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1.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between circulating levels of vitamin D and the incidence of chronic diseases is known. The identification of vitamin D as a biomarker of physiological/pathological ageing could contribute to expanding current knowledge of its involvement in healthy ageing. METHODS: According to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted on cohorts studying the role of 25OH-Vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] concentrations as biomarkers of healthy ageing. We consulted MedLine, Scopus, and Web of Science to search for studies on the association between vitamin D status in populations of originally healthy adults, and outcomes of longevity, illness, and physical and cognitive functionality. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. RESULTS: Twenty cohorts from 24 articles were selected for this review. Inverse associations were found between low 25(OH)D levels and all-cause mortality, respiratory and cardiovascular events, as well as markers relating to hip and non-vertebral fractures. Associations between 1,25(OH)2D and healthy ageing outcomes gave similar results, although of lower clinical significance. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review pinpoints peculiar aspects of vitamin D as a multidimensional predictor of ill health in the ageing process. Further well-designed controlled trials to investigate whether vitamin D supplement results in superior outcomes are warranted in the future.

2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 844-863, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.

3.
Mutat Res ; 781: 1-10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416570

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer associated with asbestos exposure. Studies of familial malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have suggested the existence of a genetic predisposition. Information on the role of genetic risk factors in the development of MM has been growing in the last years, and both low- and high-risk genetic factors have been identified, but genetic factors alone (without any exposure to asbestos or other mineral fibers) have never been shown to induce MM. Low-risk genetic factors have been identified in studies that systematically analyzed the whole genome. When considered alone these low-risk genetic factors carry a relative risk of MPM that is 10- to 15-fold lower than that carried by asbestos exposure; however, a large number of these factors in combination may increase the impact of asbestos exposure. High-risk genetic factors include truncating variants in the tumor suppressor BAP1 and in other tumor suppressor genes belonging to DNA repair pathways. Heterozygous germline variants in these genes may favor carcinogenesis if a second somatic variant occurs that impairs the wild-type allele. This impairment can cause genetic instability due to the suppression of a specific DNA repair pathway, and transformation. This genetic predisposition may have translational consequences, as it may predict patient response to drugs that induce tumor-specific synthetic lethality.

4.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 71, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the available information on cancer risk, asbestos is used in large areas in the world, mostly in the production of asbestos cement. Moreover, questions are raised regarding the shape of the dose response relation, the relation with time since exposure and the association with neoplasms in various organs. We conducted a study on the relationship between cumulative asbestos exposure and mortality from asbestos related diseases in a large Italian pool of 21 cohorts of asbestos-cement workers with protracted exposure to both chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. METHODS: The cohort included 13,076 workers, 81.9% men and 18.1% women, working in 21 Italian asbestos-cement factories, with over 40 years of observation. Exposure was estimated by plant and period, and weighted for the type of asbestos used. Data were analysed with consideration of cause of death, cumulative exposure and time since first exposure (TSFE), and by gender. SMRs were computed using reference rates by region, gender and calendar time. Poisson regression models including cubic splines were used to analyse the effect of cumulative exposure to asbestos and TSFE on mortality for asbestos-related diseases. 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were computed according to the Poisson distribution. RESULTS: Mortality was significantly increased for 'All Causes' and 'All Malignant Neoplasm (MN)', in both genders. Considering asbestos related diseases (ARDs), statistically significant excesses were observed for MN of peritoneum (SMR: men 14.19; women 15.14), pleura (SMR: 22.35 and 48.10), lung (SMR: 1.67 and 1.67), ovary (in the highest exposure class SMR 2.45), and asbestosis (SMR: 507 and 1023). Mortality for ARDs, in particular pleural and peritoneal malignancies, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and asbestosis increased monotonically with cumulative exposure. Pleural MN mortality increased progressively in the first 40 years of TSFE, then reached a plateau, while peritoneal MN showed a continuous increase. The trend of lung cancer SMRs also showed a flattening after 40 years of TSFE. Attributable proportions for pleural, peritoneal, and lung MN were respectively 96, 93 and 40%. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality for ARDs was associated with cumulative exposure to asbestos. Risk of death from pleural MN did not increase indefinitely with TSFE but eventually reached a plateau, consistently with reports from other recent studies.

5.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(9): 611-616, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Models based on the multistage theory of cancer predict that rates of malignant mesothelioma continuously increase with time since first exposure (TSFE) to asbestos, even after the end of external exposure. However, recent epidemiological studies suggest that mesothelioma rates level off many years after first exposure to asbestos. A gradual clearance of asbestos from the lungs has been suggested as a possible explanation for this phenomenon. We analysed long-term trends of pleural and peritoneal cancer mortality in subjects exposed to asbestos to evaluate whether such trends were consistent with the clearance hypothesis. METHODS: We used data from a pool of 43 Italian asbestos cohorts (51 801 subjects). The role of asbestos clearance was explored using the traditional mesothelioma multistage model, generalised to include a term representing elimination of fibres over time. RESULTS: Rates of pleural cancer increased until 40 years of TSFE, but remained stable thereafter. On the other hand, we observed a monotonic increase of peritoneal cancer with TSFE. The model taking into account asbestos clearance fitted the data better than the traditional one for pleural (p=0.004) but not for peritoneal (p=0.09) cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of pleural cancer do not increase indefinitely after the exposure to asbestos, but eventually reach a plateau. This trend is well described by a model accounting for a gradual elimination of the asbestos fibres. These results are relevant for the prediction of future rates of mesothelioma and in asbestos litigations.

6.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(10): 746-753, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previously published studies on parental occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in their offspring were inconsistent. We therefore evaluated this question within the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. METHODS: We pooled 11 case-control studies including 9723 childhood leukaemia cases and 17 099 controls. Parental occupational ELF-MF exposure was estimated by linking jobs to an ELF-MF job-exposure matrix (JEM). Logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs in pooled analyses and meta-analyses. RESULTS: ORs from pooled analyses for paternal ELF-MF exposure >0.2 microtesla (µT) at conception were 1.04 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.13) for ALL and 1.06 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.29) for AML, compared with ≤0.2 µT. Corresponding ORs for maternal ELF-MF exposure during pregnancy were 1.00 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.12) for ALL and 0.85 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.16) for AML. No trends of increasing ORs with increasing exposure level were evident. Furthermore, no associations were observed in the meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this large international dataset applying a comprehensive quantitative JEM, we did not find any associations between parental occupational ELF-MF exposure and childhood leukaemia.

8.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 55(1): 70-79, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968841

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Numerous municipalities in Italy currently experience asbestos health impact, in particular excesses of pleural mesothelioma incidence and mortality. This paper presents an integrated analysis of epidemiological studies and communication actions in affected municipalities to highlight how communication has been implemented depending on health impact evidence and involvement of local stakeholders. METHODOLOGY: Four case studies are identified concerning industrial and natural sources of asbestos exposure having different diseases burden. This integrated analysis benefited from multidisciplinary skills. DISCUSSION: Evidence of different stakeholders engagement is presented to emphasize their role in the communication process. Similarities and differences among case studies allowed us to identify lessons-learned to be transferred in other asbestos contaminated sites. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of communication strategies and practices, since the very early evidence of asbestos health impact, represents a relevant contribution for epidemiological and health surveillance, particularly for those communities where asbestos health impact has only been recently reported.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Asbestose/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
9.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(5): 410-416, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this cohort mortality study we used an exposure index to evaluate individual cumulative exposure as proxy of asbestos dose and we evaluated change in cancer mortality pattern after long time since the end of exposure. METHODS: We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for several causes of death stratified by latency, cumulative exposure, and time since last exposure (TSLE). RESULTS: Latency: we observed a peak and then a decrease in SMR for lung, pleural, and peritoneal cancer. Cumulative Exposure: We observed a peak and then a decrease in SMR for lung and pleural cancer, not for peritoneal cancer. TSLE: Pleural cancer SMR peaked at 20 to 29 years, then decreased, peritoneal cancer SMR reached a plateau after 20 years and lung cancer mortality was in excess in each class. CONCLUSIONS: We found different patterns in mortality in the main asbestos-related tumors.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 59: 158-165, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental age has been associated with several childhood cancers, albeit the evidence is still inconsistent. AIM: To examine the associations of parental age at birth with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among children aged 0-14 years using individual-level data from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC) and non-CLIC studies. MATERIAL/METHODS: We analyzed data of 3182 incident AML cases and 8377 controls from 17 studies [seven registry-based case-control (RCC) studies and ten questionnaire-based case-control (QCC) studies]. AML risk in association with parental age was calculated using multiple logistic regression, meta-analyses, and pooled-effect estimates. Models were stratified by age at diagnosis (infants <1 year-old vs. children 1-14 years-old) and by study design, using five-year parental age increments and controlling for sex, ethnicity, birthweight, prematurity, multiple gestation, birth order, maternal smoking and education, age at diagnosis (cases aged 1-14 years), and recruitment time period. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from RCC, but not from the QCC, studies showed a higher AML risk for infants of mothers ≥40-year-old (OR = 6.87; 95% CI: 2.12-22.25). There were no associations observed between any other maternal or paternal age group and AML risk for children older than one year. CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of infant AML with advanced maternal age was found using data from RCC, but not from QCC studies; no parental age-AML associations were observed for older children.

11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(5): e27616, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several nonbiological factors, including socioeconomic status indicators and other family characteristics, influence survival from childhood cancers. Our study explores the association between parental education and childhood cancer survival. METHODS: The specialized Childhood Cancer Registry of the Piedmont region in Italy provided data on all the cases (aged 0-14) diagnosed with cancer in the period 1976-2011 who resided in the city of Turin (capital of the Piedmont region) at least once since 1971. Information on parental education was extracted from the Turin Longitudinal Study by record linkage. The association between parental educational level and survival was estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: The study included 949 children. We observed a disadvantage in the overall survival for children of less educated mothers. No such effect was observed for paternal education. The effect of maternal education was particularly strong for central nervous system tumors (hazard ratios, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.0). A similar effect, though smaller in magnitude, was observed for leukemia and embryonal tumors, whereas the estimates for lymphoma were imprecise. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows an association between maternal educational level and survival in children with central nervous system tumors, a diagnosis that often requires long-lasting treatment and special care. Giving support to the families of affected children to provide them the optimal care has the potential to improve children's cancer treatment outcomes.

12.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumour strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Patients are usually diagnosed when current treatments have limited benefits, highlighting the need for non-invasive early diagnosis tests to monitor asbestos-exposed people. METHODS: We used a genome-wide methylation array to identify, in asbestos-exposed subjects, novel blood DNA methylation markers of MPM in 163 MPM cases and 137 cancer-free controls (82/68 Training Set; replication in 81/69, Test Set) sampled from the same areas. RESULTS: Evidence of differential methylation between MPM cases and controls was found (>800 CpG sites, Pfdr<0.05), mainly in immune system related genes. Considering the "top" differentially methylated signals, 7 single-CpGs and 5 genomic regions of coordinated methylation replicated with similar effect size in the Test Set (pfdr<0.05). The top hypomethylated single-CpG (cases vs controls effect size<-0.15, pfdr <0.05 in both Training and Test sets) was detected in FOXK1 (Forkhead-box K1) gene, an interactor of BAP1 which was found mutated in MPM tissue and as germline mutation in familial MPM. In the Test set, comparison of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) of two models, including/excluding methylation, showed a significant increase in case/control discrimination when considering DNA methylation together with asbestos exposure (AUC=0.81 vs AUC=0.89, DeLong's test p=0.0013). CONCLUSIONS: We identified signatures of differential methylation in DNA from whole blood between asbestos exposed MPM cases and controls. Our results provide the rationale to further investigate, in prospective studies, the potential use of blood DNA methylation profiles for the identification of early changes related to MPM carcinogenic process.

13.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 57(11): 573-583, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338612

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline variants in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene can cause a cancer syndrome called BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS), which is characterized by predisposition to mesothelioma, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and other tumors. Other genes that may predispose to mesothelioma are CDKN2A and DNA repair genes. Asbestos exposure has often been reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and germline variants in BAP1, but this exposure has never been quantified. We aimed to search for germline variants in BAP1 among 25 new Italian probands with suspected BAP1-TPDS, summarize the prevalence of these variants in 39 Italian patients with familial MPM and other tumors recruited over a 5-year period, and compare cumulative asbestos exposure in 14 patients with MPM and pathogenic germline variants in BAP1, CDKN2A, or DNA repair genes with that of 67 patients without germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes. We report here a new pathogenic germline variant in BAP1: c.783 + 2 T > C. The prevalence of pathogenic germline variants in BAP1 was 7.7% among patients with familial MPM (3/39). Patients with pathogenic germline variants in BAP1, CDKN2A, or DNA repair genes showed lower cumulative asbestos exposure than patients without germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes (P = .00002). This suggests an interaction between genetic risk factors and asbestos in the development of mesothelioma.

14.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 54(2): 139-148, 2018 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916419

RESUMO

The purpose of the present paper is to review the origin and development of the epidemiology of mesothelioma in Italy, starting with the detection and investigation of the major outbreak of the disease observed in Casale Monferrato, Piedmont Region. Over the last four decades, mortality among the cohort of ex-Eternit workers has been measured at three points in time. More recently, population based case-control studies in the area of Casale Monferrato have provided new light on the dose-response curve of the relationship between asbestos exposure and mesotheliomas. The publication of the first Casale Monferrato study had a major impact in the country and contributed to the decision of the Italian Parliament to ban the use of asbestos. The experience of Casale Monferrato represents a lesson in several terms, from the epidemiological surveillance to the health care of the victims and the relationship between epidemiologists, victims, their relatives and residents in contaminated areas.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População
15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761423

RESUMO

Advanced parental age has been associated with adverse health effects in the offspring including childhood (0-14 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), as reported in our meta-analysis of published studies. We aimed to further explore the association using primary data from 16 studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Data were contributed by 11 case-control (CC) studies (7919 cases and 12,942 controls recruited via interviews) and five nested case-control (NCC) studies (8801 cases and 29,690 controls identified through record linkage of population-based health registries) with variable enrollment periods (1968-2015). Five-year paternal and maternal age increments were introduced in two meta-analyses by study design using adjusted odds ratios (OR) derived from each study. Increased paternal age was associated with greater ALL risk in the offspring (ORCC 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.11; ORNCC 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07). A similar positive association with advanced maternal age was observed only in the NCC results (ORCC 0.99, 95% CI 0.91-1.07, heterogeneity I2 = 58%, p = 0.002; ORNCC 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.08). The positive association between parental age and risk of ALL was most marked among children aged 1-5 years and remained unchanged following mutual adjustment for the collinear effect of the paternal and maternal age variables; analyses of the relatively small numbers of discordant paternal-maternal age pairs were not fully enlightening. Our results strengthen the evidence that advanced parental age is associated with increased childhood ALL risk; collinearity of maternal with paternal age complicates causal interpretation. Employing datasets with cytogenetic information may further elucidate involvement of each parental component and clarify underlying mechanisms.

16.
Tumori ; : 300891618765538, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) diagnosis is known to be difficult. We report on the diagnostic elements available in life in an MPM necropsy case series and describe the frequency of non-neoplastic asbestos-related diseases as biological exposure indices. METHODS: We reviewed pathologic and clinical records of an unselected series of autopsies (1977-2016) in patients with MPM employed in the Monfalcone shipyards or living with shipyard workers. We assessed the consistency with autopsy results of diagnoses based on, respectively, radiologic, cytologic, and histologic findings, with and without immunophenotyping. RESULTS: Data on 171 cases were available: for 169, autopsy confirmed the MPM diagnosis. In life, 119 cases had histologic confirmation of diagnosis, whereas 7 were negative; all cases without immunophenotypization were autoptic MPMs. Cytology alone had been positive in 18 autoptic MPM cases, negative in 14. Radiologic imaging alone had been positive in another 16, negative in 11. In the 2 cases not confirmed at autopsy, MPM had been suspected by chest computed tomography only. Bilateral pleural plaques were found in 144 and histologic evidence of asbestosis in 62 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Autopsies confirmed 169/171 cases, including cases that would not be considered as certain based on diagnosis in life. Radiologic imaging, cytologic examination of pleural effusions, or both combined had low sensitivity but high positive predictive value: when they are positive, proceeding to thoracoscopy should be justified. MPM has been correctly diagnosed even without immunohistochemistry. The prevalence of pleural plaques and asbestosis was high due to severity of asbestos exposures in these cases.

17.
Cancer Res ; 78(14): 4086-4096, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735552

RESUMO

A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent. Both DLBCL and MZL risk were elevated with homozygosity at class I HLA-B and -C loci (OR DLBCL = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.60; OR MZL = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) and class II HLA-DRB1 locus (OR DLBCL = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24-3.55; OR MZL = 2.10, 95% CI = 0.99-4.45). Increased FL risk was observed with the overall increase in number of homozygous HLA class II loci (P trend < 0.0001, FDR = 0.0005). These results support a role for HLA zygosity in NHL etiology and suggests that distinct immune pathways may underly the etiology of the different NHL subtypes.Significance: HLA gene diversity reduces risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Res; 78(14); 4086-96. ©2018 AACR.

18.
Front Neurol ; 9: 213, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662465

RESUMO

Background: Alpha-synuclein is a constituent of Lewy bodies and mutations of its gene cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD). A previous study showed that a variant of the alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA), namely the 263 bp allele of Rep1 was associated with faster motor progression in PD. On the contrary, a recent report failed to detect a detrimental effect of Rep1 263 on both motor and cognitive outcomes in PD. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the Rep1 variants on disease progression in PD patients. Methods: We recruited and genotyped for SNCA Rep1 426 PD patients with age at onset ≥40 years and disease duration ≥4 years. We then analyzed frequency and time of occurrence of wearing-off, dyskinesia, freezing of gait, visual hallucinations, and dementia using a multivariate Cox's proportional hazards regression model. Results: SNCA Rep1 263 carriers showed significantly increased risk of both dementia (HR = 3.03) and visual hallucinations (HR = 2.69) compared to 263 non-carriers. Risk of motor complications did not differ in the two groups. Conclusion: SNCA Rep1 263 allele is associated with a worse cognitive outcome in PD.

19.
Cancer Med ; 7(6): 2665-2681, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663688

RESUMO

The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several factors related to early stimulation of the immune system, that is, farm residence and regular contacts with farm animals (livestock, poultry) or pets in early childhood, were investigated using data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. The sample included 7847 ALL cases and 11,667 controls aged 1-14 years. In all studies, the data were obtained from case and control parents using standardized questionnaires. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Contact with livestock in the first year of life was inversely associated with ALL (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.85). Inverse associations were also observed for contact with dogs (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and cats (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94) in the first year of life. There was no evidence of a significant association with farm residence in the first year of life. The findings of these large pooled and meta-analyses add additional evidence to the hypothesis that regular contact with animals in early childhood is inversely associated with childhood ALL occurrence which is consistent with Greaves' delayed infection hypothesis.

20.
Epidemiol Prev ; 41(5-6): 250-255, 2017 Sep-Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to consider the admission test to the degree course in Medicine and Surgery in the three campus of Piedmont Region (Northern Italy) in order to discuss the ability of this test to predict the academic outcome of the students. DESIGN: cohort study considering all the students enrolled in the first year of medicine during the academic year 2014-2015. Their academic career is monitored during the period January 2015-February 2016. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: a total of 781 students is considered and divided into two groups: regular (registered after passing the admission test; n. 605) and TAR (registered after court decision and having won the case in tribunal; n. 176). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: the study is based on three indicators of performance: A1. at least one of the required exams in the first year passed; A2. at least half of the required exams in the first year passed; A3. all the exams required in the first year passed. Statistical analyses are based on: positive predictive value and relative 95% confidence interval; odds ratio and relative 95% confidence intervals, adjusted by sex, age, high school type, and vote estimated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: the results highlight the good prediction of the admission test that remains significant even after adjustment for the confounding factors considered. CONCLUSIONS: the major limits are the short period of observation and the restricted number of campus considered. However, this analysis confirms the importance of the admission test. In fact, students with low scores in the test could show serious disadvantages in passing the exams (in the appointed time) in the first year.


Assuntos
Teste de Admissão Acadêmica , Educação Médica , Escolaridade , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Seguimentos , Previsões , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Humanos , Itália , Razão de Chances , Estudantes de Medicina , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
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