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1.
Brain Sci ; 11(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668815

RESUMO

Neuroaesthetics, the science studying the biological underpinnings of aesthetic experience, recently extended its area of investigation to literary art; this was the humus where neurocognitive poetics blossomed. Divina Commedia represents one of the most important, famous and studied poems worldwide. Poetry stimuli are characterized by elements (meter and rhyme) promoting the processing fluency, a core aspect of neuroaesthetics theories. In addition, given the evidence of different neurophysiological reactions between experts and non-experts in response to artistic stimuli, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in poetry, a different neurophysiological cognitive and emotional reaction between Literature (L) and Non-Literature (NL) students. A further aim was to investigate whether neurophysiological underpinnings would support explanation of behavioral data. Investigation methods employed: self-report assessments (recognition, appreciation, content recall) and neurophysiological indexes (approach/withdrawal (AW), cerebral effort (CE) and galvanic skin response (GSR)). The main behavioral results, according to fluency theories in aesthetics, suggested in the NL but not in the L group that the appreciation/liking went hand by hand with the self-declared recognition and with the content recall. The main neurophysiological results were: (i) higher galvanic skin response in NL, whilst higher CE values in L; (ii) a positive correlation between AW and CE indexes in both groups. The present results extended previous evidence relative to figurative art also to auditory poetry stimuli, suggesting an emotional attenuation "expertise-specific" showed by experts, but increased cognitive processing in response to the stimuli.

2.
Hear Res ; 379: 31-42, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042607

RESUMO

Unilateral hearing loss constitutes a field of growing interest in the scientific community. In fact, this kind of patients represent a unique and physiological way to investigate how neuroplasticity overcame unilateral deafferentation by implementing particular strategies that produce apparently next- to- normal hearing behavioural performances. This explains why such patients have been underinvestigated for a long time. Thanks to the availability of techniques able to study the cerebral activity underlying the mentioned behavioural outcomes, the aim of the present research was to elucidate whether different electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns occurred in unilateral hearing loss (UHL) children in comparison to normal hearing (NH) controls during speech-in-noise listening. Given the intrinsic lateralized nature of such patients, due to the unilateral side of hearing impairment, the experimental question was to assess whether this would reflect a different EEG pattern while performing a word in noise recognition task varying the direction of the noise source. Results showed a correlation between the period of deafness and the cortical activity asymmetry toward the hearing ear side in the frontal, parietal and occipital areas in all the experimental conditions. Concerning alpha and beta activity in the frontal and central areas highlighted that in the NH group, the lateralization was always left-sided during the Quiet condition, while it was right-sided in noise conditions; this evidence was not, however, detected also in the UHL group. In addition, focusing on the theta and alpha activity in the frontal areas (Broca area) during noise conditions, while the activity was always left-lateralized in the NH group, it was ipsilateral to the direction of the background noise in the UHL group, and of a weaker extent than in NH controls. Furthermore, in noise conditions, only the UHL group showed a higher theta activity in the temporal areas ipsilateral to the side where the background noise was directed to. Finally, in the case of bilateral noise (background noise and word signal both coming from the same two sources), the theta and alpha activity in the frontal areas (Broca area) was left-lateralized in the case of the NH group and lateralized towards the side of the better hearing ear in the case of the UHL group. Taken together, this evidence supports the establishment of a particular EEG pattern occurrence in UHL children taking place in the frontal (Broca area), temporal and parietal lobes, probably physiologically established in order to deal with different sound and noise source directions.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído
3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2018: 9616301, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344600

RESUMO

It is well known that the evaluation of a product from the shelf considers the simultaneous cerebral and emotional evaluation of the different qualities of the product such as its colour, the eventual images shown, and the envelope's texture (hereafter all included in the term "product experience"). However, the measurement of cerebral and emotional reactions during the interaction with food products has not been investigated in depth in specialized literature. The aim of this paper was to investigate such reactions by the EEG and the autonomic activities, as elicited by the cross-sensory interaction (sight and touch) across several different products. In addition, we investigated whether (i) the brand (Major Brand or Private Label), (ii) the familiarity (Foreign or Local Brand), and (iii) the hedonic value of products (Comfort Food or Daily Food) influenced the reaction of a group of volunteers during their interaction with the products. Results showed statistically significantly higher tendency of cerebral approach (as indexed by EEG frontal alpha asymmetry) in response to comfort food during the visual exploration and the visual and tactile exploration phases. Furthermore, for the same index, a higher tendency of approach has been found toward foreign food products in comparison with local food products during the visual and tactile exploration phase. Finally, the same comparison performed on a different index (EEG frontal theta) showed higher mental effort during the interaction with foreign products during the visual exploration and the visual and tactile exploration phases. Results from the present study could deepen the knowledge on the neurophysiological response to food products characterized by different nature in terms of hedonic value familiarity; moreover, they could have implications for food marketers and finally lead to further study on how people make food choices through the interactions with their commercial envelope.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Filosofia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 231, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210322

RESUMO

Tobacco constitutes a global emergency with totally preventable millions of deaths per year and smoking-related illnesses. Public service announcements (PSAs) are the main tool against smoking and by now their efficacy is still assessed through questionnaires and metrics, only months after their circulation. The present study focused on the young population, because at higher risk of developing tobacco addiction, investigating the reaction to the vision of Effective, Ineffective and Awarded antismoking PSAs through: electroencephalography (EEG), autonomic activity variation (Galvanic skin response-GSR- and Heart Rate-HR-) and Eye-Tracking (ET). The employed indices were: the EEG frontal alpha band asymmetry and the frontal theta; the Emotional Index (EI), deriving from the GSR and HR signals matching; the ET Visual Attention (VA) index, based on the ratio between the total time spent fixating an area of interest (AOI) and its area. Smokers expressed higher frontal alpha asymmetry values in comparison to non-smokers. Concerning frontal theta, Awarded PSAs reported the highest values in comparison to both Effective and Ineffective PSAs. EI results highlighted that lowest values were expressed by Heavy Smokers (HS), and Effective PSAs obtained the highest EI values. Finally, concerning the Effective PSAs, regression analysis highlighted a correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked by participants (independent variable) and frontal alpha asymmetry, frontal theta and EI values. ET results suggested that for the Ineffective PSAs the main focus were texts, while for the Effective and Awarded PSAs were the visual elements. Results support the use of methods aimed at assessing the physiological reaction for the evaluation of PSAs images, in particular when considering the smoking habits of target populations.

5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 4483-4486, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060893

RESUMO

Every day we face visual stimuli able to catch our attention, but this aspect becomes crucial if the visual material has the purpose to spread a message aimed at engaging the observer. In this framework, a worthy aspect is how to measure the "visual engagement" produced by visual stimuli exposure. To this purpose, in the present study, employing the eye tracking technique, an index of visual attention (VA) has been proposed, and applied to pictures belonging to antismoking public service announcements, so to investigate the saliency of health-promoting messages in a young sample. The VA index is a non-dimensional index, defined as the ratio between the percentage of the total time spent fixating an area of interest (AOI) weighted on the total time the picture is showed on the screen, and the percentage of the area occupied by the AOI weighted on the total dimension of the picture. It could be predicted that AOI reporting higher VA values will be the ones having more saliency. Three antismoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) images have been selected for the study and for each of them were identified: i) "picture" (such as a young man with a sarcastic expression depicted while smoking a cigarette, or the image of a lady who underwent a tracheotomy) and ii) "writing" (text of the antismoking message) AOIs. Main results of the analysis revealed that writing AOIs obtained statistically significant higher VA values than visual AOIs (p=0.03), but these held true only for an ineffective PSA, probably because the text was not perceived as pertinent with the surrounding image. On the other hand, an effective PSA obtained higher VA values in response to visual than writing AOIs observation (p=0.02). The VA index appears therefore to represent a useful tool to measure the saliency of visual stimuli elements.


Assuntos
Olho , Atenção , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Fumar , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 2470-2473, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060399

RESUMO

Advanced methodologies used for the biomedical signal interpretation allow using cerebral signals to assess important cognitive functions in humans. In the present study, as parameter of cerebral effort, has been employed the isolated effective coherence, in order to estimate the effective connectivity and network organization. The hypothesis was that the lower the number of inter-connections engaged, the lower the cerebral effort induced by the experimental condition. In the present research this index has been applied to test the reaction to the use of different cochlear implant processors (Freedom, CP810 and CP910 - Cochlear Ltd), with the aim to identify the most performing device during a word in noise recognition task. Results support the capability of identifying the device eliciting less brain area connections. In particular, the CP910 was the processor inducing the lower number of inter-connections among the tested ones. This investigation appeared to be worthy, since representing a tool to identify devices that would make available user's cognitive resources for additional tasks, a matter susceptible of generalization to various fields of application. The employment of the cerebral signals therefore open the way to the evaluation of the impact of different sensors and prosthetic devices, also using connectivity measures.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares , Encéfalo , Implante Coclear , Audição , Humanos , Percepção da Fala
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 3228-3231, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060585

RESUMO

The taste is a vital sense in humans, because of its active role in regulating nutrition or avoiding harmful substances. Several studies showed the important role of the brain Pre-Frontal Cortex in decoding information coming from the gustatory system. It is also widely known, in neuroscientific literature, that the asymmetry of Pre-Frontal Cortex Activity is closely linked to the feeling of pleasantness experienced by the subject during sensorial stimulation. In this regard, from the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal it is possible to estimate the Approach/Withdrawal (AW) index, which has been largely investigated and validated in scientific literature, regarding visual, acoustic and olfactory stimuli.


Assuntos
Emoções , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Paladar
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 4179-4182, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060818

RESUMO

Investment decisions are based largely on the information that investors are received from the target firm. In this research, we consider both the variable of Organization of Information, either segregate or integrate, and the Order of the information, either in the order of Negative-Positive or in the order of Positive-Negative. Three groups of information are tested in the experiment: a piece of Big Positive information and a piece of Small Negative information (BP/SN); a piece of Big Negative information and a piece of Small Positive (BN/SP); and a piece of Small Positive information and a piece of Small Negative information (SP/SN). The study applied the gathering of the electroencephalographic rhythms variations, as well as the heart rate and galvanic skin response. The neurometric indicators here employed were the Approach-Withdrawal (AW) and the Emotional (EI) indexes. In SP/SN group, the recency effect is found in AWI. However, when receiving information in large scale, either big positive or big negative, emotion plays a role during decision-making. In both case of BP/SN and BN/SP, emotion is effected by organization of information. In the condition of BP/SN, neurometrics AWI result suggests more approach potentials when two pieces of information presented integrated. While in the case of BN/SP, we observe the influence of both order and organization. Individual favours separation of information with the order of Negative-Positive, the recency effect.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Aprendizagem
9.
J Vis Exp ; (126)2017 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872117

RESUMO

The evaluation of advertising, products, and packaging is traditionally performed through methods based on self-reports and focus groups, but these approaches often appear poorly accurate in scientific terms. Neuroscience is increasingly applied to the investigation of the neurophysiological bases of the perception of and reaction to commercial stimuli to support traditional marketing methods. In this context, a particular sector or marketing is represented by public service announcements (PSAs). The objective of this protocol is to apply electroencephalography (EEG) and autonomic signal analysis to study responses to selected antismoking PSAs. Two EEG indices were employed: the frontal alpha band EEG asymmetry (the Approach Withdrawal (AW) index) and the frontal theta (effort index). Furthermore, the autonomic Emotional Index (EI) was calculated, as derived from the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Heart Rate (HR) signals. The present protocol describes a series of operational and computational steps required to properly estimate, through the aforementioned indices, the emotional and cerebral reaction of a group of subjects towards a selected number of antismoking PSAs. In particular, a campaign characterized by a symbolic communication style (classified as "awarded" on the basis of the prizes received by specialized committees) obtained the highest approach values, as estimated by the AW index. A spot and an image belonging to the same PSA campaign based on the "fear arousing appeal" and with a narrative/experiential communication style (classified as "effective" on the basis of the economical/health-related improvements promoted) reported the lowest and highest effort values, respectively. This is probably due to the complexity of the storytelling (spot) and to the immediateness of the image (a lady who underwent a tracheotomy). Finally, the same "effective" campaign showed the highest EI values, possibly because of the empathy induced by the testimonial and the explicitness of the message.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Deaf subjects with hearing aids or cochlear implants generally find it challenging to understand speech in noisy environments where a great deal of listening effort and cognitive load are invested. In prelingually deaf children, such difficulties may have detrimental consequences on the learning process and, later in life, on academic performance. Despite the importance of such a topic, currently, there is no validated test for the assessment of cognitive load during audiological tasks. Recently, alpha and theta EEG rhythm variations in the parietal and frontal areas, respectively, have been used as indicators of cognitive load in adult subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of EEG, the cognitive load of pediatric subjects affected by asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss as they were engaged in a speech-in-noise identification task. METHODS: Seven children (4F and 3M, age range = 8-16 years) affected by asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (i.e. profound degree on one side, mild-to-severe degree on the other side) and using a hearing aid only in their better ear, were included in the study. All of them underwent EEG recording during a speech-in-noise identification task: the experimental conditions were quiet, binaural noise, noise to the better hearing ear and noise to the poorer hearing ear. The subjects' Speech Recognition Thresholds (SRT) were also measured in each test condition. The primary outcome measures were: frontal EEG Power Spectral Density (PSD) in the theta band and parietal EEG PSD in the alpha band, as assessed before stimulus (word) onset. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were noted among frontal theta power levels in the four test conditions. However, parietal alpha power levels were significantly higher in the "binaural noise" and in the "noise to worse hearing ear" conditions than in the "quiet" and "noise to better hearing ear" conditions (p < 0.001). SRT scores were consistent with task difficulty, but did not correlate with alpha and theta power level variations. CONCLUSION: This is the first time that EEG has been applied to children with sensorineural hearing loss with the purpose of studying the cognitive load during effortful listening. Significantly higher parietal alpha power levels in two of three noisy conditions, compared to the quiet condition, are consistent with increased cognitive load. Specifically, considering the time window of the analysis (pre-stimulus), parietal alpha power levels may be a measure of cognitive functions such as sustained attention and selective inhibition. In this respect, the significantly lower parietal alpha power levels in the most challenging listening condition (i.e. noise to the better ear) may be attributed to loss of attention and to the subsequent fatigue and "withdrawal" from the task at hand.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Percepção Auditiva , Criança , Implante Coclear/métodos , Feminino , Audição , Auxiliares de Audição , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
11.
Cerebellum ; 16(2): 358-375, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27372098

RESUMO

Although cerebellar-cortical interactions have been studied extensively in animal models and humans using modern neuroimaging techniques, the effects of cerebellar stroke and focal lesions on cerebral cortical processing remain unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the large-scale functional connectivity at the cortical level by combining high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and source imaging techniques to evaluate and quantify the compensatory reorganization of brain networks after cerebellar damage. The experimental protocol comprised a repetitive finger extension task by 10 patients with unilateral focal cerebellar lesions and 10 matched healthy controls. A graph theoretical approach was used to investigate the functional reorganization of cortical networks. Our patients, compared with controls, exhibited significant differences at global and local topological level of their brain networks. An abnormal rise in small-world network efficiency was observed in the gamma band (30-40 Hz) during execution of the task, paralleled by increased long-range connectivity between cortical hemispheres. Our findings show that a pervasive reorganization of the brain network is associated with cerebellar focal damage and support the idea that the cerebellum boosts or refines cortical functions. Clinically, these results suggest that cortical changes after cerebellar damage are achieved through an increase in the interactions between remote cortical areas and that rehabilitation should aim to reshape functional activation patterns. Future studies should determine whether these hypotheses are limited to motor tasks or if they also apply to cerebro-cerebellar dysfunction in general.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cerebelo/cirurgia , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Dedos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
12.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2016: 3795325, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27313602

RESUMO

The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Inquéritos e Questionários , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2016: 4597-4600, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28269299

RESUMO

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and smoking-related illness worldwide. Research has shown that antismoking advertising may help reduce this habit. Nowadays, public service announcements (PSAs) are considered "Effective" or "Ineffective" on the base of official reports concerning behavioral/attitudinal changes toward healthier patterns and health-related savings following the exposure to the PSA. In this pilot study, we described the results of the use of three neurometric indexes for the evaluation of the efficacy of a couple of antismoking PSAs in a reduced sample of voluntary participants. The study applied the gathering of the electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms variations, as well as the heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR). The neurometric indicators here employed were the Approach-Withdrawal (AW), the Effort (EfI) and the Emotional (EI) indexes. Results suggest a significant higher values for AW, Effort and Emotional indexes (p=0,02; p= 0,03 and p= 0,01 respectively) related to the perception of the "Effective" antismoking PSAs against the perception of the "Ineffective" one. Since this is a pilot study, the results obtained need further investigation, in terms of enlarged stimuli sample and number of participants to provide indications concerning the relevant features to be included in the realization of effective anti-smoking PSAs.


Assuntos
Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Comportamento , Emoções , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 54(10): 1503-13, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26645694

RESUMO

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are widely used for clinical applications and exploited to design robotic and interactive systems for healthy people. We provide evidence to control a sensorimotor electroencephalographic (EEG) BCI system while piloting a flight simulator and attending a double attentional task simultaneously. Ten healthy subjects were trained to learn how to manage a flight simulator, use the BCI system, and answer to the attentional tasks independently. Afterward, the EEG activity was collected during a first flight where subjects were required to concurrently use the BCI, and a second flight where they were required to simultaneously use the BCI and answer to the attentional tasks. Results showed that the concurrent use of the BCI system during the flight simulation does not affect the flight performances. However, BCI performances decrease from the 83 to 63 % while attending additional alertness and vigilance tasks. This work shows that it is possible to successfully control a BCI system during the execution of multiple tasks such as piloting a flight simulator with an extra cognitive load induced by attentional tasks. Such framework aims to foster the knowledge on BCI systems embedded into vehicles and robotic devices to allow the simultaneous execution of secondary tasks.


Assuntos
Aviação , Simulação por Computador , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Atenção , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cogn Process ; 16 Suppl 1: 425-9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26224275

RESUMO

The recent efforts aimed at providing neuroscientific explanations of how people perceive and experience architectural environments have largely justified the initial belief in the value of neuroscience for architecture. However, a systematic development of a coherent theoretical and experimental framework is missing. To investigate the neurophysiological reactions related to the appreciation of ambiances, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in an immersive virtual reality during the appreciation of interior designs. Such data have been analyzed according to the working hypothesis that appreciated environments involve embodied simulation mechanisms and circuits mediating approaching stimuli. EEG recordings of 12 healthy subjects have been performed during the perception of three-dimensional interiors that have been simulated in a CAVE system and judged according to dimensions of familiarity, novelty, comfort, pleasantness, arousal and presence. A correlation analysis on personal judgments returned that scores of novelty, pleasantness and comfort are positively correlated, while familiarity and novelty are in negative way. Statistical spectral maps reveal that pleasant, novel and comfortable interiors produce a de-synchronization of the mu rhythm over left sensorimotor areas. Interiors judged more pleasant and less familiar generate an activation of left frontal areas (theta and alpha bands), along an involvement of areas devoted to spatial navigation. An increase in comfort returns an enhancement of the theta frontal midline activity. Cerebral activations underlying appreciation of architecture could involve different mechanisms regulating corporeal, emotional and cognitive reactions. Therefore, it might be suggested that people's experience of architectural environments is intrinsically structured by the possibilities for action.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Emoções , Meio Ambiente , Motivação/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Espectral , Estatística como Assunto , Interface Usuário-Computador
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2015: 7990-3, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26738146

RESUMO

In this paper we measured the neuroelectrical and the eye-movements activities in a group of 27 healthy subjects during their visit of a fine arts gallery in which a series of masterpieces of the Italian painter Tiziano Vecellio (also known as Titian, 1488-1576) were shown. The pictures chosen for the visit were 10 portraits and 10 of religious subjects. Each picture was observed for a minute. A mobile EEG device with an eye-tracker was used for this experiment. Evaluation of the appreciation of the pictures was performed by using the neuroelectrical approach-withdrawal index (AW). High value of AW means high appreciation of the picture. The number of eye fixations performed by the subjects during the observation of the pictures was also analyzed. Results showed that in the examined group the AW index was significant higher during the observation of portraits than during the observation of the religious subjects (as resulted from an ANOVA performed on AW index, with a p<;0,007). Interestingly, the average AW index estimated in the first 20 seconds of the observation of the pictures remains highly correlated with the AW index evaluated for the second part of the data (from 20 s to one minute) for all the 20 pictures examined (r = 0,82, p<;0,0001). In addition, the number of eye fixations performed by the subjects in the first 5 or 10 seconds of observation of the pictures that were most appreciated are significantly higher than the number of eye fixations performed on pictures that subjects did not like (p<;0,048 and p<;0,0018, respectively). Such difference vanishes if the entire period of observation of the pictures of one minute is used (p = 0,54). Taken together, such results seem to suggest that the neuroelectrical correlates of the perception of "good" or "bad" pictures are rapidly formed in our brain, within the first 10-20 seconds from the exposition to the picture.


Assuntos
Percepção , Movimentos Oculares , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Itália
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2015: 1654-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26736593

RESUMO

Despite of technological innovations, noisy environments still constitute a challenging and stressful situation for words recognition by hearing impaired subjects. The evaluation of the mental workload imposed by the noisy environments for the recognition of the words in prelingually deaf children is then of paramount importance since it could affect the speed of the learning process during scholar period.The aim of the present study was to investigate different electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectral density (PSD) components (in theta 4-8 Hz - and alpha - 8-12 Hz - frequency bands) to estimate the mental workload index in different noise conditions during a word recognition task in prelingually deaf children, a population not yet investigated in relation to the workload index during auditory tasks. A pilot study involving a small group of prelingually deaf children was then subjected to EEG recordings during an auditory task composed by a listening and a successive recognition of words with different noise conditions. Results showed that in the pre-word listening phase frontal EEG PSD in theta band and the ratio of the frontal EEG PSD in theta band and the parietal EEG PSD in alpha band (workload index; IWL) reported highest values in the most demanding noise condition. In addition, in the phase preceding the word forced-choice task the highest parietal EEG PSD in alpha band and IWL values were reported at the presumably simplest condition (noise emitted in correspondence of the subject's deaf ear). These results could suggest the prominence of EEG PSD theta component activity in the pre-word listening phase. In addition, a more challenging noise situation in the pre-choice phase would be so "over-demanding" to fail to enhance both the alpha power and the IWL in comparison to the already demanding "simple" condition.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído
18.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2014: 434296, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25214884

RESUMO

The present research investigates the neurophysiological activity elicited by fast observations of faces of real candidates during simulated political elections. We used simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals as well as galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) as measurements of central and autonomic nervous systems. Twenty healthy subjects were asked to give judgments on dominance, trustworthiness, and a preference of vote related to the politicians' faces. We used high-resolution EEG techniques to map statistical differences of power spectral density (PSD) cortical activity onto a realistic head model as well as partial directed coherence (PDC) and graph theory metrics to estimate the functional connectivity networks and investigate the role of cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Behavioral results revealed that judgment of dominance trait is the most predictive of the outcome of the simulated elections. Statistical comparisons related to PSD and PDC values highlighted an asymmetry in the activation of frontal cortical areas associated with the valence of the judged trait as well as to the probability to cast the vote. Overall, our results highlight the existence of cortical EEG features which are correlated with the prediction of vote and with the judgment of trustworthy and dominant faces.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Política , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Pele
19.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2014: 876290, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25180046

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to measure the perceived pleasantness during the observation of a musical video clip in a group of cochlear implanted adult patients when compared to a group of normal hearing subjects. This comparison was performed by using the imbalance of the EEG power spectra in alpha band over frontal areas as a metric for the perceived pleasantness. Subjects were asked to watch a musical video clip in three different experimental conditions: with the original audio included (Norm), with a distorted version of the audio (Dist), and without the audio (Mute). The frontal EEG imbalance between the estimated power spectra for the left and right prefrontal areas has been calculated to investigate the differences among the two populations. Results suggested that the perceived pleasantness of the musical video clip in the normal hearing population and in the bilateral cochlear implanted populations has similar range of variation across the different stimulations (Norm, Dist, and Mute), when compared to the range of variation of video clip's pleasantness for the monolateral cochlear implanted population. A similarity exists in the trends of the perceived pleasantness across the different experimental conditions in the mono- and bilaterally cochlear implanted patients.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Implantes Cocleares/psicologia , Música/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2014: 912981, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25147579

RESUMO

Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Comportamento do Consumidor , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Pele/patologia , Algoritmos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Neurociências/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Software , Televisão , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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