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1.
Blood ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501153

RESUMO

Dysregulated immune responses are essential underlying causes of a plethora of pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity and immunodeficiency. We here investigated four patients from unrelated families presenting with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and malignancy. We identified four distinct homozygous mutations in TNFRSF9 encoding the Tumor Necrosis Factor superfamily member CD137/4-1BB, leading to reduced or loss of protein expression. Lymphocytic responses crucial for immune surveillance, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation, were impaired. Genetic reconstitution of CD137 reversed these defects. CD137 deficiency is a novel inborn error of human immunity characterized by lymphocytic defects with early-onset Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. Our findings elucidate a functional role and relevance of CD137 in human immune homeostasis and antitumor responses.

2.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with very early onset inflammatory bowel diseases (VEO-IBD) often have a refractory and severe disease course. A significant number of described VEO-IBD-causing monogenic disorders can be attributed to defects in immune-related genes. The diagnosis of the underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID) often has critical implications for the treatment of patients with IBD-like phenotypes. METHODS: To identify the molecular etiology in 5 patients from 3 unrelated kindred with IBD-like symptoms, we conducted whole exome sequencing. Immune workup confirmed an underlying PID. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing revealed 3 novel CARMIL2 loss-of-function mutations in our patients. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed reduction of regulatory and effector memory T cells and impaired B cell class switching. The T cell proliferation and activation assays confirmed defective responses to CD28 costimulation, consistent with CARMIL2 deficiency. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that human CARMIL2 deficiency can manifest with IBD-like symptoms. This example illustrates that early diagnosis of underlying PID is crucial for the treatment and prognosis of children with VEO-IBD.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(3): 970-975, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591564

RESUMO

Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a critical regulator of cell death and inflammation, but its relevance for human disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Studies of monogenic disorders might provide critical insights into disease mechanisms and therapeutic targeting of RIPK1 for common diseases. Here, we report on eight patients from six unrelated pedigrees with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in RIPK1 presenting with primary immunodeficiency and/or intestinal inflammation. Mutations in RIPK1 were associated with reduced NF-κB activity, defective differentiation of T and B cells, increased inflammasome activity, and impaired response to TNFR1-mediated cell death in intestinal epithelial cells. The characterization of RIPK1-deficient patients highlights the essential role of RIPK1 in controlling human immune and intestinal homeostasis, and might have critical implications for therapies targeting RIPK1.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Imunidade nas Mucosas/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Mucosa Intestinal , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/deficiência , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
4.
Gastroenterology ; 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267714

RESUMO

Caspase-8 (CASP8) is a protease that initiates apoptosis and regulates inflammation and immune responses. We identified germline mutations in CASP8 in 3 unrelated patients with infant-onset inflammatory bowel disease: 2 patients were homozygous for the mutation 710A>G, p.Q237R, which resulted in reduced protein expression, and 1 patient carried the mutation 793C>T, p.R265W. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from our index patient and observed defects in T- and B-cell maturation, proliferation, and/or activation. Macrophages from 1 patient with CASP8 deficiency and monocytic BLaER1 cells with knockout of CASP8 or overexpression of CASP8 with the 710A>G mutation had altered inflammasome activity on stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Patient-derived intestinal organoids and colon carcinoma cells with knockout of CASP8 had defects in cell death processes that involved loss of TRAIL signaling and increased necroptosis. These findings indicate that CASP8 controls inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and intestinal barrier integrity in humans.

5.
Clin Immunol ; 191: 52-58, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567430

RESUMO

Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a rare inherited disorder leading to severe organ-specific autoimmunity. IPEX is caused by hemizygous mutations in FOXP3, which codes for a master transcription factor of regulatory T (TReg) cell development and function. We describe a four-year-old boy with typical but slightly delayed-onset of IPEX with autoimmune diabetes mellitus, enteropathy, hepatitis and skin disease. We found the unreported FOXP3 splice site mutation c.816+2T>A that leads to the loss of leucine-zipper coding exon 7. RNA-Seq revealed that FOXP3Δ7 leads to differential expression of FOXP3 regulated genes. After myeloablative conditioning the patient underwent allogeneic HSCT from a matched unrelated donor. HSCT led to the resolution of all IPEX symptoms including insulin requirement despite persisting autoantibody levels. After initial full donor engraftment nearly complete autologous reconstitution was documented, but donor-derived TReg cells persisted with a lineage-specific chimerism of >70% and the patient remained in clinical remission.

6.
Front Immunol ; 9: 368, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535735

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus positive (EBV+) smooth muscle tumors (SMTs) constitute a very rare oncological entity. They usually develop in the context of secondary immunodeficiency caused by human immunodeficiency virus infection or immunosuppressive treatment after solid organ transplantation. However, in a small fraction of predominantly pediatric patients, EBV+ SMTs may occur in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs), such as GATA2 and CARMIL2 deficiency. In secondary immunodeficiencies and when the underlying condition can not be cured, the treatment of EBV+ SMTs is based on surgery in combination with antiretroviral and reduced or altered immunosuppressive pharmacotherapy, respectively. Importantly, without definitive reconstitution of cellular immunity, long-term survival is poor. This is particularly relevant for patients with EBV+ SMTs on the basis of PIDs. Recently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation resulted in cure of immunodeficiency and EBV+ SMTs in a GATA2-deficient patient. We propose that in the absence of secondary immunodeficiency disorders patients presenting with EBV+ SMTs should be thoroughly evaluated for PIDs. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be taken into consideration, ideally in the setting of a prospective clinical trial.

7.
Nat Genet ; 50(3): 344-348, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483653

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 (encoded by TGFB1) is the prototypic member of the TGF-ß family of 33 proteins that orchestrate embryogenesis, development and tissue homeostasis1,2. Following its discovery 3 , enormous interest and numerous controversies have emerged about the role of TGF-ß in coordinating the balance of pro- and anti-oncogenic properties4,5, pro- and anti-inflammatory effects 6 , or pro- and anti-fibrinogenic characteristics 7 . Here we describe three individuals from two pedigrees with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the TGFB1 gene who presented with severe infantile inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and central nervous system (CNS) disease associated with epilepsy, brain atrophy and posterior leukoencephalopathy. The proteins encoded by the mutated TGFB1 alleles were characterized by impaired secretion, function or stability of the TGF-ß1-LAP complex, which is suggestive of perturbed bioavailability of TGF-ß1. Our study shows that TGF-ß1 has a critical and nonredundant role in the development and homeostasis of intestinal immunity and the CNS in humans.

8.
Liver Int ; 38(7): 1280-1291, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: MicroRNAs are important genetic regulators of physiological and pathophysiological processes including cancer initiation and progression of hepatoblastoma, the most common liver tumour in childhood. We aimed to identify malignant and metastasis promoting effects of miR-492, a miRNA, previously reported to be overexpressed in metastatic hepatoblastoma. Furthermore, we intended to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential. METHODS: Stable and transient overexpression of miR-492 in two liver tumour cell lines HepT1 and HUH7 was used to analyse features of metastatic tumour progression such as proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion. Via a mass spectrometry based proteomic screen, we investigated miRNA-492-dependent effects on proteome level and explored the underlying biology. One of the predicted target genes, CD44, was experimentally validated via luciferase assays. Diagnostic and prognostic properties of miR-492 were studied in hepatoblastoma tumour samples. RESULTS: We show that miR-492 significantly enhances cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion of hepatoblastoma cells. We also identified and validated CD44, a transmembrane adhesion receptor for hyaluronan, as direct and functional target of miR-492. This miRNA has a strong direct impact on two CD44 isoforms (standard and v10). High miR-492 expression correlates with high-risk or aggressive tumours and further bears potential for predicting reduced event-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: We identified miR-492 and its target CD44 as regulators of a number of biological features important for malignancy and metastasis. Furthermore, we demonstrated the diagnostic and prognostic potential of miR-492, a promising novel therapeutic target and biomarker for hepatoblastoma.

9.
Klin Padiatr ; 229(3): 113-117, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28561224

RESUMO

Background Heterozygous point mutations in the GT splice donor consensus sequence of exon 11 of the PIK3R1 gene (coding for p85α, p55α, and p50α regulatory subunits of PI3K) lead to exon skipping and thereby to an aberrant protein that leaves PI3K hyperactivated. Several patients with this particular variant of PI3 kinase delta syndrome (APDS) suffering from sinopulmonary infections and lymphoproliferation have been described. Methods (Whole exome) sequencing, evaluation of cellular and clinical phenotypes. Results We here report a family with a new heterozygous mutation in this gene, a 9 bp deletion (c.1418_1425+1del) that, however, leads to the same skipping of exon 11. The clinical phenotypes of their members partly overlap features of patients of other reports. Conclusions We found a new mutation in PIK3R1 and show how broad the resulting clinical spectrum can be.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Linfoma/genética , Fenótipo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Mutação Puntual , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/imunologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/imunologia , Linhagem , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 35: 9, 2016 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26762252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study we explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as mediators of leukemogenic effects of the fusion gene MLL-AF9, which results from a frequent chromosomal translocation in infant and monoblastic acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: We performed a specific and efficient knockdown of endogenous MLL-AF9 in the human monoblastic AML cell line THP1. RESULTS: The knockdown associated miRNA expression profile revealed 21 MLL-AF9 dependently expressed miRNAs. Gene ontology analyses of target genes suggested an impact of these miRNAs on downstream gene regulation via targeting of transcriptional modulators as well as involvement in many functions important for leukemia maintenance as e.g. myeloid differentiation, cell cycle and stem cell maintenance. Furthermore, we identified one of the most intensely repressed miRNAs, miR-511, to raise CCL2 expression (a chemokine ligand important for immunosurveillance), directly target cyclin D1, inhibit cell cycle progression, increase cellular migration and promote monoblastic differentiation. With these effects, miR-511 may have a therapeutic potential as a pro-differentiation agent as well as in leukemia vaccination approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new insights into the understanding of miRNAs as functional mediators of the leukemogenic fusion gene MLL-AF9 and opens new opportunities to further investigate specific therapeutic options for AML via the miRNA level.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Leucemia Monocítica Aguda/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Ciclina D1/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Leucemia Monocítica Aguda/metabolismo
11.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 27(2): 177-84, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES) are primary immunodeficiency disorders characterized by elevated serum IgE, eczema, and recurrent infections. Despite the availability of confirmatory molecular diagnosis of several distinct HIES entities, the differentiation of HIES particularly from severe forms of atopic dermatitis remains a challenge. The two most common forms of HIES are caused by mutations in the genes STAT3 and DOCK8. METHODS: Here, we assess the clinical and immunologic phenotype of DOCK8- and STAT3-HIES patients including the cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine release after stimulation. RESULTS: Existing HIES scoring systems are helpful to identify HIES patients. However, those scores may fail in infants and young children due to the age-related lack of clinical symptoms. Furthermore, our long-term observations showed a striking variation of laboratory results over time in the individual patient. Reduced memory B-cell counts in concert with low specific antibody production are the most consistent findings likely contributing to the high susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infection. In DOCK8-HIES, T-cell lymphopenia and low IFN-gamma secretion after stimulation were common, likely promoting viral infections. In contrast to STAT3-HIES, DOCK8-HIES patients showed more severe inflammation with regard to allergic manifestations, elevated activation markers (HLA-DR, CD69, CD86, and CD154), and significantly increased inflammatory cytokines (IL1-beta, IL4, IL6, and IFN-gamma). CONCLUSION: Differentiating HIES from other diseases such as atopic dermatitis early in life is essential for patients because treatment modalities differ. To expedite the diagnosis process, we propose here a diagnostic workflow.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Síndrome de Job/diagnóstico , Mutação/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Memória Imunológica , Lactente , Síndrome de Job/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Masculino , Linfócitos T/imunologia
12.
Eur J Immunol ; 42(6): 1627-38, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22678915

RESUMO

The transcriptional regulator FOXP3 is an important determinant of regulatory T (Treg) cell development and function and is frequently used to quantitate Treg cells. However, FOXP3 is also expressed in recently activated conventional human T cells. Here, we investigated the FOXP3 expression patterns in Treg and activated T cells at a cellular level. Upon activation, human CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells expressed FOXP3 mainly in the cytoplasm, in sharp contrast to human CD4(+) CD25(+) Treg cells, where we found FOXP3 to be predominantly expressed in the nucleus. A GFP-FOXP3-fusion protein shuttled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in transfected primary human T cells. We identified two novel leucine-rich nuclear export signals in FOXP3. Site-directed mutagenesis of both sequences completely abolished nuclear export of FOXP3 in human T cells. Both export sequences localized to exons affected by alternative splicing. The three isoforms FOXP3Δ2, FOXP3Δ7, and FOXP3Δ2Δ7 localized preferentially to the nucleus. Additionally, forced expression of nucleus-directed FOXP3 induced a Treg-cell-associated gene expression pattern and induced regulatory capacity. These findings should aid in the interpretation of future studies utilizing FOXP3 expression as a Treg-cell marker and shed some light on the molecular mechanisms controlling subcellular FOXP3 localization in human T cells.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/análise , Linfócitos T Reguladores/química , Linfócitos T/química , Núcleo Celular/química , Células Cultivadas , Citoplasma/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/fisiologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Sinais de Exportação Nuclear , Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura , Linfócitos T Reguladores/ultraestrutura
13.
Clin Immunol ; 129(3): 381-93, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18819845

RESUMO

Adoptive transfer of naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells can tolerize transplantation alloresponses in animal models. However isolation of these cells in sufficient numbers from humans is cumbersome and prone to contamination with alloreactive CD25(+) T cells. Incubation of ethylenecarbodiimide-coupled antigen presenting cells (APC) with naïve T cells and antigen has been shown to induce tolerance in various experimental models. We therefore investigated whether ECDI-coupled allogeneic APC were able to induce an expandable human CD4(+) Treg population. CD4(+) and CD4(+) CD25(-) cells cultured for 5 days with ECDI-treated human PBMC exhibited potent suppressive capacity in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Induction of these ECDI-Tregs was associated with up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA and protein expression and they maintained high expression of CD62L and CD27 as well as low CD127 expression. ECDI-treated APC displayed reduced expression of the co-stimulatory signaling molecules CD40 and CD80, and failed to stimulate proliferation and cytokine secretion in co-cultured CD4(+) T cells. Restimulation in the presence of rapamycin and hrIL-2 led to expansion of ECDI-Tregs with increasing Foxp3 levels and suppressive activity significantly higher than expanded naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. In summary these findings support the hypothesis that ECDI-coupled APC can convert naïve CD4(+) T cells into functional Tregs with different phenotypic characteristics than naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. These inducible Tregs could provide a novel approach that might facilitate the translation of ex vivo generated and expanded Tregs into clinical settings.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Carbodi-Imidas/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Teste de Cultura Mista de Linfócitos , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima
14.
Cell Calcium ; 42(1): 91-102, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17197020

RESUMO

In HEK293 cells, transfected with the Ca2+ channel protein TRPV6, Ca2+ influx is increased and TRPV6 is tyrosine phosphorylated following addition of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor N,N-dimethyl-hydroxamido hydroxovanadate to cells. This effect of DMHV is enhanced by co-transfection of cells with the tyrosine kinase Src and the tyrosine phosphatase 1B. It is abolished when cells had been treated with PP1, an inhibitor of Src family tyrosine kinases. PTP1B interacts with the N-terminal domain of TRPV6 within a region of amino acids 1-191 as shown by co-immunoprecipitation, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and the yeast 2-hybrid system. Point mutation of both tyrosines 161 and 162 in the TRPV6 protein abolishes the DMHV-effect on Ca2+ influx and tyrosine phosphorylation by Src. Single mutations of Y161 or Y162 shows that each of both tyrosines alone is sufficient for the DMHV-effect. We conclude that phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of tyrosines in position 161 and 162 is essential for regulation of Ca2+ influx through TRPV6 Ca2+ channels in HEK293 cells.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/química , Canais de Cátion TRPV/química , Tirosina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Mutação Puntual , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Transfecção , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Tirosina/genética , Vanadatos/farmacologia , Quinases da Família src/fisiologia
15.
Exp Cell Res ; 307(1): 100-8, 2005 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15922730

RESUMO

The giant protein hFat1, a member of the cadherin superfamily, has been proposed to play roles in cerebral development, glomerular slit formation, and also to act as a tumor suppressor, but its mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. To examine functions of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, they were expressed in HEK293 and HeLa cells as chimeric proteins in fusion with EGFP and extracellular domains derived from E-cadherin. Proteins comprising the transmembrane domain localized to the membrane fraction. Deletion of this domain resulted in a predominantly nuclear localization of the cytoplasmic segment of hFat1. Nuclear localization was largely reduced by deletion of a presumed juxta-membrane NLS. Fusion proteins located in the plasma membrane underwent proteolytic processing. In a first proteolytic step, only the extracellular domain was cleaved off. In another step, the cleavage product was released to the cytosol and was also found in a low speed pellet fraction, in accordance with the nuclear localization of the cytoplasmic domain of hFat1.


Assuntos
Caderinas/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Western Blotting , Caderinas/química , Caderinas/genética , Fracionamento Celular , Linhagem Celular , Citosol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hidrólise , Microscopia Confocal , Sinais de Localização Nuclear , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares
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