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1.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(3): 290.e1-290.e7, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a clinical syndrome that includes the many complex health and performance consequences of low energy availability (EA) in athletes, when there is insufficient caloric intake to meet exercise-related energy expenditure and to support basic physiologic functions. There is a high prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in female athletes and it is more common in female athletes than non-athletes. The objective of this study was to determine if low EA is associated with UI in a population of adolescent and young adult female athletes and to evaluate for an association between sport categories and UI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1000 nulliparous female patients, ages 15-30 years, presenting to a sports medicine subspecialty clinic, provided informed consent/assent to participate in a cross-sectional study involving a comprehensive survey, anthropomorphic measurements, and medical record review. Low EA was defined as meeting ≥1 criterion: self-reported history of eating disorder/disordered eating (ED/DE), and/or a high score on the Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire (BEDA-Q), and/or a high score on the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care (ESP). UI was assessed using questions adapted from the International Consultation on Incontinence-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF), questions regarding timing of UI onset/duration, and a binary question regarding UI during sport activities. A total of 36 sport types were included in the survey and sub-divided into categories. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Of the 1000 female athletes surveyed, 165 (16.5%) reported a history of experiencing UI during athletic activities. ICIQ- UI-SF responses indicated that 14% (137/1000) of the cohort experienced slight incontinence, 4% (35/1000) moderate incontinence, and 2 athletes experienced severe incontinence. There was a significant difference between UI categories in age (p = 0.01), low EA (p < 0.001), and sport category (p < 0.001). Females who had low EA had twice the likelihood (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.81; p < 0.001) of UI compared to those with adequate EA, controlling for sports category and menstrual dysfunction. Females who participated in high impact sports were 4.5 times more likely (OR = 4.47; 95% CI = 2.29 to 8.74; p < 0.001) to have had UI compared to females who participated in ball sports, controlling for EA and menstrual dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: UI during athletic activities is a common problem among nulliparous adolescent and young adult female athletes, occurring in 16.5% of female athletes surveyed. UI was significantly associated with low EA across all sport categories. Sport type was significantly associated with UI, with the highest impact sport group demonstrating a higher prevalence and symptom severity compared to other sport categories.


Assuntos
Esportes , Incontinência Urinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 151(3): 383-391, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of metabolic disturbances in a large cohort of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in southeastern Brazil and to compare the findings with other cohorts of Brazilian women with PCOS. METHODS: A retrospective study analyzing clinical and laboratory data of 462 women with PCOS treated at an outpatient clinic in a tertiary hospital in southeastern Brazil. Prevalence of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, central obesity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome was compared to that of other cohorts of age and body mass index-matched Brazilian women with PCOS. RESULTS: Women with PCOS had a median age of 25.0 (21.0-29.0) years and BMI of 28.7 (23.9-34.0) kg/m2 . Prevalence of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes varied from 39.6% to 55.0%, 7.2% to 28.1%, and 2.0% to 4.1%, respectively. Prevalence of central obesity, dyslipidemia due to decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome ranged from 57.8% to 66.4%, 54.1% to 70.4%, 22.9% to 35.1%, and 27.4% to 38.3%, respectively, which did not differ among regions in Brazil. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of metabolic disturbances was high among Brazilian women with PCOS. This study suggests that, from a public health perspective, authorities in Brazil should be aware of and encourage screening for metabolic dysfunction in women with PCOS in all regions of the country.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Fenótipo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530459

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the performance of basal 17OH-progesterone (17OHP) levels versus the basal 17OHP/cortisol ratio in nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) differential diagnosis. Basal 17OHP levels >10 ng/mL have been used to confirm NCAH diagnosis without the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test; however, the optimal cutoff value is a matter of debate. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at the endocrinology and gynecological endocrinology outpatient clinics of a tertiary hospital. A total of 361 patients with PCOS (age 25.0 ± 5.3 years) and 113 (age 19.0 ± 13.6 years) patients with NCAH were enrolled. Basal and ACTH-17OHP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, and CYP21A2 molecular analysis was performed to confirm hormonal NCAH diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis compared basal 17OHP levels and the 17OHP/cortisol ratio between NCAH and PCOS patients. RESULTS: Basal 17OHP levels were higher in NCAH patients than in those with PCOS (8.85 [4.20-17.30] vs 1.00 [0.70-1.50] ng/mL; P < 0.0001), along with 17OHP/cortisol ratio (0.86 [0.47-1.5]) vs 0.12 [0.07-0.19]; P < 0.0001, respectively). Basal 17OHP levels and the 17OHP/cortisol ratio were strongly correlated in both groups (rho = 0.82; P < 0.0001). Areas under the curves for basal 17OHP levels (0.9528) and the 17OHP/cortisol ratio (0.9455) were not different to discriminate NCAH and PCOS (P > 0.05). Basal 17OHP level >5.4 ng/mL and 17OHP/cortisol ratio >2.90 had 100% specificity to identify NCAH. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Basal 17OHP levels >5.4 ng/mL can be used to perform differential diagnoses between NCAH and PCOS, dismissing the ACTH test. The basal 17OHP/cortisol ratio was not superior to basal 17OHP levels in this scenario.


Assuntos
17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/sangue , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/sangue , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/genética , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase/genética , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 116(3): 481-489, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26686817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations of bone mineral density (BMD) with specific food components, including dietary fiber and isoflavones (that have a negative association with serum estrogen), are unclear and need to be determined, particularly in populations more likely to consume large amounts of these nutrients (such as young athletes). OBJECTIVE: To determine dietary intake of specific food components in athletes with oligoamenorrhea (OA) compared to athletes with eumenorrhea (EA) and nonathletes (NA), and associations of the dietary intake of these nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 68 OA, 24 EA, and 26 NA individuals aged 14 to 23 years. Measurements included 4-day food records, a dual x-ray absorptiometry scan evaluating lumbar spine BMD and body composition, and hormone levels. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate associations of nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. RESULTS: Compared with EA and NA, OA had higher intake of fiber, phytic acid, and vegetable protein (all P values <0.0001). Intake of isoflavones, genistein, and daidzein was higher in OA than NA (P=0.003 and P=0.0002, respectively). OA had lower consumption of energy from saturated fatty acids than NA (P=0.002). After controlling for confounders such as body weight, menstrual status (indicative of estrogen status), calcium intake, and serum vitamin D (known BMD determinants), lumbar spine BMD z scores were inversely associated with dietary fiber (ß=-.30; P=0.01), vegetable protein (ß= -.28; P=0.02), phytic acid (ß=-.27; P=0.02), genistein (ß=-.25; P=0.01), and daidzein (ß=-.24; P=0.01), and positively associated with percent energy from fatty acids (ß=.32; P=0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with EA and NA, OA had a higher dietary intake of fiber, vegetable protein, and phytic acid, which were inversely associated with lumbar spine BMD z scores. Further studies are needed to assess dietary recommendations for OA to optimize bone accrual.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Oligomenorreia/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Atletas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estrogênios/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Ácido Fítico/administração & dosagem , Fitoestrógenos/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
5.
Bone ; 77: 83-90, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25868796

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Various fat depots have differential effects on bone. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is deleterious to bone, whereas subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) has positive effects. Also, marrow adipose tissue (MAT), a relatively newly recognized fat depot is inversely associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Bone mass in athletes depends on many factors including gonadal steroids and muscle mass. Exercise increases muscle mass and BMD, whereas, estrogen deficiency decreases BMD. Thus, the beneficial effects of weight-bearing exercise on areal and volumetric BMD (aBMD and vBMD) in regularly menstruating (eumenorrheic) athletes (EA) are attenuated in oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OA). Of note, data regarding VAT, SAT, MAT and regional muscle mass in OA compared with EA and non-athletes (C), and their impact on bone are lacking. METHODS: We used (i) MRI to assess VAT and SAT at the L4 vertebra level, and cross-sectional muscle area (CSA) of the mid-thigh, (ii) 1H-MRS to assess MAT at L4, the proximal femoral metaphysis and mid-diaphysis, (iii) DXA to assess spine and hip aBMD, and (iv) HRpQCT to assess vBMD at the distal radius (non-weight-bearing bone) and tibia (weight-bearing bone) in 41 young women (20 OA, 10 EA and 11 C 18-25 years). All athletes engaged in weight-bearing sports for ≥ 4 h/week or ran ≥ 20 miles/week. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: VAT, SAT and MAT at L4; CSA of the mid-thigh; MAT at the proximal femoral metaphysis and mid-diaphysis; aBMD, vBMD and bone microarchitecture. RESULTS: Groups had comparable age, menarchal age, BMI, VAT, VAT/SAT and spine BMD Z-scores. EA had higher femoral neck BMD Z-scores than OA and C. Fat mass was lowest in OA. SAT was lowest in OA (p = 0.048); L4 MAT was higher in OA than EA (p = 0.03). We found inverse associations of (i) VAT/SAT with spine BMD Z-scores (r = -0.42, p = 0.01), (ii) L4 MAT with spine and hip BMD Z-scores (r = -0.44, p = 0.01; r = -0.36, p = 0.02), and vBMD of the radius and tibia (r = -0.49, p = 0.002; r = -0.41, p = 0.01), and (iii) diaphyseal and metaphyseal MAT with vBMD of the radius (r ≤ -0.42, p ≤ 0.01) and tibia (r ≤ -0.34, p ≤ 0.04). In a multivariate model including VAT/SAT, L4 MAT and thigh CSA, spine and hip BMD Z-scores were predicted inversely by L4 MAT and positively by thigh CSA, and total and cortical radius and total tibial vBMD were predicted inversely by L4 MAT. VAT/SAT did not predict radius or tibia total vBMD in this model, but inversely predicted spine BMD Z-scores. When L4 MAT was replaced with diaphyseal or metaphyseal MAT in the model, diaphyseal and metaphyseal MAT did not predict aBMD Z-scores, but diaphyseal MAT inversely predicted total vBMD of the radius and tibia. These results did not change after adding percent body fat to the model. CONCLUSIONS: VAT/SAT is an inverse predictor of lumbar spine aBMD Z-scores, while L4 MAT is an independent inverse predictor of aBMD Z-scores at the spine and hip and vBMD measures at the distal tibia and radius in athletes and non-athletes. Diaphyseal MAT independently predicts vBMD measures of the distal tibia and radius.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Amenorreia/patologia , Atletas , Densidade Óssea , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Amenorreia/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem
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