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1.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: FTND (FagerstrÓ§m test for nicotine dependence) and TTFC (time to smoke first cigarette in the morning) are common measures of nicotine dependence (ND). However, genome-wide meta-analysis for these phenotypes has not been reported. METHODS: Genome-wide meta-analyses for FTND (N = 19,431) and TTFC (N = 18,567) phenotypes were conducted for adult smokers of European ancestry from 14 independent cohorts. RESULTS: We found that SORBS2 on 4q35 (p = 4.05 × 10-8), BG182718 on 11q22 (p = 1.02 × 10-8), and AA333164 on 14q21 (p = 4.11 × 10-9) were associated with TTFC phenotype. We attempted replication of leading candidates with independent samples (FTND, N = 7010 and TTFC, N = 10 061), however, due to limited power of the replication samples, the replication of these new loci did not reach significance. In gene-based analyses, COPB2 was found associated with FTND phenotype, and TFCP2L1, RELN, and INO80C were associated with TTFC phenotype. In pathway and network analyses, we found that the interconnected interactions among the endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, axon guidance, MAPK signaling, and chemokine signaling pathways were involved in ND. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified several promising candidates for both FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and further verification of these candidates was necessary. Candidates supported by both FTND and TTFC (CHRNA4, THSD7B, RBFOX1, and ZNF804A) were associated with addiction to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, and were associated with autism and schizophrenia. We also identified novel pathways involved in cigarette smoking. The pathway interactions highlighted the importance of receptor recycling and internalization in ND. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking and ND is critical to develop effective prevention and treatment. Our study identified novel candidates and biological pathways involved in FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and this will facilitate further investigation of these candidates and pathways.

2.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(1): 27-41, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944056

RESUMO

Structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important research tool, both for path-based model specification (common in the social sciences) and also for matrix-based models (in heavy use in behavior genetics). We developed umx to give more immediate access, relatively concise syntax and helpful defaults for users in these two broad disciplines. umx supports development, modification and comparison of models, as well as both graphical and tabular outputs. The second major focus of umx, behavior genetic models, is supported via functions implementing standard multigroup twin models. These functions support raw and covariance data, including joint ordinal data, and give solutions for ACE models, including support for covariates, common- and independent-pathway models, and gene × environment interaction models. A tutorial site and question forum are also available.


Assuntos
Modelos Genéticos , Software , Gêmeos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Psychol Med ; 49(7): 1218-1226, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite established clinical associations among major depression (MD), alcohol dependence (AD), and alcohol consumption (AC), the nature of the causal relationship between them is not completely understood. We leveraged genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and UK Biobank to test for the presence of shared genetic mechanisms and causal relationships among MD, AD, and AC. METHODS: Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) were performed using genome-wide data from the PGC (MD: 135 458 cases and 344 901 controls; AD: 10 206 cases and 28 480 controls) and UK Biobank (AC-frequency: 438 308 individuals; AC-quantity: 307 098 individuals). RESULTS: Positive genetic correlation was observed between MD and AD (rgMD-AD = + 0.47, P = 6.6 × 10-10). AC-quantity showed positive genetic correlation with both AD (rgAD-AC quantity = + 0.75, P = 1.8 × 10-14) and MD (rgMD-AC quantity = + 0.14, P = 2.9 × 10-7), while there was negative correlation of AC-frequency with MD (rgMD-AC frequency = -0.17, P = 1.5 × 10-10) and a non-significant result with AD. MR analyses confirmed the presence of pleiotropy among these four traits. However, the MD-AD results reflect a mediated-pleiotropy mechanism (i.e. causal relationship) with an effect of MD on AD (beta = 0.28, P = 1.29 × 10-6). There was no evidence for reverse causation. CONCLUSION: This study supports a causal role for genetic liability of MD on AD based on genetic datasets including thousands of individuals. Understanding mechanisms underlying MD-AD comorbidity addresses important public health concerns and has the potential to facilitate prevention and intervention efforts.

4.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(5): 720-724, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Twin studies have shown that genetic factors in part explain the established relation between alcohol use (i.e., problematic use or abuse/dependence) and eating disorder symptoms in adolescent and adult females. However, studies have yet to elucidate if there are similar shared genetic factors between other aspects of substance involvement, such as illicit drug use and repeated cigarette smoking. METHOD: For those sex-specific phenotypic correlations above our threshold of .20, we used a behavioral genetic design to examine potential shared genetic overlap between self-reported lifetime illicit drug use and repeated cigarette smoking and the eating disorder symptoms of drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (BU), and body dissatisfaction (BD), as assessed with the Eating Disorder Inventory-II, in 16- to 17-year-old female and male twin pairs. RESULTS: Only phenotypic correlations with illicit drug use met our threshold for twin modeling. Small to moderate genetic correlations were observed between illicit drug use and BU in both girls and boys and between illicit drug use and DT in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Similar etiological factors are at play in the overlap between illicit drug use and certain eating disorder symptoms in girls and boys during adolescence, such that genetic factors are important for covariance. Specifically, illicit drug use was associated with bulimia nervosa symptoms in girls and boys, which parallels previous substance use research finding a genetic overlap between alcohol use and bulimia nervosa symptoms. Future research should prospectively examine developmental trajectories to further understand the etiological overlap between substance involvement and eating disorder symptoms.

5.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 42(11): 2214-2223, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol involvement has familial associations with bulimic symptoms (i.e., binge eating, inappropriate compensatory behaviors), with several studies indicating a genetic overlap between the two. It is unclear whether overlapping familial risk with alcohol involvement extends to other eating disorder symptoms. Understanding the genetic overlap between alcohol involvement and other eating disorder symptoms may aid in more targeted interventions for comorbid alcohol use-eating disorder symptoms. Thus, we investigated associations between alcohol involvement and 2 core eating disorder symptoms: drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction in adolescent female and male twins. METHODS: We assessed 3 levels of alcohol involvement: alcohol use in the last month, having ever been intoxicated, and alcohol intoxication frequency via self-report. The Eating Disorder Inventory-II assessed drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction. Sex-specific biometrical twin modeling examined the genetic overlap between alcohol involvement and eating disorder symptoms. RESULTS: Phenotypic associations between alcohol involvement, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction were significantly greater in girls compared with boys. A majority of the associations between alcohol involvement, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction in girls, but not boys, met our threshold for twin modeling (phenotypic r > 0.20). Moderate genetic correlations were observed between the 3 aspects of alcohol involvement and drive for thinness. Moderate genetic correlations were observed between alcohol use and intoxication frequency and body dissatisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Together with the literature on alcohol involvement and bulimic symptoms, these findings suggest a generalized association between alcohol involvement and eating disorder symptoms in girls, whereas this association may be symptom specific in boys. Genetic correlations indicate that the amount and direction of this genetic overlap differs across specific symptoms. When intervening on comorbid alcohol involvement and eating disorder symptoms, it may be important to target-specific eating disorder symptoms.

6.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(3): 179-190, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence from twin and adoption studies indicates that genetic and shared environmental factors play a role in the initiation of smoking behavior. Although twin and adoption designs are powerful to detect genetic and environmental influences, they do not provide information on the processes of assortative mating and parent-offspring transmission and their contribution to the variability explained by genetic and/or environmental factors. METHODS: We examined the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual differences for smoking initiation (SI) using an extended kinship design. This design allows the simultaneous testing of additive and non-additive genetic, shared and individual-specific environmental factors, as well as sex differences in the expression of genes and environment in the presence of assortative mating and combined genetic and cultural transmission, while also estimating the regression of the prevalence of SI on age. A dichotomous lifetime 'ever' smoking measure was obtained from twins and relatives in the 'Virginia 30,000' sample and the 'Australian 25,000'. RESULTS: Results demonstrate that both genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in the liability to SI. Major influences on individual differences appeared to be additive genetic and unique environmental effects, with smaller contributions from assortative mating, shared sibling environment, twin environment, cultural transmission, and resulting genotype-environment covariance. Age regression of the prevalence of SI was significant. The finding of negative cultural transmission without dominance led us to investigate more closely two possible mechanisms for the lower parent-offspring correlations compared to the sibling and DZ twin correlations in subsets of the data: (1) age × gene interaction, and (2) social homogamy. Neither of the mechanism provided a significantly better explanation of the data. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed significant heritability, partly due to assortment, and significant effects of primarily non-parental shared environment on liability to SI.

7.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(14): 2291-2298, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth tobacco use behaviors are predictive of patterns in adulthood and effect long-term health outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined the effect of initial subjective experiences (ISEs) during first tobacco use, which has been found to be an indicator of individuals. sensitivity to nicotine and vulnerability to dependence. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of ISEs across a variety of tobacco products, evaluate the factor structure of ISEs by first tobacco product used, and examine the relationship between ISEs and recent (30-day) use of tobacco products across time, using a university sample. METHODS: Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to identify latent factors present with respect to items measuring ISEs with tobacco, separately by tobacco product (e.g. cigarettes, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes). Factor scores for positive and negative ISEs were calculated. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between ISEs and recent use of each tobacco product, adjusted for age at first use, sex, race/ethnicity, and cohort. RESULTS: ISEs differ by the first tobacco product used. Associations between factor scores for positive and negative ISEs and recent use were found across a variety of tobacco products. Overall, positive ISEs were more strongly associated with recent use, relative to negative ISEs. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to identify genetic and biological pathways and social contexts influencing initial subjective experiences with tobacco use, in efforts to delay the initiation for tobacco use and reduce risk for continued use among young adults.

8.
Soc Sci Med ; 209: 51-58, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793164

RESUMO

Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is an important aspect of early life environment associated with later life health/health behaviors, including alcohol misuse. However, alcohol misuse is modestly heritable and involves differing etiological pathways. Externalizing disorders show significant genetic overlap with substance use, suggesting an impulsivity pathway to alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse also overlaps with internalizing disorders, suggesting alcohol is used to cope. These differing pathways could lead to different patterns over time and/or differential susceptibility to environmental conditions, such as childhood SES. We examine whether: 1) genetic risk for externalizing and internalizing disorders influence trajectories of alcohol problems across adolescence to adulthood, 2) childhood SES alters genetic risk these disorders on trajectories of alcohol problems, and 3) these patterns are consistent across sex. We find modest evidence of gene-environment interaction. Higher childhood SES increases the risk of alcohol problems in late adolescence/early adulthood, while lower childhood SES increases the risk of alcohol problems in later adulthood, but only among males at greater genetic risk of externalizing disorders. Females from lower SES families with higher genetic risk of internalizing or externalizing disorders have greater risk of developing alcohol problems.

9.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(3): 163-178, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692273

RESUMO

Drinking alcohol is a normal behavior in many societies, and prior studies have demonstrated it has both genetic and environmental sources of variation. Using two very large samples of twins and their first-degree relatives (Australia ≈ 20,000 individuals from 8,019 families; Virginia ≈ 23,000 from 6,042 families), we examine whether there are differences: (1) in the genetic and environmental factors that influence four interrelated drinking behaviors (quantity, frequency, age of initiation, and number of drinks in the last week), (2) between the twin-only design and the extended twin design, and (3) the Australian and Virginia samples. We find that while drinking behaviors are interrelated, there are substantial differences in the genetic and environmental architectures across phenotypes. Specifically, drinking quantity, frequency, and number of drinks in the past week have large broad genetic variance components, and smaller but significant environmental variance components, while age of onset is driven exclusively by environmental factors. Further, the twin-only design and the extended twin design come to similar conclusions regarding broad-sense heritability and environmental transmission, but the extended twin models provide a more nuanced perspective. Finally, we find a high level of similarity between the Australian and Virginian samples, especially for the genetic factors. The observed differences, when present, tend to be at the environmental level. Implications for the extended twin model and future directions are discussed.

10.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 78(6): 817-826, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social relationships, such as committed partnerships, limit risky behaviors like heavy drinking, in part, because of increased social control. The current analyses examine whether involvement in committed relationships or social support extend beyond a main effect to limit genetic liability in heavy drinking (gene-environment interaction) during young adulthood. METHOD: Using data from the young adult wave of the Finnish Twin Study, FinnTwin12 (n = 3,269), we tested whether involvement in romantic partnerships or social support moderated genetic influences on heavy drinking using biometric twin modeling for gene-environment interaction. RESULTS: Involvement in a romantic partnership was associated with a decline in genetic variance in both males and females, although the overall magnitude of genetic influence was greater in males. Sex differences emerged for social support: increased social support was associated with increased genetic influence for females and reduced genetic influence for males. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that social relationships are important moderators of genetic influences on young adult alcohol use. Mechanisms of social control that are important in limiting genetic liability during adolescence extend into young adulthood. In addition, although some relationships limit genetic liability equally, others, such as extensive social networks, may operate differently across sex.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Gêmeos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 126(5): 506-518, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691841

RESUMO

Twin studies show the established relation between bulimic symptoms and problematic alcohol involvement in adult females is partly due to shared familial factors, specifically shared genetic effects. However, it is unclear if similar shared etiological factors exist during adolescence or in males. We examined the familial overlap (i.e., genetic and common environmental correlations) between bulimic symptoms and various levels of alcohol involvement in 16- to 17-year-old female and male same-sex twin pairs using sex-specific biometrical twin modeling. Bulimic symptoms were assessed with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. Alcohol involvement included alcohol use in the last month, having ever been intoxicated, and alcohol intoxication frequency. Results revealed 3 distinct patterns. First, in general, phenotypic correlations indicated statistically similar associations between bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement in girls and boys. Second, common environmental overlap was significant for the bivariate associations including having ever been intoxicated. Third, moderate genetic correlations were observed between all bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement in girls and moderate common environmental correlations were observed in boys for the more risky/deviant levels of involvement. Similar to adults, there is familial overlap between bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement in adolescent girls and boys. These results could inform symptom- and sex-specific, developmentally targeted prevention and intervention programs for the comorbidity between bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bulimia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Gêmeos/genética , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/etiologia , Bulimia/genética , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
12.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 20(4): 290-297, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28535831

RESUMO

We introduce the optimizer CSOLNP, which is a C++ implementation of the R package RSOLNP (Ghalanos & Theussl, 2012, Rsolnp: General non-linear optimization using augmented Lagrange multiplier method. R package version, 1) alongside some improvements. CSOLNP solves non-linearly constrained optimization problems using a Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm. CSOLNP, NPSOL (a very popular implementation of SQP method in FORTRAN (Gill et al., 1986, User's guide for NPSOL (version 4.0): A Fortran package for nonlinear programming (No. SOL-86-2). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Systems Optimization Laboratory), and SLSQP (another SQP implementation available as part of the NLOPT collection (Johnson, 2014, The NLopt nonlinear-optimization package. Retrieved from http://ab-initio.mit.edu/nlopt)) are three optimizers available in OpenMx package. These optimizers are compared in terms of runtimes, final objective values, and memory consumption. A Monte Carlo analysis of the performance of the optimizers was performed on ordinal and continuous models with five variables and one or two factors. While the relative difference between the objective values is less than 0.5%, CSOLNP is in general faster than NPSOL and SLSQP for ordinal analysis. As for continuous data, none of the optimizers performs consistently faster than the others. In terms of memory usage, we used Valgrind's heap profiler tool, called Massif, on one-factor threshold models. CSOLNP and NPSOL consume the same amount of memory, while SLSQP uses 71 MB more memory than the other two optimizers.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Modelos Genéticos , Software , Humanos
13.
Biol Sex Differ ; 8: 14, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28465822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of being overweight or obese between men and women from OS and SS dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: The data were derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) database, and included 68,494 SS and 53,808 OS dizygotic twin individuals above the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. Zygosity was determined by questionnaires or DNA genotyping depending on the study. Multiple regression and logistic regression models adjusted for cohort, age, and birth year with the twin type as a predictor were carried out to compare height and BMI in twins from OS pairs with those from SS pairs and to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for being overweight or obese. RESULTS: OS females were, on average, 0.31 cm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20, 0.41) taller than SS females. OS males were also, on average, taller than SS males, but this difference was only 0.14 cm (95% CI 0.02, 0.27). Mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight or obesity did not differ between males and females from SS and OS twin pairs. The statistically significant differences between OS and SS twins for height were small and appeared to reflect our large sample size rather than meaningful differences of public health relevance. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal hormonal exposure or postnatal socialization (i.e., having grown up with a twin of the opposite sex) has a major impact on height and BMI in adulthood.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Behav Genet ; 47(3): 345-359, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28299468

RESUMO

Improving the accuracy of phenotyping through the use of advanced psychometric tools will increase the power to find significant associations with genetic variants and expand the range of possible hypotheses that can be tested on a genome-wide scale. Multivariate methods, such as structural equation modeling (SEM), are valuable in the phenotypic analysis of psychiatric and substance use phenotypes, but these methods have not been integrated into standard genome-wide association analyses because fitting a SEM at each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) along the genome was hitherto considered to be too computationally demanding. By developing a method that can efficiently fit SEMs, it is possible to expand the set of models that can be tested. This is particularly necessary in psychiatric and behavioral genetics, where the statistical methods are often handicapped by phenotypes with large components of stochastic variance. Due to the enormous amount of data that genome-wide scans produce, the statistical methods used to analyze the data are relatively elementary and do not directly correspond with the rich theoretical development, and lack the potential to test more complex hypotheses about the measurement of, and interaction between, comorbid traits. In this paper, we present a method to test the association of a SNP with multiple phenotypes or a latent construct on a genome-wide basis using a diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS) estimator for four common SEMs: a one-factor model, a one-factor residuals model, a two-factor model, and a latent growth model. We demonstrate that the DWLS parameters and p-values strongly correspond with the more traditional full information maximum likelihood parameters and p-values. We also present the timing of simulations and power analyses and a comparison with and existing multivariate GWAS software package.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Software
16.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 20(2): 137-146, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28303776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shared experiences within families play an important role in the initiation of cigarette use among adolescents. Behavioral genetic studies using various samples have implicated that the shared environment that twins experience is an important source of influence on whether adolescents initiate cigarette use. Whether the special twin environment, in addition to the shared environment, contributes significantly to making twin siblings more similar in cigarette initiation, and whether the influence of the special twin environment persists into adulthood, is less clear. METHODS: Data for this study came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Twin, full-, and half-sibling pairs between the ages of 12 and 33 were separated into three age groups, with about 3,000 individuals in each age group. The proportion of variance in cigarette use initiation explained by genetic, shared, special twin, and unique environmental factors were examined. RESULTS: The results of separate age-moderated univariate variance decomposition models indicate that the special twin environment does not significantly contribute to the variance in cigarette use initiation in adolescence or young adulthood. CONCLUSION: Factors shared by individuals in a family, but that are not specific to being a twin, are important in determining whether adolescents will initiate the use of cigarettes.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Irmãos , Meio Social , Gêmeos/genética , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(4): 711-718, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28196272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous genomewide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of putative risk loci for alcohol dependence (AD). However, only a few loci have replicated and these replicated variants only explain a small proportion of AD risk. Using an innovative approach, the goal of this study was to generate hypotheses about potentially causal variants for AD that can be explored further through functional studies. METHODS: We employed targeted capture of 71 candidate loci and flanking regions followed by next-generation deep sequencing (mean coverage 78X) in 806 European Americans. Regions included in our targeted capture library were genes identified through published GWAS of alcohol, all human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, reward system genes including dopaminergic and opioid receptors, prioritized candidate genes based on previous associations, and genes involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. We performed single-locus tests to determine if any single variant was associated with AD symptom count. Sets of variants that overlapped with biologically meaningful annotations were tested for association in aggregate. RESULTS: No single, common variant was significantly associated with AD in our study. We did, however, find evidence for association with several variant sets. Two variant sets were significant at the q-value <0.10 level: a genic enhancer for ADHFE1 (p = 1.47 × 10-5 ; q = 0.019), an alcohol dehydrogenase, and ADORA1 (p = 5.29 × 10-5 ; q = 0.035), an adenosine receptor that belongs to a G-protein-coupled receptor gene family. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first sequencing study of AD to examine variants in entire genes, including flanking and regulatory regions. We found that in addition to protein coding variant sets, regulatory variant sets may play a role in AD. From these findings, we have generated initial functional hypotheses about how these sets may influence AD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 19(4): 387-400, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27613915

RESUMO

Introduction: There has been rapid growth in research exploring gene-environment interaction (G×E) contributing to smoking behaviors. Yet, no systematic review exists to date. Methods: This article aims to review evidence on the contribution of G×E to the risk of smoking. Through a search of electronic databases (ie, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Elsevier) up until May 2014, 16 studies of G×E focused on smoking behaviors were identified. These studies were compared in terms of: research design and sample studied, measure of smoking behavior and environments used, genes explored, and G×E in relation to these factors. Results: Thirteen of 16 studies (81.2%) found at least one significant G×E association. Wide variation in analytic methods was found across studies, especially with respect to the phenotypes of interest, environmental measures used, and tests conducted to estimate G×E. Heterogeneity across studies made it difficult to compare findings and evaluate the strength of evidence for G×E. Conclusions: G×E research on smoking contains studies that are methodologically different, making it difficult to assess the current state of the evidence. To decrease heterogeneity, we offer recommendations related to: (1) choice of measurement for environmental variables, (2) testing and reporting of main and interaction effects, (3) treatment of covariates, (4) reporting gene-environment correlation, and (5) conducting sensitivity analyses and checking for scaling artifacts. Continued study is needed to identify mechanisms by which genes and environmental factors combine to influence smoking behaviors. Implications: No comprehensive review of G×E studies of smoking behavior has previously been published. The present article seeks to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive review of: how G×E has been defined, how twin and molecular genetic methodologies have been used to test for G×E, and which genes and environmental factors are associated with smoking behaviors. Variations in methodological approaches make it difficult to interpret and summarize findings, so recommendations for future research are provided as a means to more easily compare and replicate findings across studies.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Fumar , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Humanos
19.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 19(4): 401-409, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27807125

RESUMO

Introduction: Previous studies in adolescents were not adequately powered to accurately disentangle genetic and environmental influences on smoking initiation (SI) across adolescence. Methods: Mega-analysis of pooled genetically informative data on SI was performed, with structural equation modeling, to test equality of prevalence and correlations across cultural backgrounds, and to estimate the significance and effect size of genetic and environmental effects according to the classical twin study, in adolescent male and female twins from same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs (N = 19 313 pairs) between ages 10 and 19, with 76 358 longitudinal assessments between 1983 and 2007, from 11 population-based twin samples from the United States, Europe, and Australia. Results: Although prevalences differed between samples, twin correlations did not, suggesting similar etiology of SI across developed countries. The estimate of additive genetic contributions to liability of SI increased from approximately 15% to 45% from ages 13 to 19. Correspondingly, shared environmental factors accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in liability to SI at age 13 (70%) and gradually less by age 19 (40%). Conclusions: Both additive genetic and shared environmental factors significantly contribute to variance in SI throughout adolescence. The present study, the largest genetic epidemiological study on SI to date, found consistent results across 11 studies for the etiology of SI. Environmental factors, especially those shared by siblings in a family, primarily influence SI variance in early adolescence, while an increasing role of genetic factors is seen at later ages, which has important implications for prevention strategies. Implications: This is the first study to find evidence of genetic factors in liability to SI at ages as young as 12. It also shows the strongest evidence to date for decay of effects of the shared environment from early adolescence to young adulthood. We found remarkable consistency of twin correlations across studies reflecting similar etiology of liability to initiate smoking across different cultures and time periods. Thus familial factors strongly contribute to individual differences in who starts to smoke with a gradual increase in the impact of genetic factors and a corresponding decrease in that of the shared environment.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética , Gêmeos/genética , Gêmeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Elife ; 52016 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27964777

RESUMO

Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent populations, nor that heritability of height will increase within a population as living standards improve.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gêmeos , Adulto Jovem
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