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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 586, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Control strategies adopted by the Brazilian Visceral Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control Programme (VLSCP) include identifying and culling seropositive infected dogs, early diagnosis and treatment of human cases, chemical control of the vector and population awareness. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the VLSCP on the prevalence and incidence rates of Leishmania infantum in children residing in areas under different VLSCP intervention times. METHODS: A quasi-experimental epidemiological study with a panel (two cross-sectional) and a concurrent cohort was performed in three areas of Belo Horizonte, southeast Brazil. The first cross-sectional study (I) was carried out with 1875 children, 478 of which were enrolled in the cohort study. In the second cross-sectional study (II), 413 additional children were included, totalizing 891 children. Laboratory diagnosis was performed by ELISA-rK39. Analyses included multilevel logistic and Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The incidence rates of L. infantum infection were: 14.4% in the area where VLSCP intervention was initiated in 2006 (AI2006); 21.1% in the area where intervention was initiated in 2008 (AI2008); and 11.6% in the area where intervention was initiated in 2010 (AI2010 - control area). A follow-up period of 24 months showed that the persons-time incidence rates in AI2006, AI2008, and AI2010 were: 6.2/100, 10/100, and 5.6/100 persons/24 months, respectively. The final prevalence rates of infection (cross-sectional II - in 2012), compared to the initial rates (cross-sectional I - in 2010), increased 83.7% in AI2006, 74.1% in AI2008, and decreased 5% in AI2010. Analysis of the effectiveness revealed that children residing in AI2008 are more likely to be infected (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.06-3.23) and present a higher risk of infection (IRR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05-2.95) compared to those in AI2010. No statistically significant differences were observed in asymptomatic infection (OR and IRR) in AI2006 compared to AI2010. CONCLUSIONS: The VLSCP was not effective at controlling L. infantum infection in areas where interventions had respectively been carried out for six and four years. However, it is unclear what the consequences in terms of human infection and diseases would be in the absence of the VLSCP. Efforts to improve the effectiveness of control measures remain a necessary priority.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006232, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In some tropical countries, such as Brazil, schistosomiasis control programs have led to a significant reduction in the prevalence and parasite burden of endemic populations. In this setting, the Kato-Katz technique, as the standard diagnostic method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections, which involves the analysis of two slides from one fecal sample, loses its sensitivity. As a result, a significant number of infected individuals are not detected. The objective of this study was to perform extensive parasitological testing of up to three fecal samples and include a rapid urine test (POC-CCA) in a moderate prevalence area in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and evaluate the performance of each test separately and in combination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 254 individuals were examined with variants of the standard Kato-Katz technique (up to18 Kato-Katz slides prepared from three fecal samples), a modified Helmintex (30 g of feces), the saline gradient (500 mg of feces), and the POC-CCA methods. We established a reference standard taking into consideration all the positive results in any of the parasitological exams. Evaluation of the parasite burden by two Kato-Katz slides confirmed that most of the individuals harbored a light infection. When additional slides and different parasitological methods were included, the estimated prevalence rose 2.3 times, from 20.4% to 45.9%. The best sensitivity was obtained with the Helmintex method (84%). All parasitological methods readily detected a high or moderate intensity of infection; however, all lost their high sensitivity in the case of low or very low intensity infections. The overall sensitivity of POC-CCA (64.9%) was similar to the six Kato-Katz slides from three fecal samples. However, POC-CCA showed low concordance (κ = 0.34) when compared with the reference standard. CONCLUSIONS: The recommended Kato-Katz method largely underestimated the prevalence of S. mansoni infection. Because the best performance was achieved with a modified Helmintex method, this technique might serve as a more precise reference standard. An extended number of Kato-Katz slides in combination with other parasitological methods or with POC-CCA was able to detect more than 80% of egg-positive individuals; however, the rapid urine test (POC-CCA) produced a considerable percentage of false positive results.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Carga Parasitária , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/urina , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/urina , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0129046, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26090676

RESUMO

The purpose of our study was to describe the clinical profile of dengue-infected patients admitted to Brazilian intensive care units (ICU) and evaluate factors associated with death. A longitudinal, multicenter case series study was conducted with laboratory-confirmed dengue patients admitted to nine Brazilian ICUs situated in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2013. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data; disease severity scores; and mortality were evaluated. A total of 97 patients were studied. The in-ICU and in-hospital mortality rates were 18.6% and 19.6%, respectively. Patients classified as having severe dengue according to current World Health Organization classifications showed an increased risk of death in a univariate analysis. Nonsurvivors were older, exhibited lower serum albumin concentrations and higher total leukocyte counts and serum creatinine levels. Other risk factors (vomiting, lethargy/restlessness, dyspnea/respiratory distress) were also associated with death in a univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that in-hospital mortality was significantly associated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The ICU and in-hospital mortality observed in this study were higher than values reported in similar studies. An increased frequency of ICU admission due to severe organ dysfunction, higher severity indices and scarcity of ICU beds may partially explain the higher mortality.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , APACHE , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
4.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol ; 52(4): 677-83, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18604381

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to verify if hyperthyroidism potentiates the osteopenia lactational. 24 adult female rats were distributed in four groups: euthyroid no lactating (control), euthyroid lactating, hyperthyroid no lactating and hyperthyroid lactating. 20 days after gestation, all the animals were necropsied. The thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, the femur and tibia were decalcified and processed for histomorphometric analysis. The euthyroid lactating group presented intense osteopenia in the studied bones. In the hyperthyroid no lactating group, there was not any change in trabecular bone percentage in none of the analyzed bone. In the hyperthyroid lactating group, there was osteopenia in the tibia and femur, similar to the one in the euthyroid lactating group. But the trabecular bone percentage in all the vertebral bodies was significantly larger in comparison with the euthyroid lactating group. It was concluded that the hyperthyroidism does not potentiate the osteopenia lactational in female rats, but it minimizes the vertebral osteopenia once it stimulates the osteoblastic activity.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Lactação , Animais , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/patologia , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Risco , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico
5.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 52(4): 677-683, jun. 2008. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-485834

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o hipertireoidismo potencializa a osteopenia causada pela lactação. Foram utilizadas 24 ratas adultas distribuídas em quatro grupos: eutireóideo não lactante (controle), eutireóideo lactante, hipertireóideo não-lactante e hipertireóideo lactante. Todos os animais foram necropsiados, 20 dias após a gestação. As vértebras torácicas e lombares, o fêmur e a tíbia foram colhidos, descalcificados e submetidos à análise histomorfométrica. O grupo eutireóideo lactante apresentou osteopenia intensa em todos os sítios ósseos estudados. No grupo hipertireóideo não-lactante, não houve alteração da porcentagem de tecido ósseo trabecular nos sítios analisados. No grupo hipertireóideo lactante, havia osteopenia na tíbia e no fêmur, semelhante à do grupo eutireóideo lactante. Mas a porcentagem de tecido ósseo trabecular em todos os corpos vertebrais foi significativamente maior em comparação ao grupo eutireóideo lactante. Conclui-se que o hipertireoidismo não agrava a osteopenia lactacional em ratas, mas minimiza a osteopenia vertebral por estimular a atividade osteoblástica.


The objective of this study was to verify if hyperthyroidism potentiates the osteopenia lactational. 24 adult female rats were distributed in four groups: euthyroid no lactating (control), euthyroid lactating, hyperthyroid no lactating and hyperthyroid lactating. 20 days after gestation, all the animals were necropsied. The thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, the femur and tibia were decalcified and processed for histomorphometric analysis. The euthyroid lactating group presented intense osteopenia in the studied bones. In the hyperthyroid no lactating group, there was not any change in trabecular bone percentage in none of the analyzed bone. In the hyperthyroid lactating group, there was osteopenia in the tibia and femur, similar to the one in the euthyroid lactating group. But the trabecular bone percentage in all the vertebral bodies was significantly larger in comparison with the euthyroid lactating group. It was concluded that the hyperthyroidism does not potentiate the osteopenia lactational in female rats, but it minimizes the vertebral osteopenia once it stimulates the osteoblastic activity.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Lactação , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Risco , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico
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