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1.
Microsurgery ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In some breast cancer patients with a contralateral unaffected hypertrophic and ptotic breast, autologous small-breast reconstruction with contralateral breast reduction is a good option. The current study is aimed to assess the efficacy of the double-pedicle unaffected split-breast (USB) flap harvested from the central half of the unaffected breast for unilateral breast reconstruction with contralateral transverse scar reduction mammoplasty. METHODS: Between February 2003 and May 2020, 14 patients underwent breast reconstruction using the USB flap. The mean patient age was 59.1 (range: 48-76) years, and the mean body mass index was 24.2 (range: 19.5-33.3) kg/m2 . This flap comprised half of the contralateral breast tissues with the 3rd or 4th internal mammary perforator (IMAP) and the lateral thoracic vessel (LTA/V). After USB flap elevation and LTA/V resection, flap perfusion from the IMAP was evaluated on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. The medial pedicle USB flap was rotated 180° and was transferred to the affected site via the midline. The LTA/V was anastomosed to the recipient vessel to supercharge the distal part of the USB flap, which was then used for breast reconstruction. Then, the remaining contralateral upper and lower breast poles were used for transverse scar reduction mammoplasty. RESULTS: The mean flap size was 13.3 × 26.9 (range: 9.5 × 22 to 16 × 29) cm. All flaps and reduced breasts survived without serious complications such as flap necrosis, although there was one patient with hematoma and one patient with hypertrophic scar. ICG revealed poor perfusion in the distal, lateral part of the flap, ranging from 22.0% to 48.5% of the overall flap area. Final aesthetic evaluation was high, with 11 cases (78.6%) being "good" or "excellent" and 3 cases (21.4%) that were either poor or fair. The mean follow-up period for the patients was 53.8 (range: 15-84) months, with none of the patients presenting second primary breast cancer or recurrence in both breasts. CONCLUSION: USB flap breast reconstruction with contralateral reduction mammoplasty is a valuable option in breast cancer patients with a hypertrophic and ptotic breast.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography might be useful for assessing patients undergoing lymphatic surgery for secondary lymphedema. The present clinical trial aimed to confirm whether ICG fluorescent lymphography would be useful in evaluating lymphedema, identifying lymphatic vessels suitable for anastomosis, and confirming patency of lymphaticovenular anastomosis in patients with secondary lymphedema. METHODS: The present phase III, multicenter, single-arm, open-label, clinical trial (HAMAMATSU-ICG study) investigated the accuracy of lymphedema diagnosis via ICG fluorescent lymphography compared with lymphoscintigraphy, rate of identification of lymphatic vessels at the incision site, and efficacy for confirming patency of lymphaticovenular anastomosis. The external diameter of the identified lymphatic vessels and the distance from the skin surface to the lymphatic vessels using preoperative ICG fluorescent lymphography were measured intraoperatively under surgical microscopy. RESULTS: When the clinical decision for surgery at each research site was made, the standard diagnosis of lymphedema was considered correct. For the 26 upper extremities, a central judgment committee who was unaware of the clinical presentation confirmed the imaging diagnosis was accurate for 100.0% of cases, whether the assessments had been performed via lymphoscintigraphy or ICG lymphography. In contrast, for the 88 lower extremities, the accuracy of the diagnosis compared with the diagnosis by the central judgment committee was 70.5% and 88.2% for lymphoscintigraphy and ICG lymphography, respectively. The external diameter of the identified lymphatic vessels was significantly greater in the lower extremities than in the upper extremities (0.54 ± 0.21 mm vs 0.42 ± 0.14 mm; P < .0001). Also, the distance from the skin surface to the lymphatic vessels was significantly longer in the lower extremities than in the upper extremities (5.8 ± 3.5 mm vs 4.4 ± 2.6 mm; P = .01). For 263 skin incisions, with the site placement determined using ICG fluorescent lymphography, the rate of identification of lymphatics vessels suitable for anastomosis was 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 95.1%-99.2%). A total of 267 lymphaticovenular anastomoses were performed. ICG fluorescent lymphography was judged as "useful" for confirming patency after the anastomosis in 95.1% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: ICG fluorescent lymphography could be useful for improving the treatment of patients with secondary lymphedema from the outpatient setting to surgery.

3.
Lymphat Res Biol ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415778

RESUMO

Background: In patients with secondary upper limb lymphedema, positive correlations have been observed between the dermal back flow (DBF) type and visualization of lymph nodes around the clavicle, between the former and the lymph flow pathway type, and between the latter and the visualization of lymph nodes around the clavicle when using single photon-emission computed tomography/computed tomography/lymphoscintigraphy (SPECT-CT LSG). Methods and Results: We analyzed the associations between the visualization of inguinal lymph nodes, the lymph flow pathway type, and the DBF type using SPECT-CT LSG in 81 patients with unilateral secondary lower limb lymphedema by statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test. We revealed that the lymph flow pathways in the lower limb can be classified into nine types because the type in the lower leg is not always equal to the type in the thigh. Associations were observed between the visualization of inguinal lymph nodes and types of DBF (p < 0.01), between the types of lymph flow pathway in the thighs and visualization of the inguinal lymph nodes (p = 0.02), and between the lymph flow pathway types in the thighs and lower legs (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Detriment to the superficial lymph flow pathways in the lower limb appears to usually start from the proximal side, and deep pathways are considered to become dominant from a compensatory perspective as lymphedema severity increases.

4.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260464

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fat repositioning is a common surgical technique for treating tear trough deformity. As this technique is mainly performed for cosmetic purposes, its functional outcomes have rarely been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in eye movements that occur after fat repositioning for tear trough deformity. The authors performed fat repositioning on 18 eyelids of 9 patients and evaluated their eye movements and binocular vision before surgery and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Hess screen and Binocular single vision tests were performed during each follow-up examination and the scores were recorded. The authors observed that fat repositioning did not affect binocular vision; however, vertical and horizontal eye movements worsened at 3 months after surgery. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between the eye movements recorded before surgery and those recorded 6 months after surgery. Regardless of this finding, it should be noted that vertical or horizontal strabismus might occur after fat repositioning for tear trough deformity.

5.
JPRAS Open ; 29: 55-59, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124330

RESUMO

Cleft palate patients with a short palate are sometimes encountered and it is difficult to achieve effective primary palatoplasty and good speech in these cases. Our purpose was to establish an effective palatoplasty for a cleft palate patient with Randall type III short palate. Buccal musculomucosal flap on the nasal side and skin graft on the oral side were performed, along with double opposing Z-plasty. Speech improved postoperation. This procedure brought the nasopharyngeal area closer to the normal anatomical state. In terms of disadvantages, the procedure is rather complicated and depends on the engraftment rate.

7.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(11): 3094-3100, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994326

RESUMO

Treatment options for acquired blepharoptosis include levator resection, levator aponeurosis advancement (LAA), Müller's muscle-conjunctival resection (MMCR), and frontalis suspension. Previously, we reported a technique called external Müller's muscle tucking (EMMT) using the Müller's muscle as a power source. In this study, we compare LAA with EMMT and evaluate the recurrence and reoperation rates. LAA was performed on 96 eyelids in 51 patients. The average follow-up period was 12.2 months, recurrence occurred in four eyelids (4.2%) of three patients, and reoperation was required in one eyelid of one patient (2.0%). EMMT was performed on 94 eyelids in 51 patients, the mean follow-up period was 10.5 months, recurrence occurred in 14 eyelids (15%) of 10 patients, and reoperation was required in three eyelids of two patients (3.9%). A comparison of LAA and EMMT recurrence showed that EMMT was associated with a significantly higher recurrence rate (P = 0.0021). The causes of EMMT recurrence included thinning and fatty degeneration of Müller's muscles, necrosis of ligated Müller's muscles, and less postoperative scar formation. There was no correlation between EMMT recurrence and the severity of the blepharoptosis.


Assuntos
Aponeurose/cirurgia , Blefaroptose/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 99, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermoid cysts are well-known lesions that manifest as subcutaneous tumors around the lateral sides of the eyebrows in young patients. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often performed to confirm the diagnosis. On the other hand, a lipoma is usually a circular lesion, which is sometimes observed in the upper part of the face. The signals of both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images of MRI of a lipoma are, in general, relatively highly homogenous, and the signals decrease in fat-suppressed images. Therefore, differential diagnosis between a dermoid cyst and a lipoma is usually made with MRI, especially based on fat-suppressed images. Here, we present a case of misdiagnosis of a dermoid cyst as a lipoma because of atypical magnetic resonance images. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 24-year-old Japanese woman with a dermoid cyst around the lateral edge of the eyebrow. The cyst had been gradually increasing in size for the past 2 years. On MRI, it showed high internal signals on T1- and T2-weighted images. However, the signal intensity decreased homogeneously in the fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. The observed tumor had a yellowish appearance under the endoscope. On the basis of these findings, the lesion was considered a lipoma until it ruptured intraoperatively. The pathological diagnosis confirmed it to be a dermoid cyst. CONCLUSION: Some dermoid cysts contain lipid-rich liquid, and these may be misdiagnosed as lipomas by MRI. When a tumor is located at a common site for a dermoid cyst, the MRI images should be validated carefully if it appears like a lipoma, and the differential diagnosis should be considered carefully.


Assuntos
Cisto Dermoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Dermoide/diagnóstico , Cisto Dermoide/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoma/diagnóstico , Lipoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(6): e556-e559, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606442

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The frontalis suspension procedure is a common surgical method for patients with severe blepharoptosis. While frontalis suspension is a very effective method, the transplant material may be visualized after surgery in patients with a deep sulcus and severe blepharoptosis. To prevent this complication, we performed a combination of dermal fat grafting and frontalis suspension using a polytetrafluoroethylene sheet in 5 patients (6 eyelids). We followed-up the patients for at least 6 months postoperatively (mean: 6.8 months) and observed no transplant material visualization or occurrence of infection. The mean pre- and postoperative margin reflex distance-1 was -3.75 (-5 to -2) and 2.10 (1-3), respectively. Bulky upper eyelids were observed 6 months postoperatively in 1 patient (2 eyelids). None of the patients underwent reoperation. In conclusion, the combination of frontalis suspension using a polytetrafluoroethylene sheet and dermal fat grafting for severe blepharoptosis and a deep upper eyelid sulcus was effective in preventing visualization of the transplant material.


Assuntos
Blefaroplastia , Blefaroptose , Tecido Adiposo , Blefaroptose/cirurgia , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Humanos , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Politetrafluoretileno , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
JPRAS Open ; 27: 34-39, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313372

RESUMO

Background: Le Fort II advancement is considered for normalizing the facial appearance in Apert syndrome. When these procedures are performed during growth, overcorrection of midface advancement is required. We developed a system that can control the distance and vector of movement for the central midface to create more normal facial proportions. This case report shows Le Fort II distraction osteogenesis with this hybrid system for an Apert syndrome patient. Case: The patient was a girl with Apert syndrome with midfacial-nose hypoplasia and skeletal class III malocclusion. She was healthy without respiratory problems and had no learning disabilities. She underwent our Le Fort II distraction osteogenesis with the hybrid system at 10 years and 6 months of age. Her midface was elongated 22 mm at point Or forward and moved 5° downward to the Frankfort horizontal plane compared to the standard position of average Japanese adult women on the cephalogram. Examining the facial image, the midfacial depression was improved 4 years after the operation. Discussion: Overcorrection of midface advancement is required for patients to reduce the number of procedures during growth. The system that we developed could control the distance and vector of movement steadily when the central midface was overcorrected to try to create normal adult facial proportions.

11.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(1): e55-e58, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858610

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Involutional ectropion is a disease in which the eyelids are everted outwards, and because the eyelids move away from the eyeballs, the ocular surface and conjunctiva are exposed causing inflammation, pain, photophobia, foreign body sensation, epiphora, and blurred vision. It is thought to be caused by horizontal and vertical laxity. Various surgical methods have reportedly been used to correct involutional ectropion. Shortening the lower eyelid retractor (LER) is an indispensable surgical operation for medial ectropion. When the LER is shortened, it is usually fixed to the lower edge of the tarsal plate. Herein we describe a new type of surgery that has now been performed on 6 eyes in 4 patients. The procedure involves separating the conjunctiva from the tarsal plate, inserting the LER between the conjunctiva and the tarsal plate, and then fixing it to the back of the tarsal plate. In all 6 eyes, the lower eyelid now contacts the eyeball, and morphological improvements were achieved. This new surgical method is a useful way to raise the tarsal plate.


Assuntos
Ectrópio , Blefaroplastia , Túnica Conjuntiva/cirurgia , Ectrópio/cirurgia , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Humanos , Técnicas de Sutura
12.
Lymphat Res Biol ; 19(1): 73-79, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721266

RESUMO

Background: While performing microsurgery, including lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) for chronic limb lymphedema, it is a common procedure to identify the subcutaneous collecting lymph ducts with near-infrared fluorescence lymphangiography (NIR) using indocyanine green. However, due to limitations such as minimum observable depth, only a few lymphatic ducts can be identified with this procedure. Hence, we developed a new smaller-diameter "lymphatic wire" (LW) that could be inserted directly into lymphatic collecting ducts of the limbs, enabling accurate identification and localization. Methods and Results: First, used the LW on the hind limbs of 6 swine, and 36 porcine lymphatic collecting ducts were identified, the outer diameter of which varied from 0.3-0.7 mm (mean 0.41 ± 0.11 mm). We could insert the LW after creating a side opening in 30 of these ducts. We encountered no difficulties during the procedure. In the pathological examination, adverse events such as valve dysfunction and perforation were not identified. Based on the results, a clinical evaluation of the LW was performed in two patients with lower extremity lymphedema, and the LW helped us identify lymphatic ducts in the subcutaneous layer, even at the sites where the NIR had proved ineffective. Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggest that the procedure for identifying lymphatic vessels using the newly developed LW is a useful technique that can be utilized before performing a LVA for lymphedema. However, further clinical study is required to develop this device and technique, for wider clinical application in the future.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Vasos Linfáticos , Linfedema , Animais , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina , Linfa , Linfografia , Suínos
14.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(11): e3238, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299704

RESUMO

This article reports an intraoral approach for a congenital mature teratoma in the orbit, extending into the pterygopalatine fossa and the zygoma remodeling due to biological and functional matrix theory during the neonatal period. The operation took place on the 56th postnatal day due to gradual proptosis of the left eye from the socket. The entire orbital tumor could be surgically removed via the inferior orbital fissure, which had been expanded by the pressure of the tumor. This case suggests that orbital tumors expanding into pterygopalatine fossa can be removed by the intraoral approach because the bone of infants is so soft. The eyeball of the patient was temporarily depressed after the operation, but that was improved by tissue remodeling with time. Therefore, it is recommended that reconstructive surgery for an infant should be performed at the age of 12 months or older.

15.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(8): e781-e786, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136911

RESUMO

The usual surgical approaches for zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture are subciliary incision, transconjunctival incision, eyebrow incision, lateral canthal incision, coronal incision, preauricular incision, and superior gingivobuccal incision. In the intraoral approach, a horizontal mucoperiosteal incision is performed at the superior gingivobuccal region, and sometimes, includes the upper labial frenum. This may cause discomfort in the oral cavity because of postoperative scarring and shortening of the upper labial frenum. To avoid these complications, the authors performed a novel approach using gingival sulcus incision instead of oral mucosal incision to treat 5 zygomatic fractures. The authors evaluated the regression of the gingival interdental papillae, gingival swelling, and gingival perception at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the operation. The regression of the gingival papillae and gingival swelling disappeared 3 months and 1 month after the operation, respectively. No paresthesia was observed in any of the cases. The gingival sulcus approach can lead to scarless results and contribute considerably to the aesthetic appearance of the oral cavity.


Assuntos
Gengiva/cirurgia , Fraturas Zigomáticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Cicatriz/patologia , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187369

RESUMO

Microtia is a congenital aplasia of the auricular cartilage. Conventionally, autologous costal cartilage grafts are collected and shaped for transplantation. However, in this method, excessive invasion occurs due to limitations in the costal cartilage collection. Due to deformation over time after transplantation of the shaped graft, problems with long-term morphological maintenance exist. Additionally, the lack of elasticity with costal cartilage grafts is worth mentioning, as costal cartilage is a type of hyaline cartilage. Medical plastic materials have been transplanted as alternatives to costal cartilage, but transplant rejection and deformation over time are inevitable. It is imperative to create tissues for transplantation using cells of biological origin. Hence, cartilage tissues were developed using a biodegradable scaffold material. However, such materials suffer from transplant rejection and biodegradation, causing the transplanted cartilage tissue to deform due to a lack of elasticity. To address this problem, we established a method for creating elastic cartilage tissue for transplantation with autologous cells without using scaffold materials. Chondrocyte progenitor cells were collected from perichondrial tissue of the ear cartilage. By using a multilayer culture and a three-dimensional rotating suspension culture vessel system, we succeeded in creating scaffold-free elastic cartilage from cartilage progenitor cells.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Costal/citologia , Cartilagem da Orelha/citologia , Cartilagem Elástica/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química
17.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 19: 100595, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617434

RESUMO

Introduction: Secondary lymphoedema of the extremities is an important quality-of-life issue for patients who were treated for their malignancies. Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography may be helpful for assessing lymphoedema and for planning lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA). The objective of the present clinical trial is to confirm whether or not ICG fluorescent lymphography using the near-infrared monitoring camera is useful for assessing the indication for LVA, for the identification of the lymphatic vessels before the conduct of LVA, and for the confirmation of the patency of the anastomosis site during surgery. Methods and analysis: This trial is a phase III, multicentre, single-arm, open-label clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of ICG fluorescent lymphography when assessing and treating lymphoedema of patients with secondary lymphoedema who are under consideration for LVA. The primary endpoint is the identification rate of the lymphatic vessels at the incision site based on ICG fluorescent lymphograms obtained before surgery. The secondary endpoints are 1) the sensitivity and specificity of dermal back flow determined by ICG fluorescent lymphography as compared with 99mTc lymphoscintigraphy-one of the standard diagnostic methods and 2) the usefulness of ICG fluorescent lymphography when confirming the patency of the anastomosis site after LVA. Ethics and dissemination: The protocol for the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of each institution. The trial was filed for and registered at the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency in Japan. The trial is currently on-going and is scheduled to end in June 2020. Trial registration number: jRCT2031190064; Pre-results.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490036

RESUMO

A case of congenital short palate was treated by bilateral buccal musculomucosal flaps. The levator veli palatini muscle formed a continuous sling, but the anterior portion was attached to the posterior border of the hard palate. The speech outcome improved from severe to normal.

19.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 106, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large plexiform neurofibroma in patients with neurofibromatosis type I can be life threatening due to possible massive bleeding within the lesion. Although the literature includes many reports that describe the plexiform neurofibroma size and weight or strategies for their surgical treatment, few have discussed their possible physical or mental benefits, such as reducing cardiac stress. In addition, resection of these large tumors can result in impaired wound healing, partly due to massive blood loss during surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old man was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type I and burdened with a large plexiform neurofibroma on the buttocks and upper posterior thighs. The patient was 159 cm in height and 70.0 kg in weight at the first visit. Cardiac overload was indicated by an echocardiography before surgery. His cardiac output was 5.2 L/min with mild tricuspid regurgitation. After embolism of the arteries feeding the tumor, the patient underwent surgery to remove the neurofibroma, followed by skin grafting. Follow-up echocardiography, performed 6 months after the final surgery, indicated a decreased cardiac output (3.6 L/min) with improvement of tricuspid regurgitation. Because the blood loss during the first surgery was over 3.8 L, malnutrition with albuminemia was induced and half of the skin graft did not attach. Nutritional support to improve the albuminemia produced better results following a second surgery to repair the skin wound. CONCLUSION: Cardiac overload may be latent in patients with neurofibromatosis type I with large plexiform neurofibromas. As in pregnancy, the body may compensate for this burden. In these patients, one stage total excision may improve quality of life and reduce cardiac overload. In addition, nutritional support is likely needed following a major surgery that results in either an extensive skin wound or excessive blood loss during treatment.


Assuntos
Nádegas/cirurgia , Débito Cardíaco Elevado/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/cirurgia , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/fisiopatologia , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/cirurgia , Neurofibromatose 1/fisiopatologia , Coxa da Perna/cirurgia , Débito Cardíaco Elevado/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Transplante de Pele , Adulto Jovem
20.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(2): e2660, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309101

RESUMO

The internal mammary vessels (IMA/Vs) have been used as the first-choice recipient vessels for microsurgical anastomosis and flap inset in autologous breast reconstruction owing to their ease of access and use compared with the thoracodorsal vessels (TDA/Vs). Herein, we report two cases of deep inferior epigastric perforator flap breast reconstructions in which the recipient internal mammary vein (IMV) was lacking. In the first case, a 50-year-old patient underwent delayed two-stage reconstruction, and in the second, a 45-year-old patient underwent delayed reconstruction because of capsular contracture following breast implant reconstruction. Neither patient received preoperative radiation therapy. During IMA/V preparation, we could not find the internal mammary vein (IMV) around the internal mammary artery (IMA) despite careful dissection. No internal mammary lymph node adenopathy and vascular encasement from metastasis were noted. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography revealed absence of IMV, which was presumed to be congenital. Therefore, microsurgical anastomosis was performed to connect the deep inferior epigastric vessels to the thoracodorsal vessel. The postoperative course was uneventful in both cases. Although many anatomical studies have revealed different locations, diameters, branching patterns, and perforators of the IMA/V, absent IMV has been reported very rarely. In autologous breast reconstruction, plastic surgeons should be prepared for the possibility of the absence of IMV.

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