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1.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503300

RESUMO

To date, MRI studies focused on brain sexual dimorphism have not explored the presence of specific neural patterns in gender dysphoria (GD) using gender discrimination tasks. Considering the central role of body image in GD, the present study aims to evaluate brain activation patterns with 3T-scanner functional MRI (fMRI) during gender face discrimination task in a sample of 20 hormone-naïve transgender and 20 cisgender individuals. Additionally, participants were asked to complete psychometric measures. The between-group analysis of average blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activations of female vs. male face contrast showed a significant positive cluster in the bilateral precuneus in transmen when compared to the ciswomen. In addition. the transwomen group compared to the cismen showed higher activations also in the precuneus, as well as in the posterior cingulate gyrus, the angular gyrus and the lateral occipital cortices. Moreover, the activation of precuneus, angular gyrus, lateral occipital cortices and posterior cingulate gyrus was significantly associated with higher levels of body uneasiness. These results show for the first time the existence of a possible specific GD-neural pattern. However, it remains unclear if the differences in brain phenotype of transgender people may be the result of a sex-atypical neural development or of a lifelong experience of gender non-conformity.

2.
Psychiatry Res ; 290: 113071, 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464424

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that leptin level alterations in Eating Disorders (EDs) represent a maintaining factor for pathological reward-related ED behaviors, given leptin role in the dopaminergic reward systems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of leptin in EDs as a mediator for the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and several pathological behaviors, such as dietary restraint, compensatory exercise, vomiting, binge eating and emotional eating. Sixty-two patients with EDs and 41 healthy controls (HC) had their blood drawn and completed psychometric tests for the evaluation of general psychopathology, ED psychopathology and emotional eating. Moderated linear regression models showed that, in the presence of high levels of ED psychopathology, leptin levels were negatively associated with dietary restraint and compensatory exercise, and positively with emotional eating and binge eating. Finally, leptin showed an indirect effect on the association between BMI and all these reward-related behaviors. These results suggest that a variation of BMI maintains these pathological ED behaviors through a variation in leptin levels. Considering the role of leptin in reward circuits, the results seem to confirm an aberrant food-related reward mechanism in ED patients.

3.
Andrology ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infertility affects 7%-12% of men, and its etiology is unknown in half of cases. To fill this gap, use of the male genital tract color-Doppler ultrasound (MGT-CDUS) has progressively expanded. However, MGT-CDUS still suffers from lack of standardization. Hence, the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) has promoted a multicenter study ("EAA ultrasound study") to assess MGT-CDUS characteristics of healthy, fertile men to obtain normative parameters. OBJECTIVES: To report (a) the development and methodology of the "EAA ultrasound study," (b) the clinical characteristics of the cohort of healthy, fertile men, and (c) the correlations of both fertility history and seminal features with clinical parameters. METHODS: A cohort of 248 healthy, fertile men (35.3 ± 5.9 years) was studied. All subjects were asked to undergo, within the same day, clinical, biochemical, and seminal evaluation and MGT-CDUS before and after ejaculation. RESULTS: The clinical, seminal, and biochemical characteristics of the cohort have been reported here. The seminal characteristics were consistent with those reported by the WHO (2010) for the 50th and 5th centiles for fertile men. Normozoospermia was observed in 79.6% of men, while normal sperm vitality was present in almost the entire sample. Time to pregnancy (TTP) was 3.0[1.0-6.0] months. TTP was negatively correlated with sperm vitality (Adj.r =-.310, P = .011), but not with other seminal, clinical, or biochemical parameters. Sperm vitality and normal morphology were positively associated with fT3 and fT4 levels, respectively (Adj.r = .244, P < .05 and Adj.r = .232, P = .002). Sperm concentration and total count were negatively associated with FSH levels and positively, along with progressive motility, with mean testis volume (TV). Mean TV was 20.4 ± 4.0 mL, and the lower reference values for right and left testes were 15.0 and 14.0 mL. Mean TV was negatively associated with gonadotropin levels and pulse pressure. Varicocoele was found in 33% of men. CONCLUSIONS: The cohort studied confirms the WHO data for all semen parameters and represents a reference with which to assess MGT-CDUS normative parameters.

5.
World J Mens Health ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378366

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment and dementia are predicted to undergo a dramatic increase in the following years with more than 131.5 million people being affected by 2030. Although vascular diseases play the most important role in the pathogenesis of memory impairment in aging men, some pre-clinical and clinical evidence has suggested a possible contribution of the age-dependent reduction of testosterone (T). In this paper we have summarized and discussed all the information derived from available animal and experimental studies. In addition, we meta-analyzed data rising from all randomized placebo controlled trials (RCTs) published so far. Only limited preclinical and clinical evidence can support a possible contribution of T in the pathogenesis of the age-dependent impairment of cognitive functions. In addition, our meta-analysis did not support the use of T replacement therapy for the improvement of several cognitive domains analyzed including attention/working memory, executive function, language, verbal memory, visual memory, visuomotor ability, and visuospatial ability. However, it is important to recognize that the vast majority of available RCTs included mixed populations of subjects with eugonadism and hypogonadism preventing any final conclusion being drawn on these issues.

6.
Andrology ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of new severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) due to coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has stressed the importance of effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of clinical worsening and mortality. Epidemiological data showing a differential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on women and men have suggested a potential role for testosterone (T) in determining gender disparity in the SARS-CoV-2 clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association between T level and SARS-CoV-2 clinical outcomes (defined as conditions requiring transfer to higher or lower intensity of care or death) in a cohort of patients admitted in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 31 male patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and recovered in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of the "Carlo Poma" Hospital in Mantua were analyzed. Several biochemical risk factors (ie, blood count and leukocyte formula, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, D-dimer, fibrinogen, interleukin 6 (IL-6)) as well as total testosterone (TT), calculated free T (cFT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined. RESULTS: Lower TT and cFT were found in the transferred to ICU/deceased in RICU group vs groups of patients transferred to IM or maintained in the RICU in stable condition. Both TT and cFT showed a negative significant correlation with biochemical risk factors (ie, the neutrophil count, LDH, and PCT) but a positive association with the lymphocyte count. Likewise, TT was also negatively associated with CRP and ferritin levels. A steep increase in both ICU transfer and mortality risk was observed in men with TT < 5 nmol/L or cFT < 100 pmol/L. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates for the first time that lower baseline levels of TT and cFT levels predict poor prognosis and mortality in SARS-CoV-2-infected men admitted to RICU.

7.
Andrology ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369678

RESUMO

Preliminary published data depict a much greater prevalence of males with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) referred for intensive care unit admission and severe sequelae in several countries. In this context, males seem to not only be more susceptible to the infection compared to female subjects, at least in Western countries, but their case fatality rate attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection is also highest. Therefore, we may speculate that the different hormonal milieu could have a more profound pathophysiological role in association with SARS-CoV-2, with endogenous testosterone leaving men more prone to develop more serious complications related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Another option is that SARS-CoV-2 infection per se causes an acute stage of male hypogonadism, the depletion of androgenic action triggering serious or an even fatal course of the disease. Therefore, we strongly advocate the development of a prospective multidimensional andrological translational research project in men, which we called the PROTEGGIMI study. In this Opinion Article, we will not only highlight novel research activity in this area but also invite other researchers and learned scientific societies to join us in our efforts to understand an important and very newly discovered gap in knowledge, which may have serious implications for the lives of millions of men.

8.
Andrology ; 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testosterone (T) plays a pivotal role in coordinating a series of psychological, cognitive and physical events that might (or might not) culminate in male sexual activity. In fact, T deficiency is associated, in a statistically significant way, with several sexual dysfunctions including erectile dysfunction (ED), reduction of spontaneous erection and hypoactive sexual desire (HSD). Although these associations are statistically significant, there is debate if they are also clinically meaningful. In addition, sexual dysfunctions are present also in several metabolic conditions - such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity - that often associate with low T. In particular, this is the case of ED, but not of HSD, that, therefore, should be considered a more genuine correlate of T deficiency in adulthood and aging (late-onset hypogonadism, LOH). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to scrutinize evidence from our and other studies on sexual effects of T replacement therapy (TRT) in LOH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We will use preclinical and clinical data coming from our and other laboratories and meta-analyses. RESULTS: Intervention studies in clinical trials involving subjects with LOH, and their meta-analyses, indicate that TRT is able to ameliorate HSD, spontaneous erection and ED. However, the relative improvement of ED by TRT is marginal [2-3 points of International Index of Erectile Function-erectile function domain (IIEF-EFD)] and significantly smoothed in subjects with the aforementioned metabolic conditions. In LOH, positive effects of TRT on other domains of sexual activity, such as orgasm and sexual satisfaction, are also apparent in the different meta-analyses. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Hence, TRT is a reasonable treatment for restoring sexual drive in LOH, with some additional positive effects also on erection (spontaneous and sexual-related) and on orgasm. In contrast, preclinical and clinical studies indicate that T administration to eugonadal subjects does not improve male sexual activity.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204531

RESUMO

The complex process of sexual differentiation is known to be influenced by biological and environmental determinants. The present review has the aim of summarizing the most relevant studies on the biological basis of sexual development, and in particular, it focuses on the impact of sex hormones and genetic background on the development of sexual differentiation and gender identity. The authors conducted a search of published studies on Medline (from January 1948 to December 2019). The evidence suggests that the sexual dimorphic brain could be the anatomical substrate of psychosexual development, on which gonadal hormones may have a shaping role during prenatal and pubertal periods. Additionally, according to several heritability studies, genetic components may have a role, but a promising candidate gene has not been identified. Even though growing evidence underlines the primary role of biological factors on psychosexual development, further studies are necessary to better explain their complex interactions.

10.
J Endocrinol ; 245(2): 259-279, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134722

RESUMO

Lifestyle modifications, including physical exercise (PhyEx), are well-known treatments for metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors often associated to hypogonadism. Given the trophic role of testosterone on skeletal muscle (SkM), this study was aimed at evaluating the effects of testosterone treatment on SkM metabolism and exercise performance in male rabbits with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS. HFD rabbits, treated or not with testosterone (30 mg/kg/week) for 12 weeks, were compared to regular diet animals (RD). A subset of each group was exercise-trained for 12 weeks. HFD increased type-II (fast, glycolytic) and decreased type-I (slow, oxidative) muscle fibers compared to RD as evaluated by RT-PCR and histochemistry. Testosterone reverted these effects, also inducing the expression of mitochondrial respiration enzymes and normalizing HFD-induced mitochondrial cristae reduction. Moreover, testosterone significantly increased the expression of myogenic/differentiation markers and genes related to glucidic/lipid metabolism. At the end of the PhyEx protocol, when compared to RD, HFD rabbits showed a significant reduction of running distance and running time, while testosterone counteracted this effect, also decreasing lactate production. In the trained groups, muscle histology showed a significant reduction of oxidative fibers in HFD compared to RD and the positive effect of testosterone in maintaining oxidative metabolism, as also demonstrated by analyzing mitochondrial ultrastructure, succinate dehydrogenase activity and ATP production. Our results indicate that testosterone could be useful to promote oxidative muscle metabolism altered by MetS, thus improving exercise performance. Conversely, testosterone administration to otherwise eugonadal rabbits (RD) only increased muscle fiber diameter but not endurance performance.

11.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 44(3): 1006-1013, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmen are individuals who live a marked incongruence between the assigned gender and the experienced gender. Crucial and life-changing steps in their transition are testosterone treatment and mastectomy to remove the stigma of feminine identity. After surgery, patients' attention turns to the scars, often not aesthetically pleasant. We thus created an innovative galenic preparation for scar treatment after surgery composed by spironolactone, alfa bisabolol and silicone gel. Functional outcomes, side effects and satisfaction were assessed. METHODS: For the present prospective randomized controlled study, 30 patients with similar demographic characteristics who underwent double incision mastectomy with NA grafts between February 2014 and June 2019 were selected. The treatment Group A (n = 15) was treated for 12 months with "Top Surgery Scar go," the control Group B (n = 15) with silicon gel. Statistical analysis including Wilcoxon test and Kruskal-Wallis test per variable was performed. To assess satisfaction, a second Wilcoxon test was applied. RESULTS: The differences between Group A and Group B were statistically significant, especially at T12 with very low p values. Satisfaction was greater in Group A (p value = 3e-4). No major side effects were noticed in Group A. CONCLUSIONS: TSSgo scar innovative treatment showed long-term efficacy in comparison with silicon gel in terms of improved scar tissue texture, pigmentation, pliability and height. It is easy to set up, cost-effective and safe. Further studies are necessary to better assess efficacy and validity of TSSgo, but it appears to be promising as the new treatment of reference for scar management after top surgery in transmen. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

12.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 32(3): e12837, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077170

RESUMO

It has been well established, particularly in animal models, that oestrogens exert neuroprotective effects in brain areas linked to cognitive processes. A key protective role could reside in the capacity of oestrogen to modulate the inflammatory response. However, the direct neuroprotective actions of oestrogens on neurones are complex and remain to be fully clarified. In the present study, we took advantage of a previously characterised primary culture of human cholinergic neurones (hfNBM) from the foetal nucleus basalis of Meynert, which is known to regulate hippocampal and neocortical learning and memory circuits, aiming to investigate the direct effects of oestrogens under inflammatory conditions. Exposure of cells to tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α (10 ng mL-1 ) determined the activation of an inflammatory response, as demonstrated by nuclear factor-kappa B p65 nuclear translocation and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression. These effects were inhibited by treatment with either 17ß-oestradiol (E2 ) (10 nmol L-1 ) or G1 (100 nmol L-1 ), the selective agonist of the G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor (GPER1). Interestingly, the GPER1 antagonist G15 abolished the effects of E2 in TNFα-treated cells, whereas the ERα/ERß inhibitor tamoxifen did not. Electrophysiological measurements in hfNBMs revealed a depolarising effect caused by E2 that was specifically blocked by tamoxifen and not by G15. Conversely, G1 specifically hyperpolarised the cell membrane and also increased both inward and outward currents elicited by a depolarising stimulus, suggesting a modulatory action on hfNBM excitability by GPER1 activation. Interestingly, pretreating cells with TNFα completely blocked the effects of G1 on membrane properties and also significantly reduced GPER1 mRNA expression. In addition, we found a peculiar subcellular localisation of GPER1 to focal adhesion sites that implicates new possible mechanisms of action of GPER1 in the neuronal perception of mechanical stimuli. The results obtained in the present study indicate a modulatory functional role of GPER1 with respect to mediating the oestrogen neuroprotective effect against inflammation in brain cholinergic neurones and, accordingly, may help to identify protective strategies for preventing cognitive impairments.

13.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 115: 104606, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087523

RESUMO

It is still unclear whether Testosterone (T) increases sexual desire through a stimulation of the androgen receptor in relevant brain regions or through its conversion to estrogens. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms of T facilitation of female sexual desire by assessing the effect of a non-aromatizable androgen (Dihydrotestosterone, DHT) in a validated animal model. Ovariectomized (OVX) Long-Evans rats were treated with oil (O) + O, 10 mcg Estradiol Benzoate (EB) + O, 10 mcg EB + 500 mcg Progesterone (P), O + 500 mcg DHT or 10 mcg EB + 500 mcg DHT (n = 12 per group). EB was administered 48 h, while P and DHT 4 h, prior to 4 sexual behavioral testing sessions in bisected unilevel pacing chambers. Appetitive behaviors (the frequencies of hops/darts and solicitations) were considered as the main outcome measure. Sexual receptivity indexes [lordosis magnitude, expressed as lordosis rating (LR), and lordosis quotient (LQ)], rejection responses, as well as mounts, intromissions and ejaculations received from the male were also coded. The probability of transition among sexual behaviors was evaluated by Transition Matrices; T-Pattern analysis was performed to detect hidden repeated temporal behavioral sequences. Preliminary analyses found no statistically significant differences between the O + O and EB + O groups, therefore we excluded the EB + O group from further analyses. Rats treated with EB + DHT displayed significantly more appetitive behaviors compared to negative controls (O + O and O + DHT), whereas no difference was observed between EB + DHT rats and positive controls (EB + P); noteworthy, a higher number of appetitive behaviors was observed in the O + DHT group compared to the O + O group. Furthermore, rats treated with EB + DHT showed significantly higher receptivity measures (LR and LQ) and received more mounts, intromissions and ejaculations compared to negative controls (O + O and O + DHT), to levels equivalent to EB + P. No differences were detected in female-male mounts or rejection responses among the 4 groups. Under a qualitative perspective, full solicitation was found exclusively in T-patterns of the EB + DHT group, which was also the only one to display T-patterns of higher order encompassing appetitive behaviors-only events. In conclusion, the administration of DHT in EB-primed OVX Long-Evans rats enhances sexual behavior measures. Specifically, DHT seems to stimulate sequences of appetitive behaviors separated from copulative/reproductive measures. Our data support an independent role of androgens in the facilitation of female sexual desire.

14.
J Sex Med ; 17(3): 447-460, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928918

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of testosterone (T) replacement therapy (TRT) in men is still conflicting. In particular, safety concerns and cardiovascular (CV) risk related to TRT have not been completely clarified yet. Similarly, the clear beneficial effects of TRT are far to be established. AIM: To systematically and critically analyze the available literature providing evidence of the benefit-risk ratio derived from TRT in aging men. METHODS: A comprehensive PubMed literature search was performed to collect all trials, either randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies, evaluating the effects of TRT on different outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Whenever possible, data derived from RCTs were compared with those resulting from observational studies. In addition, a discussion of the available meta-analyses has been also provided. RESULTS: Data derived from RCT and observational studies clearly documented that TRT can improve erectile function and libido as well as other sexual activities in men with hypogonadism (total T < 12 nM). Conversely, the effect of TRT on other outcomes, including metabolic, mood, cognition, mobility, and bone, is more conflicting. When hypogonadism is correctly diagnosed and managed, no CV venous thromboembolism or prostate risk is observed. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Before prescribing TRT, hypogonadism (total T < 12 nM) must be confirmed through an adequate biochemical evaluation. Potential contraindications should be ruled out, and an adequate follow-up after the prescription is mandatory. STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: When correctly diagnosed and administered, TRT is safe, and it can improve several aspects of sexual function. However, its role in complicated vasculogenic erectile dysfunction is limited. Conversely, TRT is not recommended for weight reduction and metabolic improvement. Further well-powered studies are advisable to better clarify TRT for long-term CV risk and prostate safety in complicated patients as well as in those curatively treated for prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: TRT results in sexual function improvement when men with hypogonadism (total T < 12 nM) are considered. Positive data in other outcomes need to be confirmed. Corona G, Torres LO, Maggi M. Testosterone Therapy: What We Have Learned From Trials. J Sex Med 2020;17:447-460.

15.
Andrology ; 8(3): 671-679, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the well-known influence of psychological and situational factors on erectile dysfunction, the influence of the physician's gender on the andrological workup has never been investigated so far. OBJECTIVES: To investigate physician's gender influence on the erectile dysfunction diagnostic workup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection. We evaluate a consecutive series of erectile dysfunction patients: 95 at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE) and 1808 at the University of Florence (UNIFI). In the UNIMORE cohort (Cohort 1), intracavernousal injection test was performed in case of suspected vascular pathogenic component. In the UNIFI cohort (Cohort 2), patients were evaluated by structured interview on erectile dysfunction and ANDROTEST. Both cohorts were divided into two groups according to the gender of the physician who performed the intracavernousal injection test or the structured interview. RESULTS: In Cohort 1, patients who had the intracavernousal injection test performed by a female physician had a significantly higher probability of obtaining a better intracavernousal injection test response. In Cohort 2, patients interviewed by female physician more frequently reported to have a conflictual couple relationship and a reduced frequency of climax in their partners. However, they reported less difficulties in achieving and maintaining erection, higher frequency of autoeroticism, lower occurrence of erectile dysfunction during masturbation and lower impairment in morning erections. CONCLUSIONS: Physician's gender affects the results obtained during the erectile dysfunction diagnostic workup. Men interviewed by a female physician describe a less severe erectile dysfunction probably as attempt to defend their own virility. On the other hand, the presence of a male physician during intracavernousal injection test is associated to a worse response suggesting a possible unconscious competition.

16.
Minerva Urol Nefrol ; 72(2): 135-143, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920062

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prostate specific antigen and Prostate specific antigen-density are used for the initial evaluation of patient with LUTS due to benign prostatic enlargement in order to discriminate between benign conditions and prostate cancer. Conversely, the role of these markers during the follow up of benign prostatic enlargement patients is still unclear. The aim of our study is to evaluate the role of prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen density as outcome parameter for both medical and surgical treatment in patients with male LUTS. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis based on data from clinical trials evaluating the clinical effect of medical or surgical therapy on LUTS/benign prostatic enlargement. Meta-regression analyses were done to evaluate the effects of several factors on IPSS score improvement. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We selected 12 studies out of 433, including data on 1959 patients. Both medical and surgical treatment lead to a significant reduction of PSA levels as compared to baseline (P<0.001). However, after medical treatment, lower PSA values are associated with more significant improvements in lower urinary tract symptoms as measured with the IPSS, while after surgery (P<0.05), the recovery of urinary function does not correlate with the decline in PSA values (P=0.59). After medical treatment, the improvement in LUTS correlate with a decline of PSAD, while the opposite holds true in men treated with surgery (both: P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PSAD may represent an objective treatment outcome parameter and should be evaluated during the follow up of men treated for LUTS due to BPE as marker of treatment response.

18.
Urologia ; 87(1): 23-28, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441379

RESUMO

Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors represent the standard treatment of erectile dysfunction after nerve-sparing prostatectomy. Avanafil is a second-generation phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor with a high selectivity for phosphodiesterase type 5 isoform. To date, there are no studies comparing the outcomes of avanafil versus sildenafil in this scenario. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of avanafil versus sildenafil as a drug for post-prostatectomy rehabilitation. Overall, 160 patients submitted to robot-assisted nerve-sparing prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer at three hospitals were enrolled for the present study. After 6 months of treatment, patients in the two groups showed no significantly different sexual function scores, except for the Erection Hardness Score and Sexual Encounter Profile-Q2 that were higher in the Sildenafil group. Adverse events in the Avanafil group occurred in four (5%) patients and in 16 (20%) patients in the Sildenafil group. According to our experience, in patients undergoing nerve-sparing prostatectomy, penile rehabilitation with avanafil compared to sildenafil showed a lower ability to produce a valid erection in the initial phase of sexual intercourse, a difference that disappears in the continuation of the same. Avanafil showed a greater tolerance profile with a lower rate of AEs and discontinuation of therapy due to AEs.

19.
Int J Impot Res ; 32(2): 239-247, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263248

RESUMO

The effect of nomegestrol acetate/estradiol (NOMAC/E2) on clitoral and uterine vascularization has never been evaluated. We aimed to investigate, in women consulting for contraceptive needs, the possible changes in clitoral and uterine arteries hemodynamic parameters after 6 months treatment with NOMAC/E2 as compared with other hormonal contraceptives (HCs). In this observational, prospective pilot study, ten women were enrolled. Color Doppler ultrasound was performed on the clitoral and uterine arteries at baseline and after 6 months treatment with NOMAC/E2 (n = 5) or other HCs (n = 5). NOMAC/E2 did not exert any significant effect on clitoral vascular resistance expressed by the pulsatility index (PI); conversely, treatment with other HCs significantly increased this parameter (p = 0.04). The change in clitoral PI between the two groups retained a statistically significant difference even after adjusting for age. In the NOMAC/E2 group, at follow-up, uterine artery PI and acceleration were significantly reduced (p = 0.04), whereas no significant differences were observed in the HCs group; however, the change in uterine artery parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups. NOMAC/E2, differently from other COCs, does not negatively alter the vascular resistance of clitoral arteries and appears as a good contraceptive choice to protect both cardiovascular and sexual health.

20.
Asian J Androl ; 22(3): 265-273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249270

RESUMO

Low testosterone (T) is frequent in men with chronic illnesses. The clinical features of T deficiency (TD) overlap with those of chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relative contribution of chronic disease score (CDS) and low T to the presence of TD symptoms. A consecutive series of 3862 men (aged 52.1 ± 13.1 years) consulting for sexual dysfunction were studied. Several clinical and biochemical parameters were collected, including the structured interview, ANDROTEST, for the assessment of TD symptoms. Penile color Doppler ultrasound (PCDU) was also performed. Based on the medications taken, the CDS was calculated. For a subset of 1687 men, information on mortality was collected (follow-up of 4.3 ± 2.6 years). Higher CDS was associated with lower free and total T (TT) as well as with higher ANDROTEST score. When introducing CDS and TT in multivariable models adjusted for age, severe erectile dysfunction and impaired morning erections were associated with both CDS (odds ratio and 95% confidence interaval, OR [95% CI] = 1.25 [1.13; 1.37] and 1.38 [1.29; 1.48], respectively) and low TT (OR [95% CI] = 1.11 [1.00; 1.23] and 1.13 [1.06; 1.21], respectively). Similar results were obtained for PCDU parameters. Hypoactive sexual desire was associated with low TT (OR [95% CI] = 1.21 [1.13; 1.30]), whereas it was inversely related with CDS (OR [95% CI] = 0.91 [0.84; 0.97]). When considering mortality for major cardiovascular events, TT <8 nmol l-1, but not CDS, was a significant predictor (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 5.57 [1.51; 20.63]). Chronic illnesses are associated with an overt TD. Both chronic diseases and low T can be involved in determining symptoms present in subjects complaining for sexual dysfunction. This should be considered in the diagnostic workup for TD.

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