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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417664

RESUMO

AIMS : Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is recommended in the diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, but it is time-consuming, expensive, and limited in availability in some European regions. The aim of this study was to determine the use of CMR in cardiomyopathy patients enrolled into the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) cardiomyopathy registry [part of the EURObservational Research Programme (EORP)]. METHODS AND RESULTS : Three thousand, two hundred, and eight consecutive adult patients (34.6% female; median age: 53.0 ± 15 years) with cardiomyopathy were studied: 1260 with dilated (DCM), 1739 with hypertrophic (HCM), 66 with restrictive (RCM), and 143 with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). CMR scans were performed at baseline in only 29.4% of patients. CMR utilization was variable according to cardiomyopathy subtypes: from 51.1% in ARVC to 36.4% in RCM, 33.8% in HCM, and 20.6% in DCM (P < 0.001). CMR use in tertiary referral centres located in different European countries varied from 1% to 63.2%. Patients undergoing CMR were younger, less symptomatic, less frequently had implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)/pacemaker implanted, had fewer cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities (P < 0.001). In 28.6% of patients, CMR was used along with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE); 67.6% patients underwent TTE alone, and 0.9% only CMR. CONCLUSION : Less than one-third of patients enrolled in the registry underwent CMR and the use varied greatly between cardiomyopathy subtypes, clinical profiles of patients, and European tertiary referral centres. This gap with current guidelines needs to be considered carefully by scientific societies to promote wider availability and use of CMR in patients with cardiomyopathies.

5.
Card Fail Rev ; 6: e28, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133642

RESUMO

The recent definition of an intermediate clinical phenotype of heart failure (HF) based on an ejection fraction (EF) of between 40% and 49%, namely HF with mid-range EF (HFmrEF), has fuelled investigations into the clinical profile and prognosis of this patient group. HFmrEF shares common clinical features with other HF phenotypes, such as a high prevalence of ischaemic aetiology, as in HF with reduced EF (HFrEF), or hypertension and diabetes, as in HF with preserved EF (HFpEF), and benefits from the cornerstone drugs indicated for HFrEF. Among the HF phenotypes, HFmrEF is characterised by the highest rate of transition to either recovery or worsening of the severe systolic dysfunction profile that is the target of disease-modifying therapies, with opposite prognostic implications. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and therapeutic approaches for HFmrEF, and discusses the major determinants of transition to HFpEF or HFrEF.

6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179448

RESUMO

AIMS: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a complex disease where genetics interplay with extrinsic factors. This study aims to compare the phenotype, management, and outcome of familial DCM (FDCM) and non-familial (sporadic) DCM (SDCM) across Europe. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with DCM that were enrolled in the prospective ESC EORP Cardiomyopathy & Myocarditis Registry were included. Baseline characteristics, genetic testing, genetic yield, and outcome were analysed comparing FDCM and SDCM; 1260 adult patients were studied (238 FDCM, 707 SDCM, and 315 not disclosed). Patients with FDCM were younger (P < 0.01), had less severe disease phenotype at presentation (P < 0.02), more favourable baseline cardiovascular risk profiles (P ≤ 0.007), and less medication use (P ≤ 0.042). Outcome at 1 year was similar and predicted by NYHA class (HR 0.45; 95% CI [0.25-0.81]) and LVEF per % decrease (HR 1.05; 95% CI [1.02-1.08]. Throughout Europe, patients with FDCM received more genetic testing (47% vs. 8%, P < 0.01) and had higher genetic yield (55% vs. 22%, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that FDCM and SDCM have significant differences at baseline but similar short-term prognosis. Whether modification of associated cardiovascular risk factors provide opportunities for treatment remains to be investigated. Our results also show a prevalent role of genetics in FDCM and a non-marginal yield in SDCM although genetic testing is largely neglected in SDCM. Limited genetic testing and heterogeneity in panels provides a scaffold for improvement of guideline adherence.

7.
Europace ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141150

RESUMO

AIMS : The aim of the study was to investigate differences in clinical outcomes and complication rates among European atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation centres related to the volume of AF ablations performed. METHODS AND RESULTS : Data for this analysis were extracted from the ESC EHRA EORP European AF Ablation Long-Term Study Registry. Based on 33rd and 67th percentiles of number of AF ablations performed, the participating centres were classified into high volume (HV) (≥ 180 procedures/year), medium volume (MV) (<180 and ≥74/year), and low volume (LV) (<74/year). A total of 91 centres in 26 European countries enrolled in 3368 patients. There was a significantly higher reporting of cardiovascular complications and stroke incidence in LV centres compared with HV and MV (P = 0.039 and 0.008, respectively) and a lower success rate after AF ablation (55.3% in HV vs. 57.2% in LV vs. 67.4% in MV centres, P < 0.001), despite lower CHA2DS2-VASc score of patients, enrolled in LVs and less complex ablation techniques used. Adjustments of confounding factors (including type of AF ablation) led to elimination of these differences. CONCLUSION : Low-volume centres tended to present slightly higher cardiovascular complications' and stroke incidence and a lower unadjusted success rate after AF ablation, despite the fact that ablation procedures and patients were of lower risk compared with MV and HV centres. On the other hand, adjusted overall complication and recurrence rates were non-significantly different among different volume centres, a fact reflecting the heterogeneity of patient and procedural profiles, and a counterbalance between expertise and risk level among participating centres.

9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 175, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between blood pressure and mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is controversial, with concern for increased risk associated with excessively lowered blood pressure. METHODS: We evaluated whether prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) altered the relationship between baseline blood pressure and all-cause mortality in 5852 patients with T2DM and a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who participated in the ELIXA (Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial. Risk of death was assessed in Cox models adjusted for age, sex, race, heart rate, BMI, smoking, diabetes duration, insulin use, HbA1c, eGFR, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), urine albumin/creatinine ratio, treatment allocation and prior coronary revascularization. RESULTS: Although overall there was no significant association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality (hazard ratio per 10 mmHg lower SBP 1.05 (95% CI 0.99-1.12) P = 0.10), lower SBP was significantly associated with higher risk of death (hazard ratio per 10 mmHg lower SBP 1.13 (95% CI 1.04-1.22) P = 0.002) in 2325 patients with additional CVD (index ACS+ at least one of the following prior to randomization: myocardial infarction other than the index ACS, stroke or heart failure). In 3527 patients with only the index ACS no significant association was observed (hazard ratio per 10 mmHg lower SBP 0.95 (0.86-1.04) P = 0.26; P for interaction 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The association between blood pressure and mortality was modified by additional CVD history in patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent coronary event. When blood pressures measured after an acute coronary event are used to assess the risk of death in patients with type 2 diabetes, the cardiovascular history needs to be taken into consideration. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01147250, first posted June 22, 2010.

10.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(11): 905-906, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077999
11.
Recenti Prog Med ; 111(10): 571-576, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078006

RESUMO

The target populations for new drugs, in particular when these are labelled for the treatment of chronic diseases, are a central point of health planning as regulatory agencies make their decisions on pharmacoeconomic analyses performed on real-world data, health institutions have the need to plan care pathways starting from the identification of subjects requiring a specific care process and research has recognized real world evidence (RWE) studies as a complementary approach to clinical trials. On the topic of target populations for new drugs for chronic diseases, the first working group of the MaCroScopio project (observatory on chronic diseases) was launched, in which various stakeholders participated, whose reflections have been collected in this consensus document. Starting from the entry of RWE into national and international regulatory procedures, as a strategy for identifying target populations, the document describes the advantages and limitations of administrative health databases as a data source to achieve this goal. In the document is highlighted the need to adapt the identifying algorithms according to the aim to be achieved: exploratory aim, economic/organizational scope, planning/evaluation purpose in order to set up the health policy in relation to the positioning of a new drug in a given care path. Finally, the article points out the main methodological challenges that all those interested in this topic are called to face: the complementarity between RWE and randomized controlled clinical trials, the need to measure and evaluate the complexity and variability of clinical reality, as well as the opportunity to carry out validation studies of the identification algorithms of the target populations. The resulting consensus document, therefore, intends to lay the foundations for the application of the epidemiological methodology and the use of its results in the area of planning/evaluation of care interventions, in order to identify their effectiveness, quality and sustainability.

12.
Heart ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy in women with aortic coarctation (CoA) has an estimated moderately increased risk (mWHO II-III) of adverse cardiovascular, obstetric or fetal events, but prospective data to validate this risk classification are scarce. We examined pregnancy outcomes and identified associations with adverse outcomes. METHODS: Pregnancies in women with CoA were selected from the worldwide prospective Registry of Pregnancy and Cardiac Disease (ROPAC, n=303 out of 5739), part of the European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme. The frequency of and associations with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and hypertensive disorders (pregnancy-induced hypertension, (pre-)eclampsia or haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome) were analysed. RESULTS: Of 303 pregnancies (mean age 30 years, pregnancy duration 39 weeks), 9.6% involved unrepaired CoA and 27.1% were in women with pre-existing hypertension. No maternal deaths or aortic dissections occurred. MACE occurred in 13 pregnancies (4.3%), of which 10 cases were of heart failure (3.3%). Univariable associations with MACE included prepregnancy clinical signs of heart failure (OR 31.8, 95% CI 6.8 to 147.7), left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (OR 10.4, 95% CI 1.8 to 59.5), New York Heart Association class >1 (OR 11.4, 95% CI 3.6 to 36.3) and cardiac medication use (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 18.3). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy occurred in 16 (5.3%), cardiac medication use being their only predictor (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.6). Premature births were 9.1%, caesarean section was performed in 49.7% of pregnancies. Of 4 neonatal deaths, 3 were after spontaneous extreme preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: The ROPAC data show low MACE and hypertensive disorder rates during pregnancy in women with CoA, suggesting pregnancy to be more safe and better tolerated than previously appreciated.

13.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940421

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders that increase the risk for atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of AF, anticoagulation management, and risk of stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in patients with cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three thousand two hundred eight consecutive adult patients with cardiomyopathy (34.9% female; median age: 55.0 years) were prospectively enrolled as part of the EURObservational Research Programme Cardiomyopathy/Myocarditis Registry. At baseline, 903 (28.2%) patients had AF (29.4% dilated, 27.5% hypertrophic, 51.5% restrictive, and 14.7% arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, P < 0.001). AF was associated with more advanced New York Heart Association class (P < 0.001), increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and co-morbidities, and a history of stroke/TIA (P < 0.001). Oral anticoagulation was administered in 71.7% of patients with AF (vitamin K antagonist: 51.6%; direct oral anticoagulant: 20.1%). At 1 year follow-up, the incidence of cardiovascular endpoints was as follows: stroke/TIA 1.85% (AF vs. non-AF: 3.17% vs. 1.19%, P < 0.001), death from any cause 3.43% (AF vs. non-AF: 5.39% vs. 2.50%, P < 0.001), and death from heart failure 1.67% (AF vs. non-AF: 2.44% vs. 1.31%, P = 0.033). The independent predictors for stroke/TIA were as follows: AF [odds ratio (OR) 2.812, P = 0.005], history of stroke (OR 7.311, P = 0.010), and anaemia (OR 3.119, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals a high prevalence and diverse distribution of AF in patients with cardiomyopathies, inadequate anticoagulation regimen, and high risk of stroke/TIA in this population.

14.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2901-2909, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Covert brain infarcts are associated with cognitive decline. It is not known whether therapies that prevent symptomatic stroke prevent covert infarcts. COMPASS compared rivaroxaban with and without aspirin with aspirin for the prevention of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death in participants with stable vascular disease and was terminated early because of benefits of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin over aspirin. We obtained serial magnetic resonance imagings and cognitive tests in a consenting subgroup of COMPASS patients to examine treatment effects on infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imagings were completed in 1445 participants with a mean (SD) interval of 2.0 (0.7) years. Whole-brain T1, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, T2* sequences were centrally interpreted by blinded, trained readers. Participants had serial measurements of cognition and function. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with incident covert infarcts. Secondary end points were the composite of clinical stroke and covert brain infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. RESULTS: At baseline, 493 (34.1%) participants had infarcts. Incident covert infarcts occurred in 55 (3.8%) participants. In the overall trial rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced ischemic stroke by 49% (0.7% versus 1.4%; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.51 [0.38-0.68]). In the magnetic resonance imaging substudy the effects of rivaroxaban+aspirin versus aspirin were: covert infarcts: 2.7% versus 3.5% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.77 [0.37-1.60]); Covert infarcts or ischemic stroke: 2.9% versus 5.3% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.53 [0.27-1.03]). Incident microbleeds occurred in 6.6% of participants and 65.7% of participants had an increase in white matter hyperintensities volume with no effect of treatment for either end point. There was no effect on cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: Covert infarcts were not significantly reduced by treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin but estimates for the combination of ischemic stroke and covert infarcts were consistent with the effect on ischemic stroke in the overall trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Infarto Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Infarto Encefálico/complicações , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 3013-3021, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767651

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiomyopathies comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases, often of genetic origin. We assessed the current practice of genetic counselling and testing in the prospective European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme Cardiomyopathy Registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3208 adult patients from 69 centres in 18 countries were enrolled. Genetic counselling was performed in 60.8% of all patients [75.4% in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 39.2% in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 70.8% in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and 49.2% in restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), P < 0.001]. Comparing European geographical areas, genetic counselling was performed from 42.4% to 83.3% (P < 0.001). It was provided by a cardiologist (85.3%), geneticist (15.1%), genetic counsellor (11.3%), or a nurse (7.5%) (P < 0.001). Genetic testing was performed in 37.3% of all patients (48.8% in HCM, 18.6% in DCM, 55.6% in ARVC, and 43.6% in RCM, P < 0.001). Index patients with genetic testing were younger at diagnosis and had more familial disease, family history of sudden cardiac death, or implanted cardioverter defibrillators but less co-morbidities than those not tested (P < 0.001 for each comparison). At least one disease-causing variant was found in 41.7% of index patients with genetic testing (43.3% in HCM, 33.3% in DCM, 51.4% in ARVC, and 42.9% in RCM, P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed report on the real-life practice of genetic counselling and testing in cardiomyopathies in Europe. Genetic counselling and testing were performed in a substantial proportion of patients but less often than recommended by European guidelines and much less in DCM than in HCM and ARVC, despite evidence for genetic background.

16.
Eur. j. prev. cardiol ; 27(3): 1-12, Ago. 2020. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1050001

RESUMO

Abstract Aims: Secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease involves antithrombotic therapy and optimal control of cardiovascular risk factors. In the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) study, adding low-dose rivaroxaban on top of aspirin lowered cardiovascular events, but there is limited data about risk factor control in secondary prevention. We studied the association between risk factor status and outcomes, and the impact of risk factor status on the treatment effect of rivaroxaban, in a large contemporary population of patients with coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. Methods and results: We reported ischemic events (cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction) in participants from the randomized, double-blind COMPASS study by individual risk factor (blood pressure, smoking status, cholesterol level, presence of diabetes, body mass index, and level of physical activity), and by number of risk factors. We compared rates and hazard ratios of patients treated with rivaroxaban plus aspirin vs aspirin alone within each risk factor category and tested for interaction between risk factor status and antithrombotic regimen. Complete baseline risk factor status was available in 27,117 (99%) patients. Status and number of risk factors were both associated with increased risk of ischemic events. Rates of ischemic events (hazard ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.8­2.6) and cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 2.0; 1.5­2.7) were more than twofold higher in patients with 4­6 compared with 0­1 risk factors (p<0.0001 for both). Rivaroxaban reduced event rates independently of the number of risk factors (p interaction 0.93), with the largest absolute benefit in patients with the highest number of risk factors. Conclusion: More favorable risk factor status and low-dose rivaroxaban were independently associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. (AU)


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Prevenção Secundária
17.
Eur Heart J ; 41(42): 4092-4099, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860034

RESUMO

AIMS: The COLchicine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (COLCOT) demonstrated the benefits of targeting inflammation after myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to determine whether time-to-treatment initiation (TTI) influences the beneficial impact of colchicine. METHODS AND RESULTS: In COLCOT, patients were randomly assigned to receive colchicine or placebo within 30 days post-MI. Time-to-treatment initiation was defined as the length of time between the index MI and the initiation of study medication. The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, MI, stroke, or urgent hospitalization for angina requiring coronary revascularization. The relationship between endpoints and various TTI (<3, 4-7 and >8 days) was examined using multivariable Cox regression models. Amongst the 4661 patients included in this analysis, there were 1193, 720, and 2748 patients, respectively, in the three TTI strata. After a median follow-up of 22.7 months, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of the primary endpoint for patients in whom colchicine was initiated < Day 3 compared with placebo [hazard ratios (HR) = 0.52, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.32-0.84], in contrast to patients in whom colchicine was initiated between Days 4 and 7 (HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.53-1.75) or > Day 8 (HR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.61-1.11). The beneficial effects of early initiation of colchicine were also demonstrated for urgent hospitalization for angina requiring revascularization (HR = 0.35), all coronary revascularization (HR = 0.63), and the composite of cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, MI, or stroke (HR = 0.55, all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients benefit from early, in-hospital initiation of colchicine after MI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COLCOT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02551094.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 41(39): 3787-3797, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840318

RESUMO

AIMS : We sought to describe the clinical presentation, management, and 6-month outcomes in women with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) globally. METHODS AND RESULTS : In 2011, >100 national and affiliated member cardiac societies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) were contacted to contribute to a global registry on PPCM, under the auspices of the ESC EURObservational Research Programme. These societies were tasked with identifying centres who could participate in this registry. In low-income countries, e.g. Mozambique or Burkina Faso, where there are no national societies due to a shortage of cardiologists, we identified potential participants through abstracts and publications and encouraged participation into the study. Seven hundred and thirty-nine women were enrolled in 49 countries in Europe (33%), Africa (29%), Asia-Pacific (15%), and the Middle East (22%). Mean age was 31 ± 6 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 31 ± 10%, and 10% had a previous pregnancy complicated by PPCM. Symptom-onset occurred most often within 1 month of delivery (44%). At diagnosis, 67% of patients had severe (NYHA III/IV) symptoms and 67% had a LVEF ≤35%. Fifteen percent received bromocriptine with significant regional variation (Europe 15%, Africa 26%, Asia-Pacific 8%, the Middle East 4%, P < 0.001). Follow-up was available for 598 (81%) women. Six-month mortality was 6% overall, lowest in Europe (4%), and highest in the Middle East (10%). Most deaths were due to heart failure (42%) or sudden (30%). Re-admission for any reason occurred in 10% (with just over half of these for heart failure) and thromboembolic events in 7%. Myocardial recovery (LVEF > 50%) occurred only in 46%, most commonly in Asia-Pacific (62%), and least commonly in the Middle East (25%). Neonatal death occurred in 5% with marked regional variation (Europe 2%, the Middle East 9%). CONCLUSION : Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a global disease, but clinical presentation and outcomes vary by region. Just under half of women experience myocardial recovery. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a disease with substantial maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.

19.
Atherosclerosis ; 308: 32-38, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) since birth are linked to the early onset of atherosclerotic disease. A genetic mutation determining FH is present in about one subject out of 250; FH should be more represented among subjects with a documented diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The POSTER Study evaluated the prevalence of FH in Italian patients with a recent CAD event. METHODS: Eighty-two cardiology centres enrolled patients with a documented CAD event; CV risk profile, drug therapy and biochemical parameters were collected. Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria were used to define patients with a potential FH diagnosis (score ≥6); these patients underwent molecular testing for genetic diagnosis of FH. RESULTS: Overall, 5415 patients were enrolled and the main index events were myocardial infarction with ST-elevation, non ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS), or a recent coronary revascularization (34.8%, 37.2%, and 28% respectively). Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, men were 78%; about 40% were already treated with statins, proportion that increased after the acute event (96.5%). Based on the DLCN score, the prevalence of potential FH was 5.1%, 0.9% of them had a diagnosis of definite FH (score >8). These patients were younger than patients with a score <6 (56 ± 10 vs 66 ± 11, p < 0.001), and LDL-C levels were in most of them (~87%) >190 mg/dL. FH was genetically confirmed in 42 subjects (15.9%); genetic diagnosis was defined as not conclusive for FH in 63 patients (23.9%). Finally, in 159 subjects (60.2%) no pathogenic mutations in the tested genes were identified, defining them as negative for monogenic familial hypercholesterolemia. CONCLUSIONS: Results underscore a relatively high prevalence of potential FH in patients with a recent CAD event. Therefore, an early identification of these subjects may help improve the management of their high CV risk and, by cascade screening, identify possible FH relatives.

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