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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 539, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377943

RESUMO

The externalities generated by disorderly urbanization and lack of proper planning becomes one of the main factors that must be considered in water resource management. To address the multiple uses of water and avoid conflicts among users, decision-making must integrate these factors into quality and quantity aspects. The water quality index (WQI), using the correlation matrix and the multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) techniques were used to analyze the surface water quality, considering urban, rural, and industrial regions in an integrated way, even with data gaps. The results showed that the main parameters that impacted the water quality index were dissolved oxygen, elevation, and total phosphorus. The results of PCA analysis showed 86.25% of the variance in the data set, using physicochemical and topographic parameters. In the cluster analysis, the dissolved oxygen, elevation, total coliforms, E. coli, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and temperature parameters showed a significant correlation between the data's dimensions. In the industrial region, the characteristic parameter was the organic load, in the rural region were nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen), and in the urban region was E. coli (an indicator of the pathogenic organisms' presence). In the classification of the samples, there was a predominance of "Good" quality, however, samples classified as "Acceptable" and "Bad" occurred during the winter and spring months (dry season) in the rural and industrial regions. Water pollution is linked to inadequate land use and occupation and population density in certain regions without access to sanitation services.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Recursos Hídricos , Brasil , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Multivariada , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Rios , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente , Urbanização
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(2): 117, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706206

RESUMO

The environmental protection area of Lageado was created in 2001 in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul's State capital, and it constitutes a conservation unit that belongs to the Sustainable Use Group. The environmental protection area of Lageado is located in an urban area and provides approximately 12% of the water supplied to the municipality. Knowing the relationship between soil occupancy and population density, which may cause harmful effects to the quality of surface water and water resources, is fundamental. The present study aims to analyse the physical-chemical parameters of water samples collected at three different times and in six distinct points in Lageado. To verify whether the transformation of this watershed into a conservation unit resulted in the maintenance of water quality, the statistical analyses considered the significance and correlation among the following parameters: water quality index (WQI); dissolved aluminium, iron and copper; Escherichia coli; nitrate; ammoniacal nitrogen; Kjeldahl nitrogen; chemical oxygen demand; and chlorophyll α. The results show that the formal creation of the environmental protection area of Lageado did not provide the effective improvement or maintenance of its environmental conditions. Statistically, there were decreases in the WQI over the studied period, which demonstrates that the creation of a conservation unit is, in itself, not sufficient and it lacks the implementation of effective programmes and actions related to the soil use, occupancy and water quality.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Qualidade da Água/normas , Brasil , Cidades , Poluição da Água/análise , Recursos Hídricos
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