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1.
Virchows Arch ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359182

RESUMO

Hepatoid tumors (HTs) represent a rare group of neoplasms that are histologically similar to hepatocellular carcinoma but arise outside the liver. The current World Health Organization classification recognizes the hepatoid morphology of pancreatic tumors only as a possible variant of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, we describe two cases of "pure" HT of the pancreas showing common features and characterized by indolent biological behavior. These tumors were roundish nodules with pushing borders, hyaline globules, and pure hepatoid histology; they were diffusely positive for ß-catenin and LEF1 on immunohistochemistry. At next-generation sequencing, both neoplasms harbored only one pathogenic somatic mutation that affected the CTNNB1 gene at exon 3 and showed a loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 18 and 21. By integrating macroscopic and microscopic features, along with their molecular profiles, we advocate that such tumors represent a distinct entity from PDAC and should be considered a new variant of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. The recognition of this new neoplastic category may have immediate implications not only for tumor taxonomy but also for clinical practice.

2.
Mod Pathol ; 2022 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35249100

RESUMO

Ki-67 assessment is a key step in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) from all anatomic locations. Several challenges exist related to quantifying the Ki-67 proliferation index due to lack of method standardization and inter-reader variability. The application of digital pathology coupled with machine learning has been shown to be highly accurate and reproducible for the evaluation of Ki-67 in NENs. We systematically reviewed all published studies on the subject of Ki-67 assessment in pancreatic NENs (PanNENs) employing digital image analysis (DIA). The most common advantages of DIA were improvement in the standardization and reliability of Ki-67 evaluation, as well as its speed and practicality, compared to the current gold standard approach of manual counts from captured images, which is cumbersome and time consuming. The main limitations were attributed to higher costs, lack of widespread availability (as of yet), operator qualification and training issues (if it is not done by pathologists), and most importantly, the drawback of image algorithms counting contaminating non-neoplastic cells and other signals like hemosiderin. However, solutions are rapidly developing for all of these challenging issues. A comparative meta-analysis for DIA versus manual counting shows very high concordance (global coefficient of concordance: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98) between these two modalities. These findings support the widespread adoption of validated DIA methods for Ki-67 assessment in PanNENs, provided that measures are in place to ensure counting of only tumor cells either by software modifications or education of non-pathologist operators, as well as selection of standard regions of interest for analysis. NENs, being cellular and monotonous neoplasms, are naturally more amenable to Ki-67 assessment. However, lessons of this review may be applicable to other neoplasms where proliferation activity has become an integral part of theranostic evaluation including breast, brain, and hematolymphoid neoplasms.

3.
Neuropathology ; 42(2): 160-166, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144313

RESUMO

We report a case of oligodendroglioma that had consistent histopathological features as well as a distinct change in 1p/19q status in the second recurrence, after temozolomide chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The first tumor recurrence had oligodendroglial morphology, IDH1 R132H and TERT promoter mutations, and 1p/19q codeletion detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Copy number analysis, assessed by next-generation sequencing, confirmed 1p/19q codeletion, and disclosed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 4 and 9 and chromosome 11 gain. The second recurrence featured not only oligodendroglial morphology but also the appearance of admixed multinucleated giant cells or neoplastic cells having oval nuclei and mitoses and showing microvascular proliferation; it maintained IDH1 R132H and TERT promoter mutations, acquired TP53 mutation, and showed 19q LOH, but disomic 1p, detected by FISH. Copy number analysis depicted LOH of chromosomes 3p, 13, and 19q, 1p partial deletion (1p chr1p34.2-p11), and gain of chromosomes 2p25.3-p24.1, 8q12.2-q24.3, and 11q13.3-q25. B-allele frequency analysis of polymorphic sites disclosed copy-neutral LOH at 1p36.33-p34.2, supporting the initial deletion of 1p, followed by reduplication of 1p36.33-p34.2 alone. These findings suggest that the two tumor recurrences might have originated from an initial neoplastic clone, featuring 1p/19q codeletion and IDH1 and TERT promoter mutations, and have independently acquired other copy number alterations. The reduplication of chromosome 1p might be the result of temozolomide treatment, and gave rise to false negative 1p deletion detected by FISH. The possibility of 1p copy-neutral LOH should be considered in recurrent oligodendrogliomas with altered 1p/19q status detected by FISH.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Oligodendroglioma , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Oligodendroglioma/tratamento farmacológico , Oligodendroglioma/genética , Oligodendroglioma/patologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
4.
Fam Cancer ; 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075588

RESUMO

Juvenile polyposis (JP) is a rare familial syndrome characterized by the development of numerous hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract and by an increased risk of developing gastrointestinal cancers. It follows a pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance and is associated with germline variants of SMAD4 or BMPR1A genes. Differential diagnosis may be difficult based on histology alone, due to morphological similarities to other familial syndromes. Here we report a case of familial JP diagnosed in a 50-years woman with a familial history positive for gastrointestinal cancers and other tumor types. The patient presented with severe iron deficiency anemia and showed numerous polyps in the stomach and jejunum according to endoscopy and imaging. She underwent an intra-gastric laparoscopic removal of the major gastric polyp, followed by jejunal exploration and resection of a segment with multiple neoformations. Histological examination revealed the presence of hamartomatous polyposis. Gastric and intestinal samples were analyzed with next-generation sequencing. Molecular analysis showed that the patient harbored a germline splicing site variant of SMAD4, c.1139 + 3A > G, which was complemented by different somatic variants of the same gene in the different polyps. Immunohistochemistry for SMAD4 confirmed loss of protein expression in the polyps, with regular expression in normal cells. cDNA sequencing further confirmed the findings. We thus definitively diagnosed the woman as having JP thanks to an integrated approach based on histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. The identified variants, all previously reported as variants of unknown significance, were classified as pathogenic as they complemented each other leading to SMAD4 loss.

5.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 30(2): 145-152, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483242

RESUMO

Mixed neuroendocrine/non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNEN) are rare mixed epithelial neoplasms in which a neuroendocrine component is combined with a non-neuroendocrine component. Here, we provide the clinical, pathologic, and molecular report of a 73-year-old-man presenting with an intestinal MiNEN. The lesion was composed of a well-differentiated G3 neuroendocrine tumor and a colloid adenocarcinoma. The molecular characterization was performed using a multigene next-generation sequencing panel. The neoplasm displayed microsatellite instability due to MLH1 promoter methylation. The extended molecular profile documented the same mutations affecting ARID1A, ASXL1, BLM, and RNF43 genes in both components, indicating a monoclonal origin of the tumor. Regarding component-specific gene mutations, BRCA2 was specifically altered in the neuroendocrine area. It may represent a new actionable target for precision oncology in MiNEN, but the lack of its alteration in the colloid component calls for further considerations on intratumor heterogeneity. The most important finding with potential immediate implications regards the presence of microsatellite instability: it indicates that this molecular alteration should become part of the diagnostic algorithm for these rare neoplasms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Intestinais , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Idoso , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Intestinais/genética , Metilação , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Medicina de Precisão
6.
Gut ; 71(5): 961-973, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have found aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX)/pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX)/death domain-associated protein (DAXX) and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to be promising prognostic biomarkers for non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NF-PanNETs). However, they have not been comprehensively evaluated, especially among small NF-PanNETs (≤2.0 cm). Moreover, their status in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) from other sites remains unknown. DESIGN: An international cohort of 1322 NETs was evaluated by immunolabelling for ARX/PDX1 and ATRX/DAXX, and telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridisation for ALT. This cohort included 561 primary NF-PanNETs, 107 NF-PanNET metastases and 654 primary, non-pancreatic non-functional NETs and NET metastases. The results were correlated with numerous clinicopathological features including relapse-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were associated with several adverse prognostic findings and distant metastasis/recurrence (p<0.001). The 5-year RFS rates for patients with ATRX/DAXX-negative and ALT-positive NF-PanNETs were 40% and 42% as compared with 85% and 86% for wild-type NF-PanNETs (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Shorter 5-year RFS rates for ≤2.0 cm NF-PanNETs patients were also seen with ATRX/DAXX loss (65% vs 92%, p=0.003) and ALT (60% vs 93%, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, ATRX/DAXX and ALT status were independent prognostic factors for RFS. Conversely, classifying NF-PanNETs by ARX/PDX1 expression did not independently correlate with RFS. Except for 4% of pulmonary carcinoids, ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were only identified in primary (25% and 29%) and NF-PanNET metastases (62% and 71%). CONCLUSIONS: ATRX/DAXX and ALT should be considered in the prognostic evaluation of NF-PanNETs including ≤2.0 cm tumours, and are highly specific for pancreatic origin among NET metastases of unknown primary.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Talassemia alfa , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Genes Homeobox , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Telômero/genética , Telômero/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/genética , Talassemia alfa/genética
8.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 25(12): 1095-1105, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) is classified into two subtypes based on anatomic origin: distal extrahepatic (DECC) and perihilar (PHCC) cholangiocarcinoma. This study aimed to shed light on its genomic and transcriptomic profiles. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The genomic alterations of 99 ECC (47 PHCC and 52 DECC) were investigated by next-generation sequencing of 96 genes. A subgroup of cases, representative of each subtype, was further investigated using transcriptomic analysis. Bioinformatics tools were applied for clustering and pathway analysis and defining the immune composition of the tumor microenvironment. RESULTS: PHCC had more frequent KRAS mutations (p = 0.0047), whereas TP53 mutations were more common in DECC (p = 0.006). Potentially actionable alterations included high-tumor mutational burden and/or microsatellite instability (7.1%), PI3KCA mutations (8.1%), and MYC (10.1%) and ERBB2 amplification (5.1%). The transcriptomic profiles showed the presence of three distinct clusters, which followed the anatomic origin and differed in immune microenvironment. DECC appeared to contain two distinct tumor subgroups, one enriched for druggable alterations and one lacking actionable opportunities. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new insights into the molecular landscape and the actionable alterations of ECC. Our findings represent a step toward improved ECC molecular taxonomy and therapeutic strategies for precision oncology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Genômica , Humanos , Mutação , Medicina de Precisão , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
9.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 382, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal cancer, requiring novel treatments to target both cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Altered splicing is emerging as both a novel cancer hallmark and an attractive therapeutic target. The core splicing factor SF3B1 is heavily altered in cancer and can be inhibited by Pladienolide-B, but its actionability in PDAC is unknown. We explored the presence and role of SF3B1 in PDAC and interrogated its potential as an actionable target. METHODS: SF3B1 was analyzed in PDAC tissues, an RNA-seq dataset, and publicly available databases, examining associations with splicing alterations and key features/genes. Functional assays in PDAC cell lines and PDX-derived CSCs served to test Pladienolide-B treatment effects in vitro, and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. RESULTS: SF3B1 was overexpressed in human PDAC and associated with tumor grade and lymph-node involvement. SF3B1 levels closely associated with distinct splicing event profiles and expression of key PDAC players (KRAS, TP53). In PDAC cells, Pladienolide-B increased apoptosis and decreased multiple tumor-related features, including cell proliferation, migration, and colony/sphere formation, altering AKT and JNK signaling, and favoring proapoptotic splicing variants (BCL-XS/BCL-XL, KRASa/KRAS, Δ133TP53/TP53). Importantly, Pladienolide-B similarly impaired CSCs, reducing their stemness capacity and increasing their sensitivity to chemotherapy. Pladienolide-B also reduced PDAC/CSCs xenograft tumor growth in vivo in zebrafish and in mice. CONCLUSION: SF3B1 overexpression represents a therapeutic vulnerability in PDAC, as altered splicing can be targeted with Pladienolide-B both in cancer cells and CSCs, paving the way for novel therapies for this lethal cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peixe-Zebra
10.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 9(1): 200, 2021 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952640

RESUMO

Giant cell glioblastoma (GC-GBM) is a rare variant of IDH-wt GBM histologically characterized by the presence of numerous multinucleated giant cells and molecularly considered a hybrid between IDH-wt and IDH-mutant GBM. The lack of an objective definition, specifying the percentage of giant cells required for this diagnosis, may account for the absence of a definite molecular profile of this variant. This study aimed to clarify the molecular landscape of GC-GBM, exploring the mutations and copy number variations of 458 cancer-related genes, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI) in 39 GBMs dichotomized into having 30-49% (15 cases) or ≥ 50% (24 cases) GCs. The type and prevalence of the genetic alterations in this series was not associated with the GCs content (< 50% or ≥ 50%). Most cases (82% and 51.2%) had impairment in TP53/MDM2 and PTEN/PI3K pathways, but a high proportion also featured TERT promoter mutations (61.5%) and RB1 (25.6%) or NF1 (25.6%) alterations. EGFR amplification was detected in 18% cases in association with a shorter overall survival (P = 0.004). Sixteen (41%) cases had a TMB > 10 mut/Mb, including two (5%) that harbored MSI and one with a POLE mutation. The frequency of RB1 and NF1 alterations and TMB counts were significantly higher compared to 567 IDH wild type (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0003; P < 0.0001) and 26 IDH-mutant (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0227; P < 0.0001) GBMs in the TCGA PanCancer Atlas cohort. These findings demonstrate that the molecular landscape of GBMs with at least 30% giant cells is dominated by the impairment of TP53/MDM2 and PTEN/PI3K pathways, and additionally characterized by frequent RB1 alterations and hypermutation and by EGFR amplification in more aggressive cases. The high frequency of hypermutated cases suggests that GC-GBMs might be candidates for immune check-point inhibitors clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Adulto Jovem
11.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613461

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with microsatellite instability (MSI)/defective mismatch repair (dMMR) is the only subtype of pancreatic cancer with potential response to immunotherapy. Here, we report the histo-molecular characterization of MSI/dMMR PDAC with immunohistochemistry, MSI-based PCR, and next-generation sequencing. Five paradigmatic cases have been identified. The main results include the first report in pancreatic cancer of MSI/dMMR intra-tumor heterogeneity, the presence of microsatellite-stable metastases from MSI/dMMR primary and recurrent B2M gene inactivation, which may confer resistance to immunotherapy. In addition to the classic PDAC drivers, ARID1A was the most common mutated gene in the cohort. Intra-tumor heterogeneity, B2M inactivation, and metastatic sites should be carefully considered in MSI/dMMR PDAC, which should also be investigated in routine diagnostic practice with specific molecular analysis. The chromatin remodeler ARID1A represents another potential driver gene in this context.

12.
Hum Pathol ; 118: 30-41, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562502

RESUMO

Hepatoid tumors (HT) are rare neoplasms morphologically resembling hepatocellular carcinoma, which arise in several organs other than the liver. A comprehensive molecular profile of this group of neoplasms is still lacking. Genomic characterization of 19 HTs from different organs (three colon HTs, four esophagogastric HTs, four biliary HTs, six genitourinary HTs, two lung HTs) was performed using a multigene next-generation sequencing panel. NGS unraveled a composite molecular profile of HT. Their genetic alterations were clearly clustered by tumor site: (i) colorectal HT displayed microsatellite instability, high tumor mutational burden, mutations in ARID1A/B genes and NCOA4-RET gene fusion (2/3 cases); (ii) gastric HT had TP53 mutations (2/4); (iii) biliary HT displayed loss of CDKN2A (3/4) and loss of chromosome 18 (2/4); (iv) genital HT showed gain of chromosome 12 (3/6); (v) lung HT had STK11 somatic mutations (2/2). The only commonly mutated gene occurring in HT of different sites was TP53 (8/19 cases: colon 2, esophagogastric 2, biliary 2, genital 1, lungs 1). This study shows that most genetic alterations of HT were clustered by site, indicating that context matters. The novel potential targets for HT precision oncology are also clustered based on the anatomic origin. This study shed light on the biology of these rare cancers and may have important consequences for treatment decisions and clinical trial selection for HT patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Urogenitais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206554

RESUMO

Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a numeric index that expresses the number of mutations per megabase (muts/Mb) harbored by tumor cells in a neoplasm. TMB can be determined using different approaches based on next-generation sequencing. In the case of high values, it indicates a potential response to immunotherapy. In this systematic review, we assessed the potential predictive role of high-TMB in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as well as the histo-molecular features of high-TMB PDAC. High-TMB appeared as a rare but not-negligible molecular feature in PDAC, being present in about 1.1% of cases. This genetic condition was closely associated with mucinous/colloid and medullary histology (p < 0.01). PDAC with high-TMB frequently harbored other actionable alterations, with microsatellite instability/defective mismatch repair as the most common. Immunotherapy has shown promising results in high-TMB PDAC, but the sample size of high-TMB PDAC treated so far is quite small. This study highlights interesting peculiarities of PDAC harboring high-TMB and may represent a reliable starting point for the assessment of TMB in the clinical management of patients affected by pancreatic cancer.

14.
Pathol Res Pract ; 224: 153519, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119815

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI) accounts for 15-18 % of all CRCs and represents the category with the best prognosis. This study aimed at determining any possible clinical/pathological features associated with a higher risk of nodal metastasization in MSI-CRC, and at defining any possible prognostic moderators in this setting. All surgically resected CRCs of the last 20 years (mono-institutional series) with a PCR-based diagnosis of MSI, with and without nodal metastasis, have been retrieved for histological review, which was performed following WHO guidelines. Furthermore, the most important prognostic moderators have been investigated with a survival analysis. The study of 33 cases of MSI-CRCs with nodal metastasis highlighted a high fidelity of histology maintenance between primary tumors and matched nodal metastases. At survival analysis, the strongest prognostic variable in MSI-CRCs with nodal metastasis was the extranodal extension (multivariate analysis, HR: 14.4, 95 %CI: 1.46-140.9, p = 0.022). Furthermore, through a comparison between nodal positive (33 cases) and nodal negative (71 cases) MSI-CRCs, right-sided location (p < 0.0001), pT4 stage (p = 0.0004) and signet-ring histology (p = 0.0089) emerged as parameters more commonly associated with nodal metastasization. These findings shed new light on the biology of MSI-CRC and can be of help for the prognostic stratification of MSI-CRC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Extensão Extranodal/patologia , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922803

RESUMO

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) display variable aggressive behavior. A major predictor of survival is tumor grade based on the Ki67 proliferation index. As information on transcriptomic profiles of PanNETs with different tumor grades is limited, we investigated 29 PanNETs (17 G1, 7 G2, 5 G3) for their expression profiles, mutations in 16 PanNET relevant genes and LINE-1 DNA methylation profiles. A total of 3050 genes were differentially expressed between tumors with different grades (p < 0.05): 1279 in G3 vs. G2; 2757 in G3 vs. G1; and 203 in G2 vs. G1. Mutational analysis showed 57 alterations in 11 genes, the most frequent being MEN1 (18/29), DAXX (7/29), ATRX (6/29) and MUTYH (5/29). The presence and type of mutations did not correlate with the specific expression profiles associated with different grades. LINE-1 showed significantly lower methylation in G2/G3 versus G1 tumors (p = 0.007). The expression profiles of matched primaries and metastasis (nodal, hepatic and colorectal wall) of three cases confirmed the role of Ki67 in defining specific expression profiles, which clustered according to tumor grades, independently from anatomic location or patient of origin. Such data call for future exploration of the role of Ki67 in tumor progression, given its involvement in chromosomal stability.

16.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810291

RESUMO

This case report describes the history of a 41 year-old woman with a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas and a metachronous abdominal desmoid tumor (DT) that occurred two years after the SPN surgical resection. At next-generation sequencing of 174 cancer-related genes, both neoplasms harbored a CTNNB1 somatic mutation which was different in each tumor. Moreover, two BRCA2 pathogenic mutations were found in both tumors, confirmed as germline by the sequencing of normal tissue. The BRCA2 mutations were c.631G>A, resulting in the amino-acid change p.V211I, and c.7008-2A>T, causing a splice acceptor site loss. However, as the two neoplasms showed neither loss of heterozygosity nor somatic mutation in the second BRCA2 allele, they cannot be considered as BRCA-dependent tumors. Nevertheless, this study highlights the important opportunities opened by extensive tumor molecular profiling. In this particular case, it permitted the detection of BRCA2-germline mutations, essential for addressing the necessary BRCA-related genetic counseling, surveillance, and screening for the patient and her family.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Abdominais/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Fibromatose Agressiva/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , beta Catenina/genética
17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 155, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536587

RESUMO

Here we report the DNA methylation profile of 84 sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) with associated clinical and genomic information. We identified three subgroups of PanNETs, termed T1, T2 and T3, with distinct patterns of methylation. The T1 subgroup was enriched for functional tumors and ATRX, DAXX and MEN1 wild-type genotypes. The T2 subgroup contained tumors with mutations in ATRX, DAXX and MEN1 and recurrent patterns of chromosomal losses in half of the genome with no association between regions with recurrent loss and methylation levels. T2 tumors were larger and had lower methylation in the MGMT gene body, which showed positive correlation with gene expression. The T3 subgroup harboured mutations in MEN1 with recurrent loss of chromosome 11, was enriched for grade G1 tumors and showed histological parameters associated with better prognosis. Our results suggest a role for methylation in both driving tumorigenesis and potentially stratifying prognosis in PanNETs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Carga Tumoral
18.
Gut ; 70(10): 1904-1913, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A comprehensive analysis of the immune landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs) was performed according to clinicopathological parameters and previously defined molecular subtypes to identify potential therapeutic vulnerabilities in this disease. DESIGN: Differential expression analysis of 600 immune-related genes was performed on 207 PanNET samples, comprising a training cohort (n=72) and two validation cohorts (n=135) from multiple transcriptome profiling platforms. Different immune-related and subtype-related phenotypes, cell types and pathways were investigated using different in silico methods and were further validated using spatial multiplex immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The study identified an immune signature of 132 genes segregating PanNETs (n=207) according to four previously defined molecular subtypes: metastasis-like primary (MLP)-1 and MLP-2, insulinoma-like and intermediate. The MLP-1 subtype (26%-31% samples across three cohorts) was strongly associated with elevated levels of immune-related genes, poor prognosis and a cascade of tumour evolutionary events: larger hypoxic and necroptotic tumours leading to increased damage-associated molecular patterns (viral mimicry), stimulator of interferon gene pathway, T cell-inflamed genes, immune checkpoint targets, and T cell-mediated and M1 macrophage-mediated immune escape mechanisms. Multiplex spatial profiling validated significantly increased macrophages in the MLP-1 subtype. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel data on the immune microenvironment of PanNETs and identifies MLP-1 subtype as an immune-high phenotype featuring a broad and robust activation of immune-related genes. This study, with further refinement, paves the way for future precision immunotherapy studies in PanNETs to potentially select a subset of MLP-1 patients who may be more likely to respond.


Assuntos
Genes Neoplásicos/imunologia , Mimetismo Molecular/imunologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Carga Tumoral
19.
J Vis Exp ; (153)2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762465

RESUMO

Assessing intra-tumoral heterogeneity (ITH) is of paramount importance to anticipate failure of targeted therapies and design accordingly effective anti-tumor strategies. Although concerns are frequently raised due to differences in sample processing and depth of coverage, next-generation sequencing of solid tumors have unraveled a highly variable degree of ITH across tumor types. Capturing the genetic relatedness between primary and metastatic lesions through the identification of clonal and subclonal populations is critical to the design of therapies for advance-stage diseases. Here, we report a method for comparative lesions analysis that allows for the identification of clonal and subclonal populations among different specimens from the same patient. The experimental approach described here integrates three well-established approaches: histological analysis, high-coverage multi-lesion sequencing, and immunophenotypic analyses. In order to minimize the effects on the detection of subclonal events by inappropriate sample processing, we subjected tissues to careful pathological examination and neoplastic cell enrichment. Quality controlled DNA from neoplastic lesions and normal tissues was then subjected to high coverage sequencing, targeting the coding regions of 409 relevant cancer genes. While only looking at a limited genomic space, our approach enables evaluating the extent of heterogeneity among somatic alterations (single-nucleotide mutations and copy-number variations) in distinct lesions from a given patient. Through comparative analysis of sequencing data, we were able to distinguish clonal vs. subclonal alterations. The majority of ITH is often ascribed to passenger mutations; therefore, we also used immunohistochemistry to predict functional consequences of mutations. While this protocol has been applied to a specific tumor type, we anticipate that the methodology described here is broadly applicable to other solid tumor types.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética
20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas (GBMs) are classified into isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutants and IDH wild-types (IDH-wt). This study aimed at identifying the mutational assets of IDH-wt GBMs in patients aged 18-54 years for which limited data are available. METHODS: Sixteen IDH-wt GBMs from adults < 55 years old were explored for mutations, copy number variations, tumour mutational load (TML), and mutational spectrum by a 409 genes TML panel. RESULTS: Eight (50%) IDH-wt GBMs were hypermutated (TML > 9 mutations/Mb) and two (12.5%) were ultra-mutated (TML > 100 mutations/Mb). One ultra-mutated GBM had microsatellite instability (MSI), a somatic MSH6 mutation, and a germline POLE mutation. The other ultra-mutated GBMs had MSI and two somatic mutations in MSH2. Both ultra-mutated GBMs featured at least 25% giant cells. The overall survival of eight patients with hypermutated GBMs was significantly longer than that of patients with non-hypermutated GBMs (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a hyper-mutated subgroup among IDH-wt GBMs in adults < 55 years that had improved prognosis. Two cases were ultra-mutated and characterized by the presence of at least 25% giant cells, MMR mutations, and MSI. Since high TML has been associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibition in paediatric gliomas, the identification of a subtype of ultra-mutated IDH-wt GBM may have implications for immunotherapy.

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