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1.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p = 0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p = 0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p = 0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4616, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397198

RESUMO

Chromosome 8q24 is a susceptibility locus for multiple cancers, including prostate cancer. Here we combine genetic data across the 8q24 susceptibility region from 71,535 prostate cancer cases and 52,935 controls of European ancestry to define the overall contribution of germline variation at 8q24 to prostate cancer risk. We identify 12 independent risk signals for prostate cancer (p < 4.28 × 10-15), including three risk variants that have yet to be reported. From a polygenic risk score (PRS) model, derived to assess the cumulative effect of risk variants at 8q24, men in the top 1% of the PRS have a 4-fold (95%CI = 3.62-4.40) greater risk compared to the population average. These 12 variants account for ~25% of what can be currently explained of the familial risk of prostate cancer by known genetic risk factors. These findings highlight the overwhelming contribution of germline variation at 8q24 on prostate cancer risk which has implications for population risk stratification.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 143(10): 2479-2487, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157291

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is one of the most common and heritable human cancers. Our aim was to find germline biomarkers that can predict disease outcome. We previously detected predisposing signals at 2q37, the location of the prostate specific ANO7 gene. To investigate, in detail, the associations between the ANO7 gene and PrCa risk and disease aggressiveness, ANO7 was sequenced in castration resistant tumors together with samples from unselected PrCa patients and unaffected males. Two pathogenic variants were discovered and genotyped in 1769 patients and 1711 unaffected males. Expression of ANO7 vs. PrCa aggressiveness was investigated. Different databases along with Swedish and Norwegian cohorts were used for validation. Case-control and aggressive vs. nonaggressive association analyses were performed against risk and/or cancer aggressiveness. The ANO7 mRNA level and patient survival were analyzed using expression data from databases. Variant rs77559646 showed both risk (OR 1.40; p = 0.009, 95% CI 1.09-1.78) and association with aggressive PrCa (Genotype test p = 0.04). It was found to be an eQTL for ANO7 (Linear model p-values for Finnish patients p = 0.009; Camcap prostate tumor p = 2.53E-06; Stockholm prostate tumor cohort p = 1.53E-13). rs148609049 was not associated with risk, but was related to shorter survival (HR 1.56; 95% CI 1.03-2.36). High ANO7 expression was independently linked to poor survival (HR 18.4; 95% CI 1.43-237). ANO7 genotypes correlate with expression and biochemical relapse, suggesting that ANO7 is a potential PrCa susceptibility gene and that its elevated expression correlates with disease severity and outcome.

6.
ESMO Open ; 3(3): e000328, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29682331

RESUMO

Background: Identification of BRCA mutation carriers among patients with breast cancer (BC) involves costs and gains. Testing has been performed according to international guidelines, focusing on family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer. An alternative is testing all patients with BC employing sequencing of the BRCA genes and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). Patients and methods: A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, employing data from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (OUH-U) and a decision tree, was done. The societal and the healthcare perspectives were focused and a lifetime perspective employed. The comparators were the traditional FH approach used as standard of care at OUH-U in 2013 and the intervention (testing all patients with BC) performed in 2014 and 2015 at the same hospital. During the latter period, 535 patients with BC were offered BRCA testing with sequencing and MLPA. National 2014 data on mortality rates and costs were implemented, a 3% discount rate used and the costing year was 2015. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated in euros (€) per life-year gained (LYG). Results: The net healthcare cost (healthcare perspective) was €40 503/LYG. Including all resource use (societal perspective), the cost was €5669/LYG. The univariate sensitivity analysis documented the unit cost of the BRCA test and the number of LYGs the prominent parameters affecting the result.Diagnostic BRCA testing of all patients with BC was superior to the FH approach and cost-effective within the frequently used thresholds (healthcare perspective) in Norway (€60 000-€80 000/LYG).

8.
Br J Cancer ; 118(2): 266-276, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339979

RESUMO

Background: Founder mutations in the two breast cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been described in many populations, among these are Ashkenazi-Jewish, Polish, Norwegian and Icelandic. Founder mutation testing in patients with relevant ancestry has been a cost-efficient approach in such populations. Four Norwegian BRCA1 founder mutations were defined by haplotyping in 2001, and accounted for 68% of BRCA1 mutation carriers at the time. After 15 more years of genetic testing, updated knowledge on the mutation spectrum of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Norway is needed. In this study, we aim at describing the mutation spectrum and frequencies in the BRCA1/2 carrier population of the largest clinic of hereditary cancer in Norway. Methods: A total of 2430 BRCA1 carriers from 669 different families, and 1092 BRCA2 carriers from 312 different families were included in a quality of care study. All variants were evaluated regarding pathogenicity following ACMG/ENIGMA criteria. The variants were assessed in AlaMut and supplementary databases to determine whether they were known to be founder mutations in other populations. Results: There were 120 different BRCA1 and 87 different BRCA2 variants among the mutation carriers. Forty-six per cent of the registered BRCA1/2 families (454/981) had a previously reported Norwegian founder mutation. The majority of BRCA1/2 mutations (71%) were rare, each found in only one or two families. Fifteen per cent of BRCA1 families and 25% of BRCA2 families had one of these rare variants. The four well-known Norwegian BRCA1 founder mutations previously confirmed through haplotyping were still the four most frequent mutations in BRCA1 carriers, but the proportion of BRCA1 mutation carriers accounted for by these mutations had fallen from 68 to 52%, and hence the founder effect was weaker than previously described. Conclusions: The spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the carrier population at Norway's largest cancer genetics clinic is diverse, and with a weaker founder effect than previously described. As a consequence, retesting the families that previously have been tested with specific tests/founder mutation tests should be a prioritised strategy to find more mutation positive families and possibly prevent cancer in healthy relatives.

10.
Prostate ; 78(3): 186-192, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181843

RESUMO

Norway has one of the highest rates of death due to prostate cancer (PCa) in the world. To assess the contribution of both common and rare single nucleotide variants (SNPs) to the prostate cancer burden in Norway, we assessed the frequency of the established prostate cancer susceptibility allele, HOXB13 G84E, as well as a series of validated, common PCa risk SNPs in a Norwegian PCa population of 779 patients. The G84E allele was observed in 2.3% of patients compared to 0.7% of control individuals, OR = 3.8, P = 1 × 10-4. While there was a trend toward an earlier age at diagnosis, overall the clinicopathologic features of PCa were not significantly different in G84E carriers and non-carriers. Evaluation of 32 established common risk alleles revealed significant associations of risk alleles at 13 loci, including SNPs at 8q24, and near TET2, SLC22A3, NKX3-1, CASC8, MYC, DAP2IP, MSMB, HNF1B, PPP1R14A, and KLK2/3. When the data for each SNP are combined into a genetic risk score (GRS), Norwegian men within the top decile of GRS have over 5-fold greater risk to be diagnosed with PCa than men with GRS in the lowest decile. These results indicate that risk alleles of HOXB13 and common variant SNPs are important components of inherited PCa risk in the Norwegian population, although these factors appear to contribute little to the malignancy's aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Frequência do Gene , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
11.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 438, 2017 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of BRCA mutations in breast cancer (BC) patients influences treatment and survival and may be of importance for their relatives. Testing is often restricted to women fulfilling high-risk criteria. However, there is limited knowledge of the sensitivity of such a strategy, and of the clinical aspects of BC caused by BRCA mutations in less selected BC cohorts. The aim of this report was to address these issues by evaluating the results of BRCA testing of BC patients in South-Eastern Norway. METHODS: 1371 newly diagnosed BC patients were tested with sequencing and Multi Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). Prevalence of mutations was calculated, and BC characteristics among carriers and non-carriers compared. Sensitivity and specificity of common guidelines for BRCA testing to identify carriers was analyzed. Number of identified female mutation positive relatives was evaluated. RESULTS: A pathogenic BRCA mutation was identified in 3.1%. Carriers differed from non-carriers in terms of age at diagnosis, family history, grade, ER/PR-status, triple negativity (TNBC) and Ki67, but not in HER2 and TNM status. One mutation positive female relative was identified per mutation positive BC patient. Using age of onset below 40 or TNBC as criteria for testing identified 32-34% of carriers. Common guidelines for testing identified 45-90%, and testing all below 60 years identified 90%. Thirty-seven percent of carriers had a family history of cancer that would have qualified for predictive BRCA testing. A Variant of Uncertain Significance (VUS) was identified in 4.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Mutation positive BC patients differed as a group from mutation negative. However, the commonly used guidelines for testing were insufficient to detect all mutation carriers in the BC cohort. Thirty-seven percent had a family history of cancer that would have qualified for predictive testing before they were diagnosed with BC. Based on our combined observations, we suggest it is time to discuss whether all BC patients should be offered BRCA testing, both to optimize treatment and improve survival for these women, but also to enable identification of healthy mutation carriers within their families. Health services need to be aware of referral possibility for healthy women with cancer in their family.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Testes Genéticos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Noruega
12.
Fam Cancer ; 16(1): 1-16, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27495310

RESUMO

Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 cause hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Molecular screening of these two genes in patients with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer has revealed pathogenic variants as well as genetic variants of unknown significance (VUS). These VUS may cause a challenge in the genetic counseling process regarding clinical management of the patient and the family. We investigated 32 variants previously detected in 33 samples from patients with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. cDNA was analyzed for alternative transcripts and selected missense variants located in the BRCT domains of BRCA1 were assessed for their trans-activation ability. Although an extensive cDNA analysis was done, only three of the 32 variants appeared to affect the splice-process (BRCA1 c.213-5T>A, BRCA1 c.5434C>G and BRCA2 c.68-7T>A). In addition, two variants located in the BRCT domains of BRCA1 (c.5075A>C p.Asp1692Ala and c.5513T>G p.Val1838Gly) were shown to abolish the BRCT domain trans-activation ability, whereas BRCA1 c.5125G>A p.Gly1709Arg exhibited equal trans-activation capability as the WT domain. These functional studies may offer further insights into the pathogenicity of certain identified variants; however, this assay is only applicable for a subset of missense variants.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Noruega , Processamento de RNA
13.
Fam Cancer ; 16(2): 257-265, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27804060

RESUMO

Germline mutations in the CDKN2A gene are associated with an increased risk of malignant melanoma and pancreatic cancer. In order to find out if the behavior pattern in families with a CDKN2A mutation is similar to what we previously have described in families with a BRCA1 mutation, we have studied the uptake of genetic services in probands and their relatives. We describe whether they attend genetic counseling when invited, whether they want a mutation test after being counseled and whether they adhere to recommendations for surveillance. 66 % (95/144) of first-degree relatives to mutation carriers contacted us within the study period. 98 % (126/128) of all relatives who came for genetic counseling decided on genetic testing for their family's mutation, and 93 % (66/71) of all mutation carriers wanted referral to yearly skin examinations. Female relatives had a significantly higher uptake of genetic services compared to males, similar to the findings in families with a BRCA1 mutation. Uptake of genetic services in general in families with a CDKN2A mutation is high. Females seem to have a higher interest in genetic testing than males, regardless of gene mutated.


Assuntos
Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Genes p16 , Melanoma/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Noruega , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Cooperação do Paciente , Fatores Sexuais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico
14.
Thyroid ; 26(9): 1225-38, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27400880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by activating germline mutations in the RET (REarranged during Transfection) proto-oncogene. MEN 2A has a strong (>95%) and age-dependent (5-25 years) clinical penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Several major studies have analyzed the predictive and prognostic factors for MEN 2A to find indicators that predict the optimal timing of prophylactic thyroidectomy. The aims of this study were to describe all known RET positive MEN 2A patients diagnosed in Norway and to evaluate the clinical course of MTC, as well as its predictive and prognostic factors. METHODS: This nationwide retrospective cohort study included data for 65 (14 index and 51 screening patients) out of a total of 67 MEN 2A patients with the RET gene mutation who were diagnosed in Norway since 1974. Data were collected by reviewing patient files. The variables analyzed were genotype, phenotype, preoperative basal calcitonin, age at thyroid surgery, central lymph node dissection and nodal status at primary surgery, number of surgical procedures, and biochemical cure. Of the 65 patients, 60 had undergone thyroid surgery. The median follow-up period was 9.9 years. The patients were divided into pre-RET-and RET-era, which included patients who had thyroid surgery before January 1, 1994, and after, respectively. RESULTS: In index and screening patients, MTC was found, respectively, in 100% and 45% of cases, central lymph node dissection at primary surgery was done for 64% and 52% of patients, and the median total number of surgical procedures was two (range 1-6) and one (range 1-4). At primary surgery, all patients (n = 13) with lymph node metastases had preoperative basal calcitonin levels ≥68 pg/mL, and all patients (n = 17) without central lymph node dissection and preoperative basal calcitonin <40 pg/mL were biochemically cured. Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative basal calcitonin was a significant predictive factor for MTC superior to age at thyroid surgery when analyzing the entire period (p = 0.009) and the RET-era separately (p = 0.021). Prognostic factors for biochemical cure were preoperative basal calcitonin, central lymph node dissection, and nodal status at primary surgery (p = 0.037, p = 0.002, and p = 0.005) when analyzing the entire period, but only nodal status at primary surgery when the RET-era was considered separately (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative basal calcitonin alone can serve as an indicator for optimal timing and the extent of thyroid surgery for MEN 2A patients that could be considered safe. The results are consistent with previously reported data.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Medular/patologia , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 2a/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Tireoidectomia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Calcitonina/sangue , Carcinoma Medular/sangue , Carcinoma Medular/genética , Carcinoma Medular/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 2a/sangue , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 2a/genética , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 2a/cirurgia , Noruega , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hered Cancer Clin Pract ; 13(1): 14, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26052370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common genetic variants have been shown to modify BRCA1 penetrance. The aim of this study was to validate these reports in a special cohort of Norwegian BRCA1 mutation carriers that were selected for their extreme age of onset of disease. METHODS: The ten variants rs13387042, rs3803662, rs8170, rs9397435, rs700518, rs10046, rs3834129, rs1045485, rs2363956 and rs16942 were selected to be tested on samples from our biobank. We selected female BRCA1 mutation carriers having had a diagnosis of breast or ovarian cancer below 40 years of age (young cancer group, N = 40), and mutation carriers having had neither breast nor ovarian cancer above 60 years of age (i.e., old no cancer group, N = 38). Relative risks and odd ratios of belonging to the young cancer versus old no cancer groups were calculated as a function of having or not having the SNPs in question. RESULTS: Five of the ten variants were found to be significantly associated with early onset cancer. Some of the variation between our results and those previously reported may be ascribed to stochastic effects in our limited number of patient studies, and/or genetic drift in linkage disequilibrium in the genetically isolated Norwegian population. This is in accordance with the understanding that the SNPs are markers in linkage disequilibrium with their respective disease-causing genetic variants, and that this may vary between different populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed associations previously reported, with the notion that the degree of association may differ between other populations, which must be considered when discussing the clinical use of the associations described.

16.
Hered Cancer Clin Pract ; 12(1): 12, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24790682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to select cases for mismatch repair (MMR) genetic testing, we failed to identify a large kindred with the deleterious PMS2 mutation c.989-1G > T. The purpose of the study was to examine the sensitivity of IHC and microsatellite instability-analysis (MSI) to identify carriers of the mutation, and to estimate its penetrance and expressions. METHODS: All carriers and obligate carriers of the mutation were identified. All cancer diagnoses were confirmed. IHC and MSI-analysis were performed on available tumours. Penetrances of cancers included in the Amsterdam and the Bethesda Criteria, for MSI-high tumours and MSI-high and low tumours were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier algorithm. RESULTS: Probability for co-segregation of the mutation and cancers by chance was 0.000004. Fifty-six carriers or obligate carriers were identified. There was normal staining for PMS2 in 15/18 (83.3%) of tumours included in the AMS1/AMS2/Bethesda criteria. MSI-analysis showed that 15/21 (71.4%) of tumours were MSI-high and 4/21 (19.0%) were MSI-low. Penetrance at 70 years was 30.6% for AMS1 cancers (colorectal cancers), 42.8% for AMS2 cancers, 47.2% for Bethesda cancers, 55.6% for MSI-high and MSI-low cancers and 52.2% for MSI-high cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The mutation met class 5 criteria for pathogenicity. IHC was insensitive in detecting tumours caused by the mutation. Penetrance of cancers that displayed MSI was 56% at 70 years. Besides colorectal cancers, the most frequent expressions were carcinoma of the endometrium and breast in females and stomach and prostate in males.

17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 144(3): 607-14, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24619173

RESUMO

We report prospectively observed risk for breast cancer in breast cancer kindreds without a demonstrable BRCA1/2 mutation. According to family history, the optimal available member(s) of each breast cancer kindred attending our clinic was tested for BRCA mutations. Women in families without a demonstrable BRCA mutation were subjected to annual mammography. BRCA mutations were demonstrated in 496/2,118 (23 %) breast cancer kindreds. In families without a demonstrable BRCA mutation, a total of 3,161 healthy women aged 25-59 years were prospectively followed for 24,808 observation years. Sixty-four cancers were observed, compared to 34.0 expected (p < 0.01), arriving at a 7.9 % cumulative risk at age 60 compared to 4.0 % in the population [relative risk (RR) = 2.0]. Women with one mother or sister affected ≤50 years and with no other close relatives with breast cancer did not have increased risk (0 cancers observed and 0.6 expected at age 40, 11 cancers observed and 7.9 expected at age 60, p > 0.05). Excluding these, cumulative risk at 60 years was 8.8 % (RR = 2.2). The highest cumulative risk at 60 years was 11.4 %, found in families with two cases ≤55 years (RR = 2.8). In breast cancer kindreds without a demonstrable BRCA mutation, the risk for breast cancer in female first degree relatives was about twice the risk in the general population. Women with one early affected relative only did not have increased risk for early onset breast cancer, while those with more than one young affected relative had close to three times population risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos , Mutação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
18.
Eur Urol ; 66(3): 489-99, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24484606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrollment in the study. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We recruited men aged 40-69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrollment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%-double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The IMPACT screening network will be useful for targeted PCa screening studies in men with germline genetic risk variants as they are discovered. These preliminary results support the use of targeted PSA screening based on BRCA genotype and show that this screening yields a high proportion of aggressive disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we demonstrate that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of prostate cancer. Targeting screening at these men resulted in the identification of tumours that were more likely to require treatment.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 32(15): 1547-53, 2014 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24567435

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to estimate the reduction in risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation after oophorectomy, by age of oophorectomy; to estimate the impact of prophylactic oophorectomy on all-cause mortality; and to estimate 5-year survival associated with clinically detected ovarian, occult, and peritoneal cancers diagnosed in the cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were identified from an international registry; 5,783 women completed a baseline questionnaire and ≥ one follow-up questionnaires. Women were observed until either diagnosis of ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer, death, or date of most recent follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer incidence and all-cause mortality associated with oophorectomy were evaluated using time-dependent survival analyses. RESULTS: After an average follow-up period of 5.6 years, 186 women developed either ovarian (n = 132), fallopian (n = 22), or peritoneal (n = 32) cancer, of whom 68 have died. HR for ovarian, fallopian, or peritoneal cancer associated with bilateral oophorectomy was 0.20 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.30; P < .001). Among women who had no history of cancer at baseline, HR for all-cause mortality to age 70 years associated with an oophorectomy was 0.23 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.39; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Preventive oophorectomy was associated with an 80% reduction in the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers and a 77% reduction in all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas , Incidência , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Ovariectomia/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Europa (Continente) , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/genética , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/mortalidade , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/prevenção & controle , Fenótipo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Breast ; 23(1): 38-43, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24210736

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of risk-reducing mastectomy in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with and without breast cancer. Uptake, methods of operation and reconstruction, complications, patient satisfaction and histopathological findings were registered at all five departments of genetics in Norway. Data from 267 affected and unaffected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were analyzed, including a study-specific questionnaire returned by 178 mutation carriers. There was a steady increase in the uptake of risk-reducing mastectomies during the study period. Complications were observed in 106/266 (39.7%) women. Patient satisfaction was high. The majority of women expressed great relief after risk-reducing mastectomy and would have chosen the same option again.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mamoplastia , Mastectomia , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mamoplastia/psicologia , Mastectomia/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Estudos Retrospectivos
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