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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586336

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Real-life data comparing clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor for unselected patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are lacking, as are data for the temporal distribution of ischemic and bleeding risks. METHODS: A total of 19,825 patients were enrolled from the RENAMI and BleeMACS registries. Both were multicenter, retrospective, observational registries including the data and outcomes of consecutive patients with ACS who underwent primary PCI and were discharged with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). We evaluated the long-term outcome stratified by the different antiplatelet agents. RESULTS: A total of 14,105 patients (71.2%) were treated with clopidogrel, 2364 patients (11.9%) with prasugrel and 3356 patients (16.9%) with ticagrelor. After propensity score matching, at 1 year, prasugrel reduced the incidence of net adverse clinical events (NACE; a composite endpoint of all-cause death, myocardial infarction [MI] and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium [BARC] 3-5 bleeding) (4.2% vs.7.6%, p = 0.002) and of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; a composite endpoint of death and MI) compared with clopidogrel (2.6% vs. 5.2%, p = 0.007). Ticagrelor decreased rates of MACE compared with clopidogrel (2.7% vs. 6.2%, p < 0.001), but not of NACE (6.6% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.07). Ticagrelor presented similar performance in terms of MACE compared with prasugrel (2.8% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.56), with a trend towards a reduction in MI (0.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.56), but with higher risk of BARC 3-5 bleedings (3.8% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.04). In the daily risk analysis, clopidogrel presented a binomial distribution with a peak of ischemic risk at 3 months, which decreased towards bleedings; prasugrel had a constant equivalence between opposite risks; and ticagrelor constantly reduced recurrent MIs despite higher risk of BARC 3-5 events. CONCLUSION: In real life, ticagrelor is more effective in reducing ischemic events during the first year after ACS, despite an increased risk of major bleedings, while prasugrel assures a better balance between ischemic and bleeding recurrent events.

2.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 20(10): 552-558, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593158

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic heart failure (CHF) are two entities that share several aspects: (i) these are two chronic conditions associated with poor prognosis; (ii) they involve frailty patients who need strict monitoring in terms of visits and treatment; (iii) both CKD and CHF patients benefit from renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASI). RAASI proved effective in significantly reducing the risk for cardiovascular events, mortality and end-stage renal disease in CKD and CHF patients. Notwithstanding, RAASI use may induce hyperkalemia. High serum potassium (≥5.0 mEq/l) is, per se, responsible for higher risk for end-stage renal disease, arrhythmias and mortality. This risk is even reinforced when patients who develop hyperkalemia withdraw or reduce RAASI treatment, thus losing nephro- and cardioprotective effects. Current available strategies aimed at reducing hyperkalemia include dietary restriction, loop diuretics, potassium binders, namely sodium/calcium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS/CPS), patiromer, and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (SZC). SPS and CPS have shown low safety/efficacy and several drug-drug interactions, these being major limitations to their use. Patiromer and SZC were found to reduce potassium with less side effects. These findings combined provide strong support that management of hyperkalemia is crucial for cardiologists and nephrologists to improve prognosis among CKD and CHF patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511896

RESUMO

AIMS: Aim of the present study was to establish the safety and efficacy profile of prasugrel and ticagrelor in real-life acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with renal dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: All consecutive patients from RENAMI and BLEEMACS registries were stratified according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) lower or greater than 60mL/min/1.73m2. Death and myocardial infarction (MI) were the primary efficacy endpoints. Major bleedings (MB), defined as Bleeding Academic Research Consortium bleeding types 3 to 5, constituted the safety endpoint.19255 patients were enrolled. Mean age was 63 ± 12; 14892 (77.3%) were males. 2490 (12.9%) patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m2. Mean follow-up was 13±5 months. Mortality was significantly higher in CKD patients (9.4% vs 2.6%, p < 0.0001), as well as the incidence of reinfarction (5.8% vs 2.9%, p < 0.0001) and MB (5.7% vs 3%, p < 0.0001). At Cox multivariable analysis, potent P2Y12 inhibitors significantly reduced the mortality rate (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.54-0.96, p = 0.006) and the risk of reinfarction (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.95, p = 0.033) in CKD patients as compared to clopidogrel. The reduction of risk of re-infarction was confirmed in patients with preserved renal function. Potent P2Y12 inhibitors did not increase the risk of MB in CKD patients (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.59-1.68, p = 0.985). CONCLUSION: In ACS patients with CKD, prasugrel and ticagrelor are associated with lower risk of death and recurrent MI without increasing the risk of MB.

5.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 19(4): 381-391, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available concerning differences in clinical outcomes for real-life patients treated with ticagrelor versus prasugrel after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine and compare the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and prasugrel in a real-world population. METHODS: RENAMI was a retrospective, observational registry including the data and outcomes of consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent primary PCI and were discharged with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) between January 2012 and January 2016. The mean follow-up period was 17 ± 9 months. In total, 11 university hospitals from six European countries participated. After propensity-score matching, there were no substantial differences in the baseline clinical and interventional features. All patients were treated with acetylsalicylic acid plus prasugrel 10 mg once daily or acetylsalicylic acid plus ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily. Mean duration of DAPT was 12.04 ± 3.4 months with prasugrel and 11.90 ± 4.1 months with ticagrelor (p = 0.47). The primary and secondary endpoints were long-term net adverse clinical events (NACE) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), respectively, along with their single components. Subgroup analysis for freedom from NACE and MACE was performed according to length of DAPT and clinical presentation [ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-ACS versus non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)-ACS]. RESULTS: In total, 4424 patients (2725 ticagrelor, 1699 prasugrel) were enrolled. After propensity-score matching, 1290 patients in each cohort were included in the analysis. At 12 months, the incidence of both NACE and MACE was lower with prasugrel (NACE: 5.3% vs. 8.5% [p = 0.001]; MACE: 5% vs. 8.1% [p =  0.001]) mainly driven by a reduction in recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) (2.4 vs. 4.0%; p = 0.029) and a lower rate of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 3-5 bleeding (1.5 vs. 2.9%; p = 0.011). The benefit of prasugrel was confirmed for patients with NSTEMI and for those discharged with a DAPT regimen of ≤ 12 months. Only a trend in the reduction of NACE and MACE was noted for STEMI or for those treated with longer DAPT. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of these drugs suggested that prasugrel is safer and more efficacious than ticagrelor in combination with aspirin after NSTEMI but not STEMI. No differences were found for events occurring after 12 months. The nonrandomized design of the present research means further studies are required to support these findings.

6.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319836327, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The benefits of short versus long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) based on the third generation P2Y12 antagonists prasugrel or ticagrelor, in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with percutaneous coronary intervention remain to be clearly defined due to current evidences limited to patients treated with clopidogrel. METHODS: All acute coronary syndrome patients from the REgistry of New Antiplatelets in patients with Myocardial Infarction (RENAMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and treated with aspirin, prasugrel or ticagrelor were stratified according to DAPT duration, that is, shorter than 12 months (D1 group), 12 months (D2 group) and longer than 12 months (D3 group). The three groups were compared before and after propensity score matching. Net adverse clinical events (NACEs), defined as a combination of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and major bleedings (including therefore all cause death, myocardial infarction and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 3-5 bleeding), were the primary end points, MACEs (a composite of all cause death and myocardial infarction) the secondary one. Single components of NACEs were co-secondary end points, along with BARC 2-5 bleeding, cardiovascular death and stent thrombosis. RESULTS: A total of 4424 patients from the RENAMI registry with available data on DAPT duration were included in the model. After propensity score matching, 628 patients from each group were selected. After 20 months of follow up, DAPT for 12 months and DAPT for longer than 12 months significantly reduced the risk of NACE (D1 11.6% vs. D2 6.7% vs. D3 7.2%, p = 0.003) and MACE (10% vs. 6.2% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001) compared with DAPT for less than 12 months. These differences were driven by a reduced risk of all cause death (7.8% vs. 1.3% vs. 1.6%, p < 0.001), cardiovascular death (5.1% vs. 1.0% vs. 1.2%, p < 0.0001) and recurrent myocardial infarction (8.3% vs. 5.2% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.002). NACEs were lower with longer DAPT despite a higher risk of BARC 2-5 bleedings (4.6% vs. 5.7% vs. 6.2%, p = 0.04) and a trend towards a higher risk of BARC 3-5 bleedings (2.4% vs. 3.3% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.06). These results were not consistent for female patients and those older than 75 years old, due to an increased risk of bleedings which exceeded the reduction in myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: In unselected real world acute coronary syndrome patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, DAPT with prasugrel or ticagrelor prolonged beyond 12 months markedly reduces fatal and non-fatal ischaemic events, offsetting the increased risk deriving from the higher bleeding risk. On the contrary, patients >75 years old and female ones showed a less favourable risk-benefit ratio for longer DAPT due to excess of bleedings.

7.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(3): 215-223, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-2131

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: La puntuación PARIS permite una estratificación combinada de los riesgos isquémico y hemorrágico de los pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica tratados con stent coronario y tratamiento antiagregante plaquetario doble (TAPD). Se desconoce su utilidad en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) tratados con ticagrelor o prasugrel. Se investiga este aspecto en un registro internacional. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo multicéntrico con participación voluntaria de 11 centros de 6 países europeos. Se estudio ́a 4.310 pacientes con SCA dados de alta en TAPD con ticagrelor o prasugrel. Se definío evento isquémico como trombosis de stent o infarto de miocardio espontáneo, y evento hemorrágico según BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) tipo3 o 5. Se calculó la discriminación y la calibración para ambas vertientes de la puntuación PARIS (PARISisquémico y PARIShemorrágico). El beneficio neto isquémico-hemorrágico se obtuvo mediante la diferencia entre las probabilidades predichas de eventos isqueémicos y hemorrágicos. Resultados: Durante 17,2 ± 8,3 meses, hubo 80 eventos isquémicos (el 1,9% anual) y 66 eventos hemorrágicos (el 1,6% anual). PARISisquémico y PARIShemorrágico se asociaron con el riesgo de evetos isquémicos (sHR=1,27; IC95%, 1,16-1,39) y hemorrágicos (sHR = 1,14; IC95%, 1,01-1,30) respectivamente. La discriminación de eventos isquémicos fue discreta (índice C = 0,64) y la de eventos hemorrágicos, pobre (índice C= 0,56), con buena calibración para ambos. El beneficio neto isquémico-hemorrágico resultó negativo (más eventos hemorrágicos) en pacientes con alto riesgo hemorrágico y positivo (más eventos isquémicos) en pacientes con alto riesgo isquémico. Conclusiones: En pacientes con SCA tratados con TAPD conticagrelor o prasugrel, la escala PARIS ayuda a establecer un equilibrio apropiado del riesgo isquémico-hemorrágico


Introduction and objectives: The PARIS score allows combined stratification of ischemic and hemorrhagic risk in patients with ischemic heart disease treated with coronary stenting and dual antiplatelet therapy(DAPT). Its usefulness in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with ticagrelor or prasugrel is unknown. We investigated this issue in an international registry. Methods: Retrospective multicenter study with voluntary participation of 11 centers in 6 European countries. We studied 4310 patients with ACS discharged with DAPT with ticagrelor or prasugrel. Ischemic events were defined as stent thrombosis or spontaneous myocardial infarction, and hemorrhagic events as BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) type 3 or 5 bleeding. Discrimination and calibration were calculated for both PARIS scores (PARISischemic and PARIShemorrhagic). The ischemic-hemorrhagic net benefit was obtained by the difference between the predicted probabilities of ischemic and bleeding events. Results: During a period of 17.2 ± 8.3 months, there were 80 ischemic events(1.9% per year) and 66 bleeding events (1.6% per year). PARISischemic and PARIShemorrhagic scores were associated with a risk of ischemic events (sHR, 1.27; 95%CI, 1.16-1.39) and bleeding events (sHR, 1.14; 95%CI, 1.01-1.30), respectively. The discrimination for ischemic events was modest (Cindex = 0.64) and was suboptimal for hemorrhagic events (Cindex = 0.56), where as calibration was acceptable for both. The ischemic-hemorrhagic net benefit was negative (more hemorrhagic events) in patients at high hemorrhagic risk, and was positive (more ischemicevents) in patients at high ischemic risk. Conclusions: In patients with ACS treated with DAPT with ticagrelor or prasugrel, the PARIS model helps to properly evaluate the ischemic-hemorrhagic risk

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(22): e009260, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571502

RESUMO

Background Ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in patients with prior MI in PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events [eg, Death From Heart or Vascular Disease, Heart Attack, or Stroke] in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin). MI can occur in diverse settings and with varying severity; therefore, understanding the types and sizes of MI events prevented is of clinical importance. Methods and Results MIs were adjudicated by a blinded clinical events committee and categorized by subtype and fold elevation of peak cardiac troponin over the upper limit of normal. A total of 1042 MIs occurred in 898 of the 21 162 randomized patients over a median follow-up of 33 months. The majority of the MIs (76%) were spontaneous (Type 1), with demand MI (Type 2) and stent thrombosis (Type 4b) accounting for 13% and 9%, respectively; sudden death (Type 3), percutaneous coronary intervention-related (Type 4a) and coronary artery bypass graft-related (Type 5) each accounted for <1%. Half of MIs (520, 50%) had a peak troponin ≥10x upper limit of normal and 21% of MIs (220) had a peak troponin ≥100× upper limit of normal. A total of 21% (224) were ST-segment-elevation MI STEMI. Overall ticagrelor reduced MI (4.47% versus 5.25%, hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.95, P=0.0055). The benefit was consistent among the subtypes, including a 31% reduction in MIs with a peak troponin ≥100× upper limit of normal (hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.92, P=0.0096) and a 40% reduction in ST-segment elevation MI (hazard ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.78, P=0.0002). Conclusions In stable outpatients with prior MI, the majority of recurrent MIs are spontaneous and associated with a high biomarker elevation. Ticagrelor reduces the MI consistently among subtypes and sizes including large MIs and ST-segment elevation MI. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01225562.

9.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872618802783, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270638

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The safety and efficacy of prasugrel and ticagrelor in patients with diabetes mellitus presenting with acute coronary syndrome and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention remain to be assessed. METHODS: All diabetes patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome and enrolled in the REgistry of New Antiplatelets in patients with Myocardial Infarction (RENAMI) were compared before and after propensity score matching. Net adverse cardiovascular events (composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction and BARC 3-5 bleedings) and major adverse cardiovascular events (composite of death, stroke and myocardial infarction) were the co-primary endpoints. Single components of primary endpoints were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: Among 4424 patients enrolled in RENAMI, 462 and 862 diabetes patients treated with prasugrel and ticagrelor, respectively, were considered. After propensity score matching, 386 patients from each group were selected. At 19±5 months, major adverse cardiovascular events and net adverse cardiovascular events were similar in the prasugrel and ticagrelor groups (5.4% vs. 3.4%, P=0.16 and 6.7% vs. 4.1%, P=0.11, respectively). Ticagrelor was associated with a lower risk of death and BARC 2-5 bleeding when compared to prasugrel (2.8% vs. 0.8%, P=0.031 and 6.0% vs. 2.6%, P=0.02, respectively) and a clear but not significant trend for a reduction of BARC 3-5 bleeding (2.3% vs. 0.8%, P=0.08). There were no significant differences in myocardial infarction recurrence and stent thrombosis. CONCLUSION: Diabetes patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome seem to benefit equally in terms of major adverse cardiovascular events from ticagrelor or prasugrel use. Ticagrelor was associated with a significant reduction in all-cause death and bleedings, without differences in recurrent ischaemic events, which should be confirmed in dedicated randomised controlled trials.

10.
Int J Cardiol ; 273: 29-33, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate "real life" incidence and independent predictors of major bleeding defined in ACS patients treated with PCI and current standard antithrombotic therapy with prasugrel or ticagrelor. METHODS AND RESULTS: The RENAMI project is a multicenter retrospective observational registry enrolling 4424 patients with ACS treated with PCI and prasugrel or ticagrelor plus aspirin. Primary endpoint was MACE (major adverse cardiovascular events). Secondary endpoints included each component of MACE, cardiovascular death (CV death), recurrence of ACS (reACS) and stroke. Eighty three (1.8%) patients developed out of hospital major bleedings after 14.1 ±â€¯6.2 months. These patients had higher rates of MACE (14.5% vs 4.4%; p = 0.001) and of all-cause death (11% vs 2.1%; p < 0.001). Independent predictors of major bleeding were age >75 years (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.18-3.41; p = 0.010) and female sex (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.02-2.70; p = 0.041). BARC 3-5 bleeding was independently associated with all-cause mortality (OR 3.46; 95% CI 1.64-7.31; p 0.001). CONCLUSION: In ACS patients treated with PCI and ticagrelor or prasugrel, BARC 3-5 bleedings despite being uncommon negatively impacted on prognosis. Old and female patients are at increased risk, offering clinical indications for tailoring dual antiplatelet therapy.

11.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The PARIS score allows combined stratification of ischemic and hemorrhagic risk in patients with ischemic heart disease treated with coronary stenting and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Its usefulness in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with ticagrelor or prasugrel is unknown. We investigated this issue in an international registry. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study with voluntary participation of 11 centers in 6 European countries. We studied 4310 patients with ACS discharged with DAPT with ticagrelor or prasugrel. Ischemic events were defined as stent thrombosis or spontaneous myocardial infarction, and hemorrhagic events as BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) type 3 or 5 bleeding. Discrimination and calibration were calculated for both PARIS scores (PARISischemic and PARIShemorrhagic). The ischemic-hemorrhagic net benefit was obtained by the difference between the predicted probabilities of ischemic and bleeding events. RESULTS: During a period of 17.2 ± 8.3 months, there were 80 ischemic events (1.9% per year) and 66 bleeding events (1.6% per year). PARISischemic and PARIShemorrhagic scores were associated with a risk of ischemic events (sHR, 1.27; 95%CI, 1.16-1.39) and bleeding events (sHR, 1.14; 95%CI, 1.01-1.30), respectively. The discrimination for ischemic events was modest (C index = 0.64) and was suboptimal for hemorrhagic events (C index = 0.56), whereas calibration was acceptable for both. The ischemic-hemorrhagic net benefit was negative (more hemorrhagic events) in patients at high hemorrhagic risk, and was positive (more ischemic events) in patients at high ischemic risk. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACS treated with DAPT with ticagrelor or prasugrel, the PARIS model helps to properly evaluate the ischemic-hemorrhagic risk.

12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954720

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: There is little evidence on rates of stent thrombosis (ST) in patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with ticagrelor or prasugrel. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and predictors of ST after an acute coronary syndrome among patients receiving DAPT with ticagrelor vs prasugrel. METHODS: We used data from the RENAMI registry (REgistry of New Antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute Myocardial Infarction), analyzing a total of 4123 acute coronary syndrome patients discharged with DAPT with ticagrelor or prasugrel in 11 centers in 6 European countries. The endpoint was definite ST within the first year. A competitive risk analysis was carried out using a Fine and Gray regression model, with death being the competitive event. RESULTS: A total of 2604 patients received DAPT with ticagrelor and 1519 with prasugrel; ST occurred in 41 patients (1.10%), with a similar cumulative incidence between ticagrelor (1.21%) and prasugrel (0.90%). The independent predictors of ST were age (sHR, 1.03; 95%CI, 1.01-1.06), ST segment elevation (sHR, 2.24; 95%CI, 1.22-4.14), previous myocardial infarction (sHR, 2.56; 95%CI, 1.19-5.49), and serum creatinine (sHR, 1.29; 95%CI, 1.08-1.54). CONCLUSIONS: Stent thrombosis is infrequent in patients receiving DAPT with ticagrelor or prasugrel. The variables associated with an increased risk of ST were advanced age, ST segment elevation, previous myocardial infarction, and serum creatinine.

13.
Thromb Res ; 167: 142-148, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857270

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ticagrelor and prasugrel are recommended as first line therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, patients with anemia are commonly treated with clopidogrel in routine clinical practice. The RENAMI registry (REgistry of New Antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute Myocardial Infarction) included ACS patients treated with prasugrel or ticagrelor at hospital discharge. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of anemia and characteristics and outcomes of these patients according to anemia status. METHODS: Consecutive patients with ACS from 11 centers were included. All patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <130 g/L in men and <120 g/L in women. The incidence of ischemic and bleeding events and all-cause mortality were assessed at one year. RESULTS: From 4424 patients included, 405 (9.2%) fulfilled criteria of anemia. Patients with anemia were significantly older, had a higher prevalence of peripheral artery disease, previous bleeding and renal disfunction and higher bleeding risk (PRECISE-DAPT score ≥ 25: 37.3% vs 18.8%, p < 0.001) The incidence of BARC 3/5 bleeding was moderately higher in patients with anemia (5.4% vs 1.5%, p = 0.001). The incidence of stent thrombosis or reinfarction was not significantly different according to anemia status. Anemia was independently associated with mortality (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.03-2.91, p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: A not negligible proportion of patients treated with ticagrelor or prasugrel met criteria for anemia. Anemia was an independent predictor of mortality. Despite their higher bleeding risk profile, patients with anemia had an acceptable rate of bleeding.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(11): 1368-1375, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28882235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticagrelor reduces ischemic risk in patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI). It remains unclear whether ischemic risk and the benefits of prolonged P2Y12 inhibition in this population remain consistent over time. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to investigate the pattern of ischemic risk over time and whether the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor were similar early and late after randomization. METHODS: The PEGASUS-TIMI (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) 54 trial randomized patients with prior MI (median 1.7 years prior) to ticagrelor 90 mg, ticagrelor 60 mg, or placebo on a background of aspirin. The rates of cardiovascular (CV) death, MI, and stroke as well as TIMI major bleeding were analyzed at yearly landmarks (years 1, 2, and 3). RESULTS: A total of 21,162 patients were randomized and followed for 33 months (median), with 28% of patients ≥5 years from MI at trial conclusion. The risk of CV death, MI, or stroke in the placebo arm remained roughly constant over the trial at an ∼3% annualized rate. The benefit of ticagrelor 60 mg was consistent at each subsequent landmark (year 1 hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67 to 0.99; year 2 HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.11; and year 3 HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00). TIMI major bleeding was increased with ticagrelor 60 mg at each landmark, but with the greatest hazard in the first year (year 1 HR: 3.22; year 2 HR: 2.07; year 3 HR: 1.65). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of MI remain at persistent high risk for CVD, MI, and stroke as late as 5 years after MI. The efficacy of low-dose ticagrelor is consistent over time with a trend toward less excess bleeding. (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin [PEGASUS]; NCT01225562).


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Ticagrelor , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
EuroIntervention ; 13(1): 78-86, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28044986

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 24-month vs. six-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) among elderly (≥75 years) and non-elderly patients (<75 years) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: The primary efficacy endpoint of the PRODIGY trial was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular accident at 24-month follow-up. The key safety endpoint was type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding according to the BARC criteria. Of 1,970 participants, 587 (29.8%) were elderly and had a higher risk of adverse events compared with younger patients. The risk of the primary endpoint was not significantly reduced with 24-month compared to six-month DAPT among both elderly (HR 0.80, 95% CI: 0.55-1.16, p=0.24) and non-elderly patients (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.95-2.30, p=0.08), although interaction testing was significant (p=0.036). A 24-month versus six-month DAPT significantly increased the risk of BARC type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding in both older (HR 1.90, 95% CI: 1.06-3.38, p=0.03) and younger patients (HR 2.54, 95% CI: 1.43-4.53, p=0.002, p-interaction=0.48). However, measures of absolute risk difference indicated a less favourable safety profile of prolonged DAPT for older rather than younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the PRODIGY trial, prolonging clopidogrel-based DAPT beyond six months in elderly patients increased the risk of bleeding, without affording a significant prevention of ischaemic events.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ticlopidina/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/efeitos adversos
16.
Fam Cancer ; 16(2): 211-220, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27783336

RESUMO

Attenuated polyposis could be defined as a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in which synchronous polyps of the large bowel range between 10 and 99. We analysed all cases of attenuated polyposis observed over the last 30 years with the objectives: (A) to classify the disease according to different type and proportion of polyps; (B) To ascertain the contribution of APC and MutYH genes; (C) to discover features which could arise the suspicion of mutations; (D) To obtain indications for management and follow-up. 84 individuals in 82 families were studied. Polyps were classified into four groups as adenoma, hyperplastic, other serrated lesions or others; APC and MutYH mutations were assessed. Mean age at diagnosis was 54 ± 14 years in men and 48 ± 13 in women (P = 0.005). Polyps were more numerous in women (37 ± 26 vs 29 ± 22). Sixty % of patients underwent bowel resection, mainly for cancer; the remaining were managed through endoscopy. A total of 2586 polyps were detected at diagnostic endoscopy: 2026 (80 %) were removed and analysed. Adenomas were diagnosed in 1445 (70 %), hyperplastic polyps in 541 (26 %), other serrated lesions in 61 (2.9 %). Adenomas and hyperplastic lesions were detected in the majority of patients. In 68 patients (81 %) in whom studies were executed, APC mutations were found in 8 and MutYH mutations in 10. Genetic variants were more frequent in women (12 vs 6, P = 0.039). Taking into consideration the prevalent (>50 %) histology and presence of mutations, patients could be subdivided into four groups: (1) APC mutated polyposis (AFAP), when adenomas were >50 % and APC mutations detected (no. 8, 10 %); (2) MutYH mutated polyposis (MAP), adenomas >50 % and biallelic MutYH mutations (no. 10, 12 %); (1) attenuated polyposis without detectable mutations, prevalence of adenomas, 48 cases (57 %); (1) hyperplastic-serrated polyposis, with prevalence (>50 %) of hyperplastic/other serrated lesions and no constitutional mutation (no. 18, 21 %). Aggregation of tumors, cancer in probands, distribution of polyps and other clinical characteristics showed no difference among the four groups. In conclusions, AFAP and MAP, the polyposis labeled by constitutional mutations, represented about 25 % of all attenuated polyposis. Mutation-associated cases showed an earlier age of onset of polyps and were more frequent in the female sex.


Assuntos
Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Colonoscopia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genes APC , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fatores Sexuais
17.
JACC Heart Fail ; 4(11): 870-880, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27614940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the efficacy and safety of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) by a meta-analysis. BACKGROUND: AF is quite prevalent in patients with HF. METHODS: Four phase III clinical trials comparing NOACs to warfarin in patients with AF were included. Each patient was defined as affected by HF according to the criteria of the trial in which the patient was enrolled. Pre-specified outcomes were the composite of stroke/systemic embolism (SSE); major, intracranial, and any bleeding; and cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause death. RESULTS: A total of 55,011 patients were enrolled, 26,384 (48%) with HF, and 28,627 (52%) without HF; 27,518 receiving NOACs and 27,493 receiving warfarin (median, 70 years of age; 36% females; follow-up: 1.5 to 2.8 years). Rates of SSE (relative risk [RR]: 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90 to 1.07]; p = 0.68) and major bleeding (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.03; p = 0.21) were comparable in patients with and without HF. HF patients had reduced rates of any (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.91; p < 0.01) and intracranial (RR: 0.74 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.88; p < 0.01) bleeding but increased rates of all-cause (RR: 1.70 95% CI: 1.31 to 2.19; p < 0.01) and CV death (RR: 2.05 95% CI: 1.66 to 2.55; p < 0.01). NOACs, compared with warfarin significantly reduced SSE and major, intracranial, and any bleeding, regardless of the presence or absence of HF (pinteraction > 0.05 for each). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AF and HF had increased mortality but reduced rates of intracranial and any bleeding compared with the no-HF patients, with no differences in rates of SSE and major bleeding. NOACs significantly reduced SSE, major bleeding, and intracranial hemorrhage in HF patients. No interactions in efficacy and safety of NOACs were observed between AF patients with and without HF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Embolia/etiologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Mortalidade , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 1(7): 795-803, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27572001

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with concomitant peripheral arterial disease (PAD) experience worse cardiovascular outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of prolonged (24 months) vs short (≤6 months) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with PAD undergoing PCI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This subanalysis of the randomized Prolonging Dual Antiplatelet Treatment After Grading Stent-Induced Intimal Hyperplasia Study (PRODIGY) trial assessed unselected patients from tertiary care hospitals with stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes with or without concomitant PAD from December 2006 to December 2008. Data analysis was performed from January 7 to April 4, 2016. Interventions: Percutaneous coronary intervention. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of the primary efficacy end point, composite of death, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular accidents, and occurrence of the key safety end point, a composite of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5. Results: This analysis comprised 246 and 1724 patients with and without PAD, respectively. In the patients with PAD, mean (SD) age was 73.2 (9.2) in the prolonged group and 75.7 (8.7) years in the short DAPT group, and 97 (82.2%) were male in the prolonged group and 92 (71.9%) were male in the short DAPT group. In the patients without PAD, mean (SD) age was 67.1 (11.2) years in the prolonged group and 66.8 (11.3) years in the short DAPT group, and 667 (76.8%) were male in the prolonged group and 655 (76.6%) were male in the short DAPT group. Status of PAD was associated with a higher risk of death and ischemic events (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80; 95% CI, 2.05-3.83; P < .001). Prolonged vs short DAPT conveyed a lower risk of the primary efficacy end point in patients with PAD (19 [16.1%] vs 35 [27.3%]; HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.95; P = .03) but not in patients without PAD (81 [9.3%] vs 63 [7.4%]; HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.92-1.77; P = .15), with positive interaction (P = .01). The risk of definite or probable stent thrombosis was significantly lower in patients with PAD treated with prolonged compared with short DAPT (HR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0-1.21; P = .01). Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding occurred in 6 patients with PAD (5.2%) receiving prolonged DAPT relative to 8 (6.9%) of those receiving short DAPT (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.27-2.21; P = .62), with a significant interaction (P = .04) compared with patients without PAD. Conclusions and Relevance: Peripheral artery disease confers a poor prognosis in patients undergoing PCI in the setting of stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes. Prolonged DAPT lowers the risk of ischemic events with no apparent bleeding liability in this high-risk group. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00611286.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Resinas Compostas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Stents , Túnica Íntima
19.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 9(17): 1780-9, 2016 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27544007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sex on 2-year outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients randomly allocated to 24-month versus 6-month dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of DAPT after PCI is highly debated. Whether sex per se should drive decision making on DAPT duration remains unclear. METHODS: The primary efficacy endpoint of PRODIGY (Prolonging Dual Antiplatelet Treatment After Grading Stent-Induced Intimal Hyperplasia Study) was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular accident at 24-month follow-up. The key safety endpoint was type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria. RESULTS: Women (n = 459 [23.3%]) were older and more likely to have hypertension, lower creatinine clearance, and acute coronary syndrome but had a lower severity of coronary artery disease. After adjustment, prolonged DAPT, compared with 6-month treatment, did not reduce the primary endpoint in both men (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.080; 95% confidence interval: 0.766 to 1.522; p = 0.661) and women (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.013; 95% confidence interval: 0.588 to 1.748; p = 0.962) (interaction p = 0.785). No sex disparity was identified across multiple secondary ischemic endpoints, including overall or cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis. There was also no clear sex-related effect on clinically relevant bleeding, including Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5, TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction), and GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) scales. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that men and women undergoing PCI have similar adjusted 2-year ischemic and bleeding outcomes, despite being characterized by different clinical presentation. Sex failed to emerge as a treatment modifier with respect to DAPT duration, suggesting that decision making on DAPT duration in female patients should weigh ischemic versus bleeding risks.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Neointima , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Ticlopidina/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 1(4): 425-32, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27438319

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: In the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial, treatment with ticagrelor reduced the incidence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke by 15% to 16% among stable patients compared with placebo. However, more patients prematurely discontinued treatment with ticagrelor than with placebo. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reasons and timing of discontinuation of treatment with ticagrelor among stable patients prior myocardial infarction. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial, 21 162 stable outpatients with prior myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to 90 mg of ticagrelor twice daily, 60 mg of ticagrelor twice daily, or placebo, with all of the patients receiving a low dose of aspirin. These participants were followed up for a median of 33 months (study start date: October 2010; completion date: December 2014). Discontinuation of treatment was evaluated by treatment arm, cause, and timing. This analysis was initiated in May 2015. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Discontinuation of treatment. RESULTS: Over 33 months, 32%, 29%, and 21% of patients receiving 90 mg of ticagrelor, 60 mg of ticagrelor, and placebo, respectively, discontinued treatment (P < .001). Discontinuation of treatment due to an adverse event occurred in 19%, 16%, and 9% of patients, respectively (P < .001). The most frequent adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment were bleeding (with Kaplan-Meier event rates of 7.8%, 6.2%, and 1.5% of patients, respectively; P < .001) and dyspnea (6.5%, 4.6%, and 0.8% of patients, respectively; P < .001). Eighty-six percent of bleeding events that led to the discontinuation of treatment with ticagrelor were nonmajor, and 86% of adverse events due to dyspnea that led to discontinuation of treatment with ticagrelor were mild or moderate in severity. The discontinuation rates are annualized for patients who received 90 mg of ticagrelor twice daily (hazard ratio [HR], 2.00 [95% CI, 1.84-2.16] for the first year; HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.00-1.26] for the second and third years) and patients who received 60 mg of ticagrelor twice daily (HR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.46-1.73] for the first year; HR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.06-1.32] for the second and third years) compared with patients who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: When initiated among stable patients with prior myocardial infarction, discontinuation of treatment with ticagrelor was driven primarily by nonserious adverse events occurring primarily early after randomization. For patients completing 1 year of treatment, the subsequent discontinuation rate was low. These data demonstrate how adverse events considered "nonserious" by traditional trial criteria may have an effect on quality of life and, thus, may precipitate the discontinuation of treatments and underscore the need for patient education and counseling on the timing and nature of adverse effects with the aim of improving adherence when appropriate. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01225562.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Dispneia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y , Qualidade de Vida , Ticagrelor
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