinness and overweight/obesity were compared using a chi-square. Multivariate logistic regression with a stepwise backward elimination procedure, controlling for confounding, was used to determine the association between the thinness and overweight/obesity and the covariates. RESULTS: Twenty five percent (25%) of the children were thin, 4% were overweight and 1% obese, while mothers were overweight (27.4%) and 42.3% obesity (42.3%) were observed among the mothers. The odds of being thin were higher in boys than in girls (AOR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.01-2.35). Overweight/obese mothers were more likely to have thin children (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01-2.18) and less likely to have overweight/obese children (AOR = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.07-0.46). CONCLUSION: A double burden of malnutrition was observed on a household level with thinness among children and overweight/obesity among mothers. A need to address the dual problems of undernutrition and rapidly rising trends of overweight/obesity cannot be over-emphasized.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , África do Sul/epidemiologia
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