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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin A (Hb A) (α2ß2) in the normal adult subject constitutes 96-98% of hemoglobin, and Hb F is normally less than 1%, while for hemoglobin A2 (Hb A2) (α2δ2), the normal reference values are between 2.0 and 3.3%. It is important to evaluate the presence of possible delta gene mutations in a population at high risk for globin gene defects in order to correctly diagnose the ß-thalassemia carrier. METHODS: The most used methods for the quantification of Hb A2 are based on automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). In particular Hb analyses were performed by HPLC on three dedicated devices. DNA analyses were performed according to local standard protocols. RESULTS: Here, we described eight new δ-globin gene variants discovered and characterized in some laboratories in Northern Italy in recent years. These new variants were added to the many already known Hb A2 variants that were found with an estimated frequency of about 1-2% during the screening tests in our laboratories. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge recognition of the delta variant on Hb analysis and accurate molecular characterization is crucial to provide an accurate definitive thalassemia diagnosis, particularly in young subjects who would like to ask for a prenatal diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576328

RESUMO

The geomagnetic field (GMF) is an environmental factor affecting the mineral nutrient uptake of plants and a contributing factor for efficient iron (Fe) uptake in Arabidopsis seedlings. Understanding the mechanisms underlining the impact of the environment on nutrient homeostasis in plants requires disentangling the complex interactions occurring among nutrients. In this study we investigated the effect of GMF on the interplay between iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) by exposing Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under single or combined Fe and S deficiency, to near-null magnetic field (NNMF) conditions. Mineral analysis was performed by ICP-MS and capillary electrophoresis, whereas the expression of several genes involved in Fe and S metabolism and transport was assayed by qRT-PCR. The results show that NNMF differentially affects (i) the expression of some Fe- and S-responsive genes and (ii) the concentration of metals in plants, when compared with GMF. In particular, we observed that Cu content alteration in plant roots depends on the simultaneous variation of nutrient availability (Fe and S) and MF intensity (GMF and NNMF). Under S deficiency, NNMF-exposed plants displayed variations of Cu uptake, as revealed by the expression of the SPL7 and miR408 genes, indicating that S availability is an important factor in maintaining Cu homeostasis under different MF intensities. Overall, our work suggests that the alteration of metal homeostasis induced by Fe and/or S deficiency in reduced GMF conditions impacts the ability of plants to grow and develop.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Enxofre
3.
Pathogens ; 10(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451488

RESUMO

Hazara virus (HAZV) belongs to the Nairoviridae family and is included in the same serogroup of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). CCHFV is the most widespread tick-borne arbovirus. It is responsible for a serious hemorrhagic disease, for which specific and effective treatment and preventive systems are missing. Bioactive compounds derived from several natural products may provide a natural source of broad-spectrum antiviral agents, characterized by good tolerability and minimal side effects. Previous in vitro studies have shown that a cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) extract containing a high content of A-type proanthocyanidins (PAC-A) inhibits the replication of herpes simplex and influenza viruses by hampering their attachment to target cells. Given the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of polyphenols and the urgency to develop therapies for the treatment of CCHF, we investigated the antiviral activity of cranberry extract against HAZV, a surrogate nairovirus model of CCHFV that can be handled in Level 2 Biosafety Laboratories (BSL-2). The results indicate that the cranberry extract exerts an antiviral activity against HAZV by targeting early stages of the viral replication cycle, including the initial adsorption to target cells. Although the details of the molecular mechanism of action remain to be clarified, the cranberry extract exerts a virucidal effect through a direct interaction with HAZV particles that leads to the subsequent impairment of virus attachment to cell-surface receptors. Finally, the antiviral activity of the cranberry extract was also confirmed for CCHFV. As a whole, the evidence obtained suggests that cranberry extract is a valuable candidate to be considered for the development of therapeutic strategies for CCHFV infections.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 686121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381477

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence indicates that extracellular fragmented self-DNA (eDNA), by acting as a signaling molecule, triggers inhibitory effects on conspecific plants and functions as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). To evaluate early and late events in DAMP-dependent responses to eDNA, we extracted, fragmented, and applied the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) eDNA to tomato leaves. Non-sonicated, intact self-DNA (intact DNA) was used as control. Early event analyses included the evaluation of plasma transmembrane potentials (Vm), cytosolic calcium variations (Ca2+ cy t), the activity and subcellular localization of both voltage-gated and ligand-gated rectified K+ channels, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) subcellular localization and quantification. Late events included RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis and qPCR validation of gene expression of tomato leaves exposed to tomato eDNA. Application of eDNA induced a concentration-dependent Vm depolarization which was correlated to an increase in (Ca2+)cyt; this event was associated to the opening of K+ channels, with particular action on ligand-gated rectified K+ channels. Both eDNA-dependent (Ca2+)cyt and K+ increases were correlated to ROS production. In contrast, application of intact DNA produced no effects. The plant response to eDNA was the modulation of the expression of genes involved in plant-biotic interactions including pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs), calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPK1), heat shock transcription factors (Hsf), heat shock proteins (Hsp), receptor-like kinases (RLKs), and ethylene-responsive factors (ERFs). Several genes involved in calcium signaling, ROS scavenging and ion homeostasis were also modulated by application of eDNA. Shared elements among the transcriptional response to eDNA and to biotic stress indicate that eDNA might be a common DAMP that triggers plant responses to pathogens and herbivores, particularly to those that intensive plant cell disruption or cell death. Our results suggest the intriguing hypothesis that some of the plant reactions to pathogens and herbivores might be due to DNA degradation, especially when associated to the plant cell disruption. Fragmented DNA would then become an important and powerful elicitor able to trigger early and late responses to biotic stress.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13532, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188152

RESUMO

It is well established that plants emit, detect and respond to volatile organic compounds; however, knowledge on the ability of plants to detect and respond to volatiles emitted by non-plant organisms is limited. Recent studies indicated that plants detect insect-emitted volatiles that induce defence responses; however, the mechanisms underlying this detection and defence priming is unknown. Therefore, we explored if exposure to a main component of Plutella xylostella female sex pheromone namely (Z)-11-hexadecenal [(Z)-11-16:Ald] induced detectable early and late stage defence-related plant responses in Brassica nigra. Exposure to biologically relevant levels of vapourised (Z)-11-16:Ald released from a loaded septum induced a change in volatile emissions of receiver plants after herbivore attack and increased the leaf area consumed by P. xylostella larvae. Further experiments examining the effects of the (Z)-11-16:Ald on several stages of plant defence-related responses showed that exposure to 100 ppm of (Z)-11-16:Ald in liquid state induced depolarisation of the transmembrane potential (Vm), an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration [Ca2+]cyt, production of H2O2 and an increase in expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated genes and ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. The results suggest that exposure to volatile (Z)-11-16:Ald increases the susceptibility of B. nigra to subsequent herbivory. This unexpected finding, suggest alternative ecological effects of detecting insect pheromone to those reported earlier. Experiments conducted in vitro showed that high doses of (Z)-11-16:Ald induced defence-related responses, but further experiments should assess how specific the response is to this particular aldehyde.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/farmacologia , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/fisiologia , Mostardeira/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Larva/fisiologia , Atrativos Sexuais
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11258, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045618

RESUMO

The cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile reflects the insects' physiological states. These include age, sex, reproductive stage, and gravidity. Environmental factors such as diet, relative humidity or exposure to insecticides also affect the CHC composition in mosquitoes. In this work, the CHC profile was analyzed in two Anopheles albimanus phenotypes with different degrees of susceptibility to Plasmodium, the susceptible-White and resistant-Brown phenotypes, in response to the two dietary regimes of mosquitoes: a carbon-rich diet (sugar) and a protein-rich diet (blood) alone or containing Plasmodium ookinetes. The CHCs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or flame ionization detection, identifying 19 CHCs with chain lengths ranging from 20 to 37 carbons. Qualitative and quantitative changes in CHCs composition were dependent on diet, a parasite challenge, and, to a lesser extent, the phenotype. Blood-feeding caused up to a 40% reduction in the total CHC content compared to sugar-feeding. If blood contained ookinetes, further changes in the CHC profile were observed depending on the Plasmodium susceptibility of the phenotypes. Higher infection prevalence caused greater changes in the CHC profile. These dietary and infection-associated modifications in the CHCs could have multiple effects on mosquito fitness, impacts on disease transmission, and tolerance to insecticides.


Assuntos
Anopheles/metabolismo , Anopheles/parasitologia , Dieta , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Plasmodium
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9195, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911161

RESUMO

The geomagnetic field (GMF) is one of the environmental stimuli that plants experience continuously on Earth; however, the actions of the GMF on plants are poorly understood. Here, we carried out a time-course microarray experiment to identify genes that are differentially regulated by the GMF in shoot and roots. We also used qPCR to validate the activity of some genes selected from the microarray analysis in a dose-dependent magnetic field experiment. We found that the GMF regulated genes in both shoot and roots, suggesting that both organs can sense the GMF. However, 49% of the genes were regulated in a reverse direction in these organs, meaning that the resident signaling networks define the up- or downregulation of specific genes. The set of GMF-regulated genes strongly overlapped with various stress-responsive genes, implicating the involvement of one or more common signals, such as reactive oxygen species, in these responses. The biphasic dose response of GMF-responsive genes indicates a hormetic response of plants to the GMF. At present, no evidence exists to indicate any evolutionary advantage of plant adaptation to the GMF; however, plants can sense and respond to the GMF using the signaling networks involved in stress responses.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Campos Magnéticos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/efeitos da radiação
8.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(10): 1670-1679, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Artifactually altered glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations are frequently linked to hemoglobin (Hb) variants. Their expression and detection require in-depth analysis. METHODS: Cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Bio-Rad Variant™ II; Trinity Biotech Premier Hb9210 Resolution), capillary electrophoresis (CE) (Sebia Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing) and mass spectrometry (MS) (Waters) were used for variant detection; Sanger sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and next generation sequencing (NGS) were used for DNA analysis; HbA1c was measured with cation exchange HPLC (Bio-Rad Variant™ II; Arkray Adams HA-8180V; Tosoh HLC-723 G7), CE (Sebia Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing), boronate affinity HPLC (Trinity Biotech Hb9210 Premier), immunoassay (Cobas c501 Tina-quant HbA1c Gen. 3; Nihon Kohden CHM-4100 Celltac chemi HbA1c HA-411V) and enzymatic assay (Abbott Architect c 8000 HbA1c). RESULTS: Hb Yamagata [ß132(H10)Lys→Asn; (HBB: c.399A>T)] was identified in the proband by MS after the observation of an abnormal peak in HPLC and CE. A mosaic expression of this variant was detected by NGS (mutant: 8%; wild type: 92%), after negative results in Sanger sequencing. Hb Yamagata interfered with HbA1c measurements by cation exchange HPLC and CE whereas immuno and enzymatic assay values showed good agreement with boronate affinity HPLC measurement. CONCLUSIONS: A mosaicism of Hb Yamagata was found in a patient with altered HbA1c values. This rare gene variant was detected only by advanced technologies as MS and NGS. The variant interfered with common HbA1c determination methods.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802041

RESUMO

The phytohormone auxin is involved in almost every process of a plant's life, from germination to plant development. Nowadays, auxin research connects synthetic chemistry, plant biology and computational chemistry in order to develop innovative and safe compounds to be used in sustainable agricultural practice. In this framework, we developed new fluorescent compounds, ethanolammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA) and p-nitrobenzoate (HEA-pNBA), and investigated their auxin-like behavior on two main commercial vegetables cultivated in Europe, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and tomato (Solanumlycopersicum), in comparison to the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Moreover, the binding modes and affinities of two organic salts in relation to the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into TIR1 auxin receptor were investigated by computational approaches (homology modeling and molecular docking). Both experimental and theoretical results highlight HEA-pABA as a fluorescent compound with auxin-like activity both in Arabidopsis and the commercial cucumber and tomato. Therefore, alkanolammonium benzoates have a great potential as promising sustainable plant growth stimulators to be efficiently used in vegetable crops.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Bioprospecção/métodos , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nitrobenzoatos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
10.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302398

RESUMO

The Geomagnetic field (GMF) is a typical component of our planet. Plant perception of the GMF implies that any magnetic field (MF) variation would induce possible metabolic changes. In this work was we assessed the role of the GMF on Arabidopsis thaliana Col0 mineral nutrition and lipid metabolism during plant development. We reduced the local GMF (about 40 µT) to Near Null Magnetic Field (NNMF, about 30 nT) to evaluate the effects of GMF on Arabidopsis in a time-course (from rosette to seed-set) experiment by studying the lipid content (fatty acids, FA; and surface alkanes, SA) and mineral nutrients. The expression of selected genes involved in lipid metabolism was assessed by Real-Time PCR (qPCR). A progressive increase of SA with carbon numbers between 21 and 28 was found in plants exposed to NNMF from bolting to flowering developmental stages, whereas the content of some FA significantly (p < 0.05) increased in rosette, bolting and seed-set developmental stages. Variations in SA composition were correlated to the differential expression of several Arabidopsis 3-ketoacyl-CoAsynthase (KCS) genes, including KCS1, KCS5, KCS6, KCS8, and KCS12, a lipid transfer protein (LTPG1) and a lipase (LIP1). Ionomic analysis showed a significant variation in some micronutrients (Fe, Co, Mn and Ni) and macronutrients (Mg, K and Ca) during plant development of plants exposed to NNMF. The results of this work show that A. thaliana responds to variations of the GMF which are perceived as is typical of abiotic stress responses.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375373

RESUMO

L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is both a drug and a natural component of some dietary supplements. 5-HTP is produced from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), which is present in two isoforms (TPH1 and TPH2). Decarboxylation of 5-HTP yields serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) that is further transformed to melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). 5-HTP plays a major role both in neurologic and metabolic diseases and its synthesis from tryptophan represents the limiting step in serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis. In this review, after an look at the main natural sources of 5-HTP, the chemical analysis and synthesis, biosynthesis and microbial production of 5-HTP by molecular engineering will be described. The physiological effects of 5-HTP are discussed in both animal studies and human clinical trials. The physiological role of 5-HTP in the treatment of depression, anxiety, panic, sleep disorders, obesity, myoclonus and serotonin syndrome are also discussed. 5-HTP toxicity and the occurrence of toxic impurities present in tryptophan and 5-HTP preparations are also discussed.


Assuntos
5-Hidroxitriptofano/análise , 5-Hidroxitriptofano/farmacologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Serotonina/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Fenômenos Toxicológicos , Animais , Biotecnologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Síndrome da Serotonina/metabolismo , Síndrome da Serotonina/patologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/patologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114203

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome that does not present a well-defined underlying organic disease. FM is a condition which has been associated with diseases such as infections, diabetes, psychiatric or neurological disorders, rheumatic pathologies, and is a disorder that rather than diagnosis of exclusion requires positive diagnosis. A multidimensional approach is required for the management of FM, including pain management, pharmacological therapies, behavioral therapy, patient education, and exercise. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent advances in classification criteria and diagnostic criteria for FM as well as to explore pharmacotherapy and the use of alternative therapies including the use of plant bioactive molecules.


Assuntos
Terapia Combinada/métodos , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico , Fibromialgia/terapia , Terapia Comportamental , Terapias Complementares , Terapia por Exercício , Fibromialgia/etiologia , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
13.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114564

RESUMO

(E)-ß-caryophyllene (BCP) is a bicyclic sesquiterpene widely distributed in the plant kingdom, where it contributes a unique aroma to essential oils and has a pivotal role in the survival and evolution of higher plants. Recent studies provided evidence for protective roles of BCP in animal cells, highlighting its possible use as a novel therapeutic tool. Experimental results show the ability of BCP to reduce pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), thus ameliorating chronic pathologies characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress, in particular metabolic and neurological diseases. Through the binding to CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the interaction with members of the family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), BCP shows beneficial effects on obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) liver diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pain and other nervous system disorders. This review describes the current knowledge on the biosynthesis and natural sources of BCP, and reviews its role and mechanisms of action in different inflammation-related metabolic and neurologic disorders.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906779

RESUMO

(E)-ß-caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural sesquiterpene hydrocarbon present in hundreds of plant species. BCP possesses several important pharmacological activities, ranging from pain treatment to neurological and metabolic disorders. These are mainly due to its ability to interact with the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) and the complete lack of interaction with the brain CB1. A systematic analysis of plant species with essential oils containing a BCP percentage > 10% provided almost 300 entries with species belonging to 51 families. The essential oils were found to be extracted from 13 plant parts and samples originated from 56 countries worldwide. Statistical analyses included the evaluation of variability in BCP% and yield% as well as the statistical linkage between families, plant parts and countries of origin by cluster analysis. Identified species were also grouped according to their presence in the Belfrit list. The survey evidences the importance of essential oil yield evaluation in support of the chemical analysis. The results provide a comprehensive picture of the species with the highest BCP and yield percentages.


Assuntos
Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Endocanabinoides/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/análise , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
15.
Hemoglobin ; 44(5): 368-370, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912024

RESUMO

We describe a new hemoglobin (Hb) variant, found in a 6-year-old Italian male living in Pistoia, Italy. An abnormal pattern compatible with a Hb A2 variant was observed on capillary electrophoresis (CE); direct sequencing revealed a transition at codon 89 of the δ gene (HBD: c.269G>A) changing serine into asparagine. The variant was also identified as Hb A2-Pistoia according to the traditional nomenclature and no other globin defect was present. The observation and description of this Hb A2 variant contributes to the number and heterogeneity of mutations of the δ-globin gene in the Mediterranean Area.


Assuntos
Alelos , Hemoglobina A2/genética , Mutação , Globinas delta/genética , Criança , Eletroforese Capilar , Família , Genótipo , Doenças Hematológicas/sangue , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Hemoglobinas Anormais/genética , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 325, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373135

RESUMO

The Earth's magnetic field, defined as the geomagnetic field (GMF), is an unavoidable environmental factor for all living organisms. Variation in the GMF intensity was found to affect the content of some nutrients and their associated channels and transporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this work, we observed that reduction of the GMF to near null magnetic field (NNMF) affects the accumulation of metals in plant tissues, mainly iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content, while the content of others metals such as copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) is not affected. Accordingly, Fe uptake genes were induced in the roots of NNMF-exposed plants and the root Fe reductase activity was affected by transferring GMF-exposed plant to NNMF condition. Under Fe deficiency, NNMF-exposed plants displayed a limitation in the activation of Fe-deficiency induced genes. Such an effect was associated with the strong accumulation of Zn and Cu observed under NNMF conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence on the important role of the GMF on the iron uptake efficiency of plants.

17.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 13: 78, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336989

RESUMO

Background: Nannochloropsis gaditana is a photosynthetic unicellular microalgae considered one of the most interesting marine algae to produce biofuels and food additive due to its rapid growth rate and high lipid accumulation. Although microalgae are attractive platforms for solar energy bioconversion, the overall efficiency of photosynthesis is reduced due to the steep light gradient in photobioreactors. Moreover, accumulation of lipids in microalgae for biofuels production is usually induced in a two-phase cultivation process by nutrient starvation, with additional time and costs associated. In this work, a biotechnological approach was directed for the isolation of strains with improved light penetration in photobioreactor combined with increased lipids productivity. Results: Mutants of Nannochloropsis gaditana were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and screened for having both a reduced chlorophyll content per cell and increased affinity for Nile red, a fluorescent dye which binds to cellular lipid fraction. Accordingly, one mutant, called e8, was selected and characterized for having a 30% reduction of chlorophyll content per cell and an almost 80% increase of lipid productivity compared to WT in nutrient-replete conditions, with C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids being more than doubled in the mutant. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in 234 genes in e8 mutant among which there is a non-conservative mutation in the dgd1 synthase gene. This gene encodes for an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of DGDG, one of the major lipids found in the thylakoid membrane and it is thus involved in chloroplast biogenesis. Lipid biosynthesis is strongly influenced by light availability in several microalgae species, including Nannochloropsis gaditana: reduced chlorophyll content per cell and more homogenous irradiance in photobioreactor is at the base for the increased lipid productivity observed in the e8 mutant. Conclusions: The results herein obtained presents a promising strategy to produce algal biomass enriched in lipid fraction to be used for biofuel and biodiesel production in a single cultivation process, without the additional complexity of the nutrient starvation phase. Genome sequencing and identification of the mutations introduced in e8 mutant suggest possible genes responsible for the observed phenotypes, identifying putative target for future complementation and biotechnological application.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731718

RESUMO

Trans-ß-caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural sesquiterpene hydrocarbon with several important pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective functions. These properties are mainly due to its selective interaction with the peripherally expressed cannabinoid receptor 2. In addition, BCP activates peroxisome proliferated activator receptors α and γ and inhibits the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Given the growing scientific interest in BCP, the aim of our study was to investigate the metabolic effects of a black pepper extract (PipeNig®-FL), containing a high standardized content of BCP. In particular our interest was focused on its potential activity on lipid accumulation and glucose uptake. The extract PipeNig®-FL was chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC-FID), confirming a high content (814 mg/g) of BCP. Experiments were performed on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and on C2C12 myotubes. Lipid content following 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation was quantified with AdipoRed fluorescence staining. Glucose uptake and GLUT4 membrane translocation were studied in C2C12 myotubes with the fluorescent glucose analog 2-NBDG and by immunofluorescence analysis. Here we show that PipeNig®-FL reduces 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation. Moreover, acute exposure of C2C12 myotubes to PipeNig®-FL improves glucose uptake activity and GLUT4 migration. Taken together, these results reveal interesting and novel properties of BCP, suggesting potential applications in the prevention of lipid accumulation and in the improvement of glucose uptake.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Piper nigrum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química
19.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 12: 221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534480

RESUMO

Background: Microalgae are efficient producers of lipid-rich biomass, making them a key component in developing a sustainable energy source, and an alternative to fossil fuels. Chlorella species are of special interest because of their fast growth rate in photobioreactors. However, biological constraints still cast a significant gap between the high cost of biofuel and cheap oil, thus hampering perspective of producing CO2-neutral biofuels. A key issue is the inefficient use of light caused by its uneven distribution in the culture that generates photoinhibition of the surface-exposed cells and darkening of the inner layers. Efficient biofuel production, thus, requires domestication, including traits which reduce optical density of cultures and enhance photoprotection. Results: We applied two steps of mutagenesis and phenotypic selection to the microalga Chlorella vulgaris. First, a pale-green mutant (PG-14) was selected, with a 50% reduction of both chlorophyll content per cell and LHCII complement per PSII, with respect to WT. PG-14 showed a 30% increased photon conversion into biomass efficiency vs. WT. A second step of mutagenesis of PG-14, followed by selection for higher tolerance to Rose Bengal, led to the isolation of pale-green genotypes, exhibiting higher resistance to singlet oxygen (strains SOR). Growth in photobioreactors under high light conditions showed an enhanced biomass production of SOR strains with respect to PG-14. When compared to WT strain, biomass yield of the pale green + sor genotype was enhanced by 68%. Conclusions: Domestication of microalgae like Chlorella vulgaris, by optimizing both light distribution and ROS resistance, yielded an enhanced carbon assimilation rate in photobioreactor.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8048, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142780

RESUMO

Maculinea (=Phengaris) are endangered butterflies that are characterized by a very complex biological cycle. Maculinea larvae behave as obligate parasites whose survival is strictly dependent on both particular food plants and species-specific Myrmica ants. In this interaction, Maculinea caterpillars induce Myrmica workers to retrieve and rear them in the nest by chemical and acoustic deception. Social insect symbiotic microorganisms play a key role in intraspecific and interspecific communication; therefore, it is possible that the Maculinea caterpillar microbiome might be involved in the chemical cross-talk by producing deceptive semiochemicals for host ants. To address this point, the microbiota of Maculinea alcon at different larval stages (phytophagous early larvae, intermediate larvae, carnivorous late larvae) was analyzed by using 16S rRNA-guided metabarcoding approach and compared to that of the host ant Myrmica scabrinodis. Structural and deduced functional profiles of the microbial communities were recorded, which were used to identify specific groups of microorganisms that may be involved in the chemical cross-talk. One of the most notable features was the presence in all larval stages and in the ants of two bacteria, Serratia marcescens and S. entomophila, which are involved in the chemical cross-talk between the microbes and their hosts.


Assuntos
Formigas/parasitologia , Borboletas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Formigas/microbiologia , Borboletas/fisiologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Larva/fisiologia , Metagenoma/genética , Feromônios/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Serratia/genética , Serratia/isolamento & purificação , Serratia/metabolismo , Serratia marcescens/genética , Serratia marcescens/isolamento & purificação , Serratia marcescens/metabolismo , Simbiose/fisiologia
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