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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655762

RESUMO

Follistatin is secreted from the liver and is involved in the regulation of muscle mass and insulin sensitivity via inhibition of activin A in humans. The secretion of follistatin seems to be stimulated by glucagon and inhibited by insulin, but only limited knowledge on the postprandial regulation of follistatin exists. Moreover, results on postoperative changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are conflicting with reports of increased, unaltered and lowered fasting concentrations of follistatin. In this study, we investigated postprandial follistatin and activin A concentrations after intake of isocaloric amounts of protein, fat or glucose in obese subjects with and without previous RYGB to explore the regulation of follistatin by the individual macronutrients. Protein intake enhanced follistatin concentrations similarly in the two groups, while glucose and fat ingestion did not change postprandial follistatin concentrations. Concentrations of activin A were lower after protein intake compared with glucose intake in RYGB. Glucagon concentrations were also particularly enhanced by protein intake and tended to correlate with follistatin in RYGB. In conclusion, we demonstrated that protein intake, but not glucose or fat, is a strong stimulus for follistatin secretion in obese subjects and that this regulation is maintained after RYGB surgery.

2.
Diabetes Ther ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609265
3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502076

RESUMO

Incretin-based therapies, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), have been hypothesized to exert beneficial effects on COVID-19 outcomes due to anti-inflammatory properties. In this population-based cohort study, we retrieved data from nationwide registries on all individuals diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection up to 1 November 2020. For individuals with diabetes, we examined the impact of use of GLP-1 RAs (n = 370) and DPP-4i (n = 284) compared with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) (n = 342) on risk of hospital admission and severe outcomes. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated after applying propensity score weighted methods to control for confounding. Current users of GLP-1 RAs had an adjusted RR of 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.34-2.33), while users of DPP-4i had an adjusted RR of 2.42 (95% confidence interval 0.99-5.89) for 30-day mortality compared with SGLT-2i use. Further, use of GLP-1 RAs or DPP-4i compared with SGLT-2i was not associated with decreased risk of hospital admission. Thus, use of incretin-based therapies in individuals with diabetes and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was not associated with improved clinical outcomes.

4.
Physiol Rep ; 9(2): e14708, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463892

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery is associated with near-immediate remission of type 2 diabetes and recently suggested as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Specifically, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has been a focus of much research, but still, the mechanisms of action are only partly elucidated. We aim to investigate whether some mechanisms might be mediated by free fatty acids (FFAs). We measured eight fractionated FFAs before and up to 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in 207 patients, divided into three groups. One non-diabetic group, one diabetic group with post-operative remission and one diabetic group with persistent diabetes after surgery. Pre- and postoperative levels of fractionated FFAs were compared within and between groups. The sum of the measured FFAs were lower in the group with persistent diabetes, compared to the other groups. The pre-surgery level of linoleic acid in the group with persistent diabetes was significantly lower compared to the other two groups. The levels of fractionated FFAs decreased from pre-surgery to three months after surgery, except for oleic acid and arachidonic acid and for Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the non-diabetic group. The FFAs with decreasing levels from pre-surgery to three months post-surgery are all precursors to oleic acid, arachidonic acid, and DHA, respectively, which may imply a drift, indicating that they need to be sustained at an acceptable level for optimal metabolic function. The fact that the sum of the measured FFAs is lower in the group with persistent diabetes may suggest that this group and the group with diabetes remission represent two distinct types of type 2 diabetes. It is proposed that linoleic acid could be used as a biomarker to determine the plausibility for type 2 diabetes remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284087

RESUMO

AIM: The extent to which reduced insulin secretion during prolonged fasting reflects failure to compensate for whole-body insulin resistance or a normal adjustment to potentially increased hepatic insulin action is unknown. METHODS: We examined the effects of 36 versus 12 h fasting on insulin secretion and whole-body versus hepatic insulin action in 13 healthy young males. Hepatic glucose production and insulin action was studied using stable isotopes, whereas whole-body insulin action and insulin secretion was studied using an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and minimal modelling. Insulin, glucose and lipid profiles were subsequently measured during a refeeding meal-test. RESULTS: Prolonged fasting caused a minor reduction of first-phase insulin secretion in a context of improved hepatic insulin action contrasting an increase in whole-body insulin resistance. Accordingly, prolonged fasting was associated with opposite directed effects on hepatic versus whole-body insulin secretion disposition indices. Thirty-six compared with 12 h fasting was associated with increased plasma insulin levels during the refeeding meal test. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, reduced insulin secretion during prolonged fasting may represent a healthy response to improved hepatic insulin action. Use of insulin secretion disposition indices without taking organ specific insulin action into account may lead to erroneous conclusions.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243918, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315915

RESUMO

Increased oxidative stress in obesity and diabetes is associated with morbidity and mortality risks. Levels of oxidative damage to DNA and RNA can be estimated through measurement of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2´-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) in urine. Both markers have been associated with type 2 diabetes, where especially 8-oxoGuo is prognostic for mortality risk. We hypothesized that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery that has considerable effects on bodyweight, hyperglycemia and mortality, might be working through mechanisms that reduce oxidative stress, thereby reducing levels of the urinary markers. We used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the content of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo in urinary samples from 356 obese patients treated with the RYGB-procedure. Mean age (SD) was 44.2 (9.6) years, BMI was 42.1 (5.6) kg/m2. Ninety-six (27%) of the patients had type 2 diabetes. Excretion levels of each marker before and after surgery were compared as estimates of the total 24-hour excretion, using a model based on glomerular filtration rate (calculated from cystatin C, age, height and weight), plasma- and urinary creatinine. The excretion of 8-oxodG increased in the first months after RYGB. For 8-oxoGuo, a gradual decrease was seen. Two years after RYGB and a mean weight loss of 35 kg, decreased hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, excretion levels of both markers were reduced by approximately 12% (P < 0.001). For both markers, mean excretion levels were about 30% lower in the female subgroup (P < 0.0001). Also, in this subgroup, excretion of 8-oxodG was significantly lower in patients with than without diabetes. We conclude, that oxidative damage to nucleic acids, reflected in the excretion of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo, had decreased significantly two years after RYGB-indicating that reduced oxidative stress could be contributing to the many long-term benefits of RYGB-surgery in obesity and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Obesidade/urina , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/química , Adulto , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/urina , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , RNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA/urina
7.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(11): 1610-1623, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163832

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with impaired hepatic actions of glucagon and insulin. Glucagon and amino acids are linked in an endocrine feedback circuit, the liver-alpha cell axis, that may be disrupted by NAFLD. We investigated how NAFLD severity affects glucagon and insulin resistance in individuals with obesity and whether bariatric surgery improves these parameters. Plasma and liver biopsies from 33 individuals with obesity (collectively, OBE) were obtained before and 12 months after bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB] or sleeve gastrectomy [SG]). Nine healthy control individuals (collectively, CON) undergoing cholecystectomy were used as a comparison group. The NAFLD activity score (NAS) was used to subdivide study participants into the following groups: OBE-no steatosis, OBE+steatosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and/or grade 2 fibrosis (Fib) (OBE-NASH-Fib). Measurements of amino acids by targeted metabolomics and glucagon were performed. Glucagon, amino acids (P < 0.05), and the glucagon-alanine index, a validated surrogate marker of glucagon resistance, were increased in OBE by 60%, 56%, and 61%, respectively, when compared with CON but irrespective of NAFLD severity. In contrast, markers of hepatic insulin resistance increased concomitantly with NAS. Hyperglucagonemia resolved in OBE-no steatosis and OBE+steatosis but not in OBE-NASH-Fib (median, 7.0; interquartile range, 5.0-9.8 pmol/L), regardless of improvement in insulin resistance and NAS. The type of surgery that participants underwent had no effect on metabolic outcomes. Conclusion: Glucagon resistance to amino acid metabolism exists in individuals with NAFLD independent of NAS severity. Patients with NASH showed persistent hyperglucagonemia 12 months after bariatric surgery, indicating that a disrupted liver-alpha cell may remain in NAFLD despite major improvement in liver histology.

8.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(1): 100006, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205056

RESUMO

Individuals with obesity due to pathogenic heterozygous melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) mutations can be treated efficiently with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) liraglutide. Here, we report the effect of 16 weeks of liraglutide 3 mg/day treatment in a woman with morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to homozygous pathogenic MC4R mutation. The body weight loss was 9.7 kg, similar to weight loss in heterozygous MC4R mutation carriers and common obesity. In addition, the treatment led to clinically relevant decreases in fasting glucose, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and normalization of glucose tolerance. We conclude that liraglutide reduces body weight and blood glucose levels in hetero- and homozygous MC4R mutation carriers. This serves as proof-of-concept that MC4Rs are not required for the body weight and glucose lowering effects of GLP-1 RAs and that liraglutide may be used as part of the treatment of obesity and T2D due to MC4R mutations.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103448

RESUMO

Background & Aims Dietary carbohydrate-restriction may improve the phenotype of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We aimed to investigate 6 weeks of carbohydrate-restriction on postprandial glucose metabolism, pancreatic alpha- and beta-cell function, gut hormone secretion, and satiety in T2D patients. Methods In a cross-over design, 28 T2D patients (mean: HbA1c 60 mmol/mol) were randomized to 6 weeks of carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet and 6 weeks of conventional diabetes (CD) diet (energy-percentage carbohydrate/protein/fat: 30/30/40 versus 50/17/33). Twenty-four-hour continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and mixed meal tests were undertaken and fasting intact proinsulin (IP), 32,33 split proinsulin concentrations (SP), and postprandial insulin secretion rates (ISR), insulinogenic index (IGI), beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (Bup), glucagon and gut hormones were measured. Gastric emptying was evaluated by postprandial paracetamol concentrations and satiety by visual analogue scale ratings. Results A CRHP diet reduced: postprandial glucose area under curve (net AUC) by 60% (p<0.001), 24h glucose by 13% (p<0.001), fasting IP and SP concentrations (both absolute and relative to C-peptide, p<0.05), and postprandial ISR (24%, p=0.015), while IGI and Bup improved by 31% and 45% (both p<0.001). The CRHP diet increased postprandial glucagon net AUC by 235% (p<0.001), subjective satiety by 18% (p=0.03), delayed gastric emptying by 15 minutes (p<0.001), decreased gastric inhibitory polypeptide net AUC by 29% (p<0.001), but had no significant effect on glucagon-like-peptide-1, total peptide YY and cholecystokinin responses. Conclusions A CRHP diet reduced glucose excursions and improved beta-cell function, including proinsulin processing, and increased subjective satiety in patients with T2D.

10.
Diabetes ; 69(11): 2267-2280, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873590

RESUMO

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been shown to be less insulin sensitive compared with control (CON) women, independent of BMI. Training is associated with molecular adaptations in skeletal muscle, improving glucose uptake and metabolism in both healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes. In the current study, lean hyperandrogenic women with PCOS (n = 9) and healthy CON women (n = 9) completed 14 weeks of controlled and supervised exercise training. In CON, the training intervention increased whole-body insulin action by 26% and insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake by 53% together with increased insulin-stimulated leg blood flow and a more oxidative muscle fiber type distribution. In PCOS, no such changes were found, despite similar training intensity and improvements in VO2max In skeletal muscle of CON but not PCOS, training increased GLUT4 and HKII mRNA and protein expressions. These data suggest that the impaired increase in whole-body insulin action in women with PCOS with training is caused by an impaired ability to upregulate key glucose-handling proteins for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and insulin-stimulated leg blood flow. Still, other important benefits of exercise training appeared in women with PCOS, including an improvement of the hyperandrogenic state.

11.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a therapeutic intervention for morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) that improves metabolic regulation. Follistatin (Fst) could be implicated in improved glycemia as it is highly regulated by RYGB. However, it is unknown if metabolic status, such as T2D, alters the Fst response to RYGB. In addition, the effect of RYGB on the Fst target, activin A, is unknown in individuals with obesity and T2D, but is needed to interpret the functional effects of altering Fst. Finally, whether Fst-regulated intracellular signaling contributes to beneficial effects of RYGB is undetermined. METHODS: Circulating Fst and activin A were measured before, 1 week, and 1 year after RYGB surgery in a total of 20 individuals with obesity, 10 with normoglycemia (NGT) and 10 with preoperative T2D. Intracellular signaling downstream of the Activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) signaling pathway was analyzed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. RESULTS: The doubling in circulating Fst observed in subjects with NGT 1-week and 1-year post surgery was absent in T2D. After 1 week, RYGB reduced activin A by 27% (p < 0.001) and 20% (p < 0.01) in subjects with NGT and T2D, respectively; a reduction that tended to be maintained in the subjects with T2D at 1-year post-RYGB (-15%; p = 0.0592). RYGB had no effects on skeletal muscle ActRIIB signaling. In contrast, adipose tissue phosphorylation of SMAD2Ser465/467, p70S6KThr389, S6RPSer235/236, and 4E-BP1Thr37/49 was highly regulated, particularly 1-year post-RYGB (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with preoperative T2D, RYGB did not increase circulating Fst contrasting subjects with NGT, while the reduction in activin A was maintained. ActRIIB signaling was upregulated in adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, following RYGB in both individuals with NGT and T2D. Our results suggest a role of adipose tissue ActRIIB signaling for the beneficial effects of RYGB surgery.

12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 150, 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metformin has been shown to have both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of metformin in combination with insulin on cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and distal peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: The study is a sub-study of the CIMT trial, a randomized placebo-controlled trial with a 2 × 3 factorial design, where 412 patients with T2DM were randomized to 18 months of metformin or placebo in addition to open-labelled insulin. Outcomes were measures of CAN: Changes in heart rate response to deep breathing (beat-to-beat), orthostatic blood pressure (OBP) and heart rate and vibration detection threshold (VDT) as a marker DPN. Serum levels of vitamin B12 and methyl malonic acid (MMA) were analysed. RESULTS: After 18 months early drop in OBP (30 s after standing) was increased in the metformin group compared to placebo: systolic blood pressure drop increased by 3.4 mmHg (95% CI 0.6; 6.2, p = 0.02) and diastolic blood pressure drop increased by 1.3 mmHg (95% CI 0.3; 2.6, p = 0.045) compared to placebo. Beat-to-beat variation decreased in the metformin group by 1.1 beats per minute (95% CI - 2.4; 0.2, p = 0.10). Metformin treatment did not affect VDT group difference - 0.33 V (95% CI - 1.99; 1.33, p = 0.39) or other outcomes. Changes in B12, MMA and HbA1c did not confound the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Eighteen months of metformin treatment in combination with insulin compared with insulin alone increased early drop in OBP indicating an adverse effect of metformin on CAN independent of vitamin B12, MMA HbA1c. Trial registration The protocol was approved by the Regional Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (H-D-2007-112), the Danish Medicines Agency and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00657943).

13.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e13731, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are an established treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Differences between GLP-1RAs in pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens and clinical effects, including cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, mean there may be benefits to switching from one to another. However, clinical guidance on switching is lacking and data from clinical trials are limited. This article provides a clinical perspective and consensus on the benefits of switching between GLP-1RAs, the triggers for switching and how best to manage this in clinical practice. Once weekly (OW) semaglutide is used as an example to illustrate how the authors might switch to a different GLP-1RA in clinical practice. METHODS: Literature was searched and perspectives from 10 healthcare professionals with experience in switching patients with T2D to OW semaglutide from another GLP-1RA were collated. RESULTS: Medical triggers for switching to another GLP-1RA included HbA1c targets not being met, a desire for additional weight loss, poor adherence, patients moving to increased CV risk status and adverse effects with the current GLP-1RA. Non-medical triggers for switching included patient preference, cost, formulary changes and insurance mandates. Once the decision to switch is made, an individualised approach is recommended, based on considerations that include reimbursement requirements, treatment duration with (and dose of) previous GLP-1RA, the patient's experience initiating the prior GLP-1RA, any concomitant treatment and clinical characteristics. When switching, it is important to emphasise that treatment burden will not increase and that if gastrointestinal adverse effects occur, they are typically transient. Any transient gastrointestinal adverse effects that may occur (or recur) when switching to another GLP-1RA can be reduced by slow up-titration and advising patients to reduce food portion sizes and fat intake. CONCLUSION: Switching from one GLP-1RA to another, such as OW semaglutide, can provide clinical benefits and may delay the need for treatment intensification.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927478

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The natriuretic effect of GLP-1 in humans is independent of changes in renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but may involve suppression of angiotensin II (ANG II) and a significant (~45%) renal extraction of GLP-1. The current study was designed to investigate the consequences for the renal extraction and the natriuretic effect of blocking GLP-1 receptors with the specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin 9-39 (Ex 9-39). METHODS: Under fixed sodium intake for 4 days before each study day, 6 healthy male participants were recruited from our recent study where GLP-1 or vehicle was infused (1). In the present new experiments, participants were examined during a 3-hour infusion of GLP-1 (1.5 pmol/kg/min) together with a 3.5-hour infusion of Ex 9-39 (900 pmol/kg/min). Timed urine collections were conducted throughout the experiments. Renal extraction of GLP-1 as well as RPF and GFR were measured via Fick's principle after catheterization of a renal vein. Arterial plasma renin, ANG II, and aldosterone concentrations were measured. RESULTS: Co-infusion of Ex 9-39 significantly reduced renal extraction of GLP-1 to ~25% compared with GLP-1 infusion alone (~45%). Urinary sodium excretions remained at baseline levels during co-infusion of Ex 9-39 as well as vehicle. By contrast, GLP-1 infusion alone resulted in a 2-fold increase in natriuresis. Ex 9-39 abolished the GLP-1-induced decrease in arterial ANG II concentrations. RPF and GFR remained unchanged during all experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Renal extraction of GLP-1 and its effect on natriuresis are both dependent on GLP-1 receptor activation in healthy humans.

15.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 182(29)2020 07 13.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734864

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2. High age, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity are risk factors for severe COVID-19 with increased mortality. In this review, we discuss potential mechanisms by which diabetes and obesity modulate the host viral interactions and host-immune response. Glucose levels should be monitored rigorously, and patient-tailored aggressive treatment of hyperglycaemia is recommended, often with the use of insulin. Persons with diabetes and obesity are susceptible to severe outcomes from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Obesidade/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(10): 107681, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741659

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate measures of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and conventional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors as predictors of future carotid IMT, and the prediction of CV events during follow-up based on measures of carotid IMT. METHODS: Observational longitudinal study including 230 persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESULTS: Mean age at follow-up was 66.7 (SD 8.5) years, 30.5% were women and mean body mass index (BMI) was 31.8 (4.4) kg/m2. Carotid IMT was measured at baseline, after 18 months of intervention in the Copenhagen Insulin and Metformin Therapy (CIMT) trial and after a mean follow-up of 6.4 (1.0) years. Baseline carotid IMT, carotid IMT after 18 months' intervention, and CV risk factors (age, sex and baseline systolic blood pressure) gave the best prediction of carotid IMT (root mean-squared error of prediction of 0.106 and 95% prediction error probability interval of -0.160, 0.204). CONCLUSIONS: Measures of carotid IMT combined with CV risk factors at baseline predicts attained carotid IMT better than measures of carotid IMT or CV risk factors alone. Carotid IMT did not predict CV events, and the present results do not support the use of carotid IMT as a predictor of CV events in persons with T2D.

17.
Physiol Rep ; 8(15): e14519, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770661

RESUMO

Human studies have demonstrated that physiologically relevant changes in circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) elicit a rapid increase in renal sodium excretion when combined with expansion of the extracellular fluid volume. Other studies support the involvement of various gastrointestinal hormones, e.g., gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) in a gut-kidney axis, responsible for a rapid-acting feed-forward natriuretic mechanism. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that the postprandial GLP-1 plasma concentration is sensitive to the sodium content in the meal. Under fixed sodium intake for 4 days prior to each experimental day, 10 lean healthy male participants were examined twice in random order after a 12-hr fasting period. Arterial blood samples were collected at 10-20-min intervals for 140 min after 75 grams of oral glucose + 6 grams of oral sodium chloride (NaCl) load versus 75 grams of glucose alone. Twenty-four-hour baseline urinary sodium excretions were similar between study days. Arterial GLP-1 levels increased during both oral glucose loads and were significantly higher at the 40-80 min period during glucose + NaCl compared to glucose alone. The postprandial arterial responses of CCK, gastrin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide as well as glucose, insulin, and C-peptide did not differ between the two study days. Arterial renin, aldosterone, and natriuretic peptides levels did not change within subjects or between study days. Angiotensin II levels were significantly lower at the time GLP-1 was higher (60-80 min) during glucose + NaCl. Sodium intake in addition to a glucose load selectively amplifies the postprandial GLP-1 plasma concentration. Thus, GLP-1 may be part of an acute feed-forward mechanism for natriuresis.

18.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 39: 46-52, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: High glycaemic variability (GV) is associated with late complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesised that a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet would reduce GV acutely in patients with T2D compared with a conventional diabetes (CD) diet. METHODS: In this controlled, randomised crossover study, 16 patients with metformin-treated T2D (median (IQR) age: 64.0 (58.8-68.0) years; HbA1c: 47 (43-57) mmol/mol; duration of T2D: 5.5 (2.8-10.3) years) were assigned to an energy-matched CRHP diet and CD diet (31E%/54E% carbohydrate, 29E%/16E% protein and 40E%/30E% fat, respectively) for two separate 48-h intervention periods. Interstitial continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed to assess accepted measures of glycaemic variability, i.e. standard deviation (SD) around the sensor glucose level; coefficient of variation in percent (CV); mean amplitude of glucose excursions (MAGE); continuous overlapping net glycaemic action (CONGA1, CONGA4) of observations 1 and 4 h apart; and mean absolute glucose (MAG) change. RESULTS: All indices of glycaemic variability (mean ± SD) were significantly reduced during CRHP diet compared with CD diet; including SD (1.0 ± 0.3 (CRHP) vs 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol/L (CD)), CV (12.3 ± 3.8 vs 19.3 ± 5.5%), MAGE (2.3 ± 0.9 vs 4.2 ± 1.3 mmol/L), CONGA1 (0.8 ± 0.3 vs 1.5 ± 0.4 mmol/L), CONGA4 (1.4 ± 0.5 vs 2.5 ± 0.8 mmol/L), and MAG change (0.9 ± 0.3 vs 1.4 ± 0.4 mmol/L/h) (p < 0.001 for all). Compared with the CD diet, the CRHP diet improved the diurnal glucose profile by reducing 24-h mean sensor glucose (7.7 ± 1.6 vs 8.6 ± 2.0 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: In T2D patients treated with diet and metformin, two days of iso-energetic replacement of dietary carbohydrates by protein and fat reduced all indices of glycaemic variability by 36%-45% when compared with a conventional diabetes diet. These data may support reduction of carbohydrates as dietary advice for T2D patients. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02472951.

19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012906, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there is an increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Metformin is still the recommended first-line glucose-lowering drug for people with T2DM. Despite this, the effects of metformin on patient-important outcomes are still not clarified. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of metformin monotherapy in adults with T2DM. SEARCH METHODS: We based our search on a systematic report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and topped-up the search in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Additionally, we searched the reference lists of included trials and systematic reviews, as well as health technology assessment reports and medical agencies. The date of the last search for all databases was 2 December 2019, except Embase (searched up 28 April 2017). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least one year's duration comparing metformin monotherapy with no intervention, behaviour changing interventions or other glucose-lowering drugs in adults with T2DM. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors read all abstracts and full-text articles/records, assessed risk of bias, and extracted outcome data independently. We resolved discrepancies by involvement of a third review author. For meta-analyses we used a random-effects model with investigation of risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes, using 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for effect estimates. We assessed the overall certainty of the evidence by using the GRADE instrument. MAIN RESULTS: We included 18 RCTs with multiple study arms (N = 10,680). The percentage of participants finishing the trials was approximately 58% in all groups. Treatment duration ranged from one to 10.7 years. We judged no trials to be at low risk of bias on all 'Risk of bias' domains. The main outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events (SAEs), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cardiovascular mortality (CVM), non-fatal myocardial infarction (NFMI), non-fatal stroke (NFS), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Two trials compared metformin (N = 370) with insulin (N = 454). Neither trial reported on all-cause mortality, SAE, CVM, NFMI, NFS or ESRD. One trial provided information on HRQoL but did not show a substantial difference between the interventions. Seven trials compared metformin with sulphonylureas. Four trials reported on all-cause mortality: in three trials no participant died, and in the remaining trial 31/1454 participants (2.1%) in the metformin group died compared with 31/1441 participants (2.2%) in the sulphonylurea group (very low-certainty evidence). Three trials reported on SAE: in two trials no SAE occurred (186 participants); in the other trial 331/1454 participants (22.8%) in the metformin group experienced a SAE compared with 308/1441 participants (21.4%) in the sulphonylurea group (very low-certainty evidence). Two trials reported on CVM: in one trial no CVM was observed and in the other trial 4/1441 participants (0.3%) in the metformin group died of cardiovascular reasons compared with 8/1447 participants (0.6%) in the sulphonylurea group (very low-certainty evidence). Three trials reported on NFMI: in two trials no NFMI occurred, and in the other trial 21/1454 participants (1.4%) in the metformin group experienced a NFMI compared with 15/1441 participants (1.0%) in the sulphonylurea group (very low-certainty evidence). One trial reported no NFS occurred (very low-certainty evidence). No trial reported on HRQoL or ESRD. Seven trials compared metformin with thiazolidinediones (very low-certainty evidence for all outcomes). Five trials reported on all-cause mortality: in two trials no participant died; the overall RR was 0.88, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.39; P = 0.57; 5 trials; 4402 participants). Four trials reported on SAE, the RR was 0,95, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.09; P = 0.49; 3208 participants. Four trials reported on CVM, the RR was 0.71, 95% CI 0.21 to 2.39; P = 0.58; 3211 participants. Three trial reported on NFMI: in two trials no NFMI occurred and in one trial 21/1454 participants (1.4%) in the metformin group experienced a NFMI compared with 25/1456 participants (1.7%) in the thiazolidinedione group. One trial reported no NFS occurred. No trial reported on HRQoL or ESRD. Three trials compared metformin with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (one trial each with saxagliptin, sitagliptin, vildagliptin with altogether 1977 participants). There was no substantial difference between the interventions for all-cause mortality, SAE, CVM, NFMI and NFS (very low-certainty evidence for all outcomes). One trial compared metformin with a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue (very low-certainty evidence for all reported outcomes). There was no substantial difference between the interventions for all-cause mortality, CVM, NFMI and NFS. One or more SAEs were reported in 16/268 (6.0%) of the participants allocated to metformin compared with 35/539 (6.5%) of the participants allocated to a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue. HRQoL or ESRD were not reported. One trial compared metformin with meglitinide and two trials compared metformin with no intervention. No deaths or SAEs occurred (very low-certainty evidence) no other patient-important outcomes were reported. No trial compared metformin with placebo or a behaviour changing interventions. Four ongoing trials with 5824 participants are likely to report one or more of our outcomes of interest and are estimated to be completed between 2018 and 2024. Furthermore, 24 trials with 2369 participants are awaiting assessment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no clear evidence whether metformin monotherapy compared with no intervention, behaviour changing interventions or other glucose-lowering drugs influences patient-important outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Carbamatos/efeitos adversos , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico
20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(10): 1837-1846, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495988

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effect of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), liraglutide, on pancreatic volume, oedema, cellularity and DNA synthesis in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an open-label study in 14 obese men (age 38 ± 11 years, body mass index 32 ± 4 kg/m2 ) without diabetes. Subjects were examined at baseline, during titration (week 4) of liraglutide towards 3.0 mg/day, and 2 weeks after steady-state treatment (week 6) of a final dose of liraglutide. The primary endpoint was pancreatic volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary endpoints included pancreatic oedema and cellularity, positron emission tomography-based [18 F]fluorothymidine (FLT) uptake (DNA synthesis) and plasma pancreatic enzymes. RESULTS: Plasma amylase (+7 U/L [95% confidence intervals 3-11], P < .01) and lipase (+19 U/L [7-30], P < .01) increased during liraglutide treatment. Pancreatic volume did not change from baseline to steady state of treatment (+0.2 cm3 [-8-8], P = .96) and no change in pancreatic cellular infiltration was found (P = .22). During titration of liraglutide, FLT uptake in pancreatic tissue increased numerically (+0.08 [0.00-0.17], P = .0507). CONCLUSIONS: Six weeks of treatment with liraglutide did not affect pancreatic volume, oedema or cellularity in obese men without diabetes.

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