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1.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no known effective therapy for patients with COVID-19. Initial reports suggesting the potential benefit of Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin (HY/AZ) have resulted in massive adoption of this combination worldwide. However, while the true efficacy of this regimen is unknown, initial reports have raised concerns regarding the potential risk of QT prolongation and induction of torsade de pointes (TdP). OBJECTIVE: to assess the change in QTc interval and arrhythmic events in patients with COVID-19 treated with HY/AZ METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 251 patients from two centers, diagnosed with COVID-19 and treated with HY/AZ. We reviewed ECG tracings from baseline and until 3 days after completion of therapy to determine the progression of QTc and incidence of arrhythmia and mortality. RESULTS: QTc prolonged in parallel with increasing drug exposure and incompletely shortened after its completion. Extreme new QTc prolongation to > 500 ms, a known marker of high risk for TdP had developed in 23% of patients. One patient developed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) suspected as TdP, requiring emergent cardioversion. Seven patients required premature termination of therapy. The baseline QTc of patients exhibiting extreme QTc prolongation was normal. CONCLUSION: The combination of HY/AZ significantly prolongs the QTc in patients with COVID-19. This prolongation may be responsible for life threating arrhythmia in the form of TdP. This risk mandates careful consideration of HY/AZ therapy in lights of its unproven efficacy. Strict QTc monitoring should be performed if the regimen is given.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) little is known about the clinical impact of catheter ablation (CA) of septal ventricular tachycardia (VT) resulting in the collateral injury of the conduction system (CICS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-five consecutive patients with NICM underwent CA of septal VT. Outcomes in patients with no baseline conduction abnormalities who developed CICS (group 1, n = 28 [29%]) were compared to patients with no CICS (group 2, n = 17 [18%]) and to patients with preexisting conduction abnormalities or biventricular pacing (group 3, n = 50 [53%]). Group-1 patients were younger, had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and a lower prevalence of New York Heart Association III/IV class compared to group 3 while no significant differences were observed with group 2. After a median follow-up of 15 months, VT recurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 12% in group 2 (P = .94) and 32% in group 3 (P = .08) while death/transplant occurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 18% in group 2 (P = .69) and 28% in group 3 (P = .15). A worsening of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (median LVEF variation, -5%) was observed in group 1 compared to group 2 (median LVEF variation, 0%; P < .01) but not group-3 patients (median LVEF variation, -4%; P = .08) with a consequent higher need for new biventricular pacing in group 1 (43%) compared to group 2 (12%; P = .03) and group 3 (16%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NICM and septal substrate, sparing the abnormal substrate harboring the conduction system provides acceptable VT control while preventing a worsening of the systolic function.

3.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(7): 801-813, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the performance of established risk models in predicting outcomes after catheter ablation (CA) in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). BACKGROUND: A correct pre-procedural risk stratification of patients with NIDCM and VT undergoing CA is crucial. The performance of different pre-procedural risk stratification approaches to predict outcomes of CA of VT in patients with NIDCM is unknown. METHODS: The study compared the performance of 8 prognostic scores (SHFM [Seattle Heart Failure Model], MAGGIC [Meta-analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure], ADHERE [Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry], EFFECT [Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment-Heart Failure], OPTIMIZE-HF [Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure], CHARM [Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality], EuroSCORE [European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation], and PAINESD [Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Age > 60 Years, Ischemic Cardiomyopathy, New York Heart Association Functional Class III or IV, Ejection Fraction <25%, Presentation With VT Storm, Diabetes Mellitus]) for the endpoints of death/cardiac transplantation and VT recurrence in 282 consecutive patients (age 59 ± 15 years, left ventricular ejection fraction: 36 ± 13%) with NIDCM undergoing CA of VT. Discrimination and calibration of each model were evaluated through area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic curve and goodness-of-fit test. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 48 (interquartile range: 19-67) months, 43 patients (15%) died, 24 (9%) underwent heart transplantation, and 58 (21%) experienced VT recurrence. The prognostic accuracy of SHFM (AUC = 0.89; goodness-of-fit p = 0.68 for death/transplant and AUC = 0.77; goodness-of-fit p = 0.16 for VT recurrence) and PAINESD (AUC = 0.83; goodness-of-fit p = 0.24 for death/transplant and AUC = 0.68; goodness-of-fit p = 0.58 for VT recurrence) were significantly superior to that of other scores. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NIDCM and VT undergoing CA, the SHFM and PAINESD risk scores are powerful predictors of recurrent VT and death/transplant during follow-up, with similar performance and significantly superior to other scores. A pre-procedural calculation of the SHFM and PAINESD can be useful to predict outcomes.

4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 4(3): 291-303, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the electroanatomic (EAM) substrate in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) and ventricular tachycardia and its relationship to imaging findings of inflammation and fibrosis. BACKGROUND: CS is characterized by coexistence of active inflammation and replacement fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 42 patients with CS based on established criteria and ventricular tachycardia underwent high-density EAM mapping. Abnormal electrograms (EGM) were collected and independently classified as multicomponent fractionated, isolated, late, and split according to standard criteria and regardless of the peak-to-peak bipolar/unipolar voltage. A total of 29 patients (69%) underwent pre-procedural cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The distribution of EAM substrate was correlated with regions of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on CMR and increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on PET/CT. RESULTS: Of 21,451 bipolar and unipolar EGM, 4,073 (19%) were classified as abnormal with a predominant distribution in the basal perivalvular segments and interventricular septum. Using the standard bipolar (<1.5 mV) and unipolar (<8.3 mV for left ventricle <5.5 mV for the right) voltage cutoff values, 40% and 22% of the abnormal EGM were located outside the EAM low-voltage areas, respectively. LGE was present in 26 of 29 patients (90%), whereas abnormal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in 14 of 29 patients (48%) with imaging. Segments with abnormal EGM had more LGE-evident scar transmurality [median: 24% (interquartile range [IQR]: 4% to 40%) vs. median: 5% (IQR: 0% to 15%); p < 0.001] and lower metabolic activity (median: 20 g glucose [IQR: 14 g to 30 g] vs. median: 29 g glucose [IQR: 18 g to 39 g]; p < 0.001). Overall, the agreement between the presence of abnormal EGM was higher with the presence of LGE (κ = 0.51; p < 0.001) than with the presence of active inflammation (κ = -0.12; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CS and ventricular tachycardia, pre-procedural imaging with CMR and PET/CT can be useful in detecting EAM abnormalities that are potential targets for substrate ablation. Abnormal EGM were more likely located in segments with more scar transmurality (LGE) at CMR and a lower degree of inflammation on PET.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Sarcoidose , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoidose/epidemiologia , Sarcoidose/patologia , Sarcoidose/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular
5.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 45(8): 1394-1404, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has shown to be useful in diagnosis, staging and monitoring of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) but its interpretation is not standardized. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the clinical impact of serial quantitative FDG uptake analysis in patients with CS presenting with ventricular tachycardia (VT) treated by catheter ablation (CA). METHODS: We followed 20 patients (51 ± 9 years, 70% males) with CS and VT who underwent CA, with 92 serial FDG-PET scans (3-10 per patient). Myocardial FDG-avid lesions were quantified using three parameters: maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), partial-volume corrected mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) and partial-volume corrected volume-intensity product [lesion metabolic activity (LMA)]. The volume-intensity product of the entire heart [global cardiac metabolic activity (gCMA)] and the background cardiac metabolic activity (bCMA: difference between gCMA and LMA) were also calculated. The primary end-point was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including death, heart transplant, hospitalization for heart failure and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) appropriate interventions. Evolution of echocardiographic parameters over follow-up was also assessed. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 35 (20-66) months, 18 MACE (1 death, 2 heart transplants, 12 ICD appropriate interventions, 3 hospitalizations) occurred in 12 (60%) patients. At univariable analysis, lack of PET improvement (defined by decrease in LMA of at least 25%) was the only variable associated with cardiac events during follow-up. In particular, non-responders had a 20-fold higher risk of MACE at follow-up (HR 18.96, 95% CI 2.26-159.27; p = 0.007). Moreover, a significant linear inverse relationship was observed between changes in LMA and changes in left ventricular ejection fraction over follow-up (ß = -20.11; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CS and VT, temporal change in FDG uptake evaluated by a quantitative approach is associated with parallel change in systolic function. Moreover, reduction in FDG uptake is strongly associated with fewer MACE at long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Miocárdio/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoidose/complicações
6.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 3(7): 767-778, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of catheter ablation (CA) of electrical storm in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) compared with patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). BACKGROUND: CA of ventricular tachycardia (VT) electrical storm has been shown to improve VT-free survival in patients with ICM. Data on the outcomes of CA of electrical storm in patients with NIDCM are insufficient. METHODS: The study included 267 consecutive patients with NIDCM (n = 71; ejection fraction 32 ± 14%) and ICM (n = 196; ejection fraction 28 ± 12%). Endo-epicardial CA was performed in 59 (22%) patients. CA was guided by activation and entrainment mapping for tolerated VT and pacemapping/targeting of abnormal substrate for unmappable VT. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 45 (25th to 75th percentile: 9 to 71) months and 1 (25th to 75th percentile: 1 to 8) procedures, 76 (29%) patients died, 25 (9%) underwent heart transplantation, 87 (33%) experienced VT recurrence, and 13 (5%) had recurrence of electrical storm. Overall VT-free survival was 54% at 60 months (48% in NIDCM and 54% in ICM; p = 0.128). Patients with VT recurrence experienced a median of 2 (1 to 10) VT episodes in the 5 (1 to 14) months after the procedure. Death/transplantation-free survival was 62% at 60 months (53% in NIDCM and 64% in ICM; p = 0.067). Persistent inducibility of any VT with cycle length ≥250 ms at programmed stimulation at the end of the procedure was the only independent predictor of VT recurrence. Low ejection fraction, New York Heart Association functional class, and VT recurrence over follow-up independently predicted death/transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: CA of electrical storm was similarly effective in patients with NIDCM compared with patients with ICM, with elimination of electrical storm in 95% of cases and achievement of complete VT control at long-term follow-up in most patients.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Ablação por Cateter , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Taquicardia Ventricular/complicações , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Mapeamento Epicárdico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Volume Sistólico , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Heart Rhythm ; 14(2): 166-175, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a primary cardiomyopathy that can present with recurrent ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). Data on the benefit of catheter ablation of VAs in LVNC are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the electrophysiologic features and outcomes of catheter ablation of VAs in LVNC. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 9 patients (age 42 ± 15 years) with diagnosis of LVNC based on established criteria and VA (ventricular tachycardia [VT] in 3 and frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) in 6) despite treatment with a mean of 2 ± 1 antiarrhythmic drugs. Ablation sites were identified using a combination of entrainment, activation, late/fractionated potential ablation, and pace-mapping. RESULTS: A total of 8 patients (89%) had left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (mean ejection fraction 40% ± 13%). Patients who presented with VT had evidence of abnormal electroanatomic substrate involving the mid- to apical segments of the LV, which matched the noncompacted myocardial segments identified by preprocedural magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography. In patients presenting with frequent PVCs, the site of origin was identified at the papillary muscles (50%) and/or basal septal regions (67%). After median follow-up of 4 years (range 1-11) and a mean of 1.8 ± 1.1 procedures, VAs recurred in 1 patient (11%). Significant improvement in LV function occurred in 4 of 8 cases (50%). No patients died or underwent heart transplantation. CONCLUSION: The VA substrate in patients with LVNC and VT typically involves the mid-apical LV segments, whereas focal PVCs often arise from LV basal-septal regions and/or papillary muscles. Catheter ablation is safe and effective in achieving good VA control over long-term follow-up in most patients.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Ablação por Cateter , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Ventrículos do Coração , Taquicardia Ventricular , Adulto , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/fisiopatologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation (CA) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy can be challenging because of the complexity of underlying substrates. We sought to determine the long-term outcomes of endocardial and adjuvant epicardial CA in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 282 consecutive patients (aged 59±15 years, 80% males) with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy who underwent CA. Ablation was guided by activation/entrainment mapping for tolerated VT and pacemapping/targeting of abnormal electrograms for unmappable VT. Adjuvant epicardial ablation was performed for recurrent VT or persistent inducibility after endocardial-only ablation. Epicardial ablation was performed in 90 (32%) patients. Before ablation, patients failed a median of 2 antiarrhythmic drugs), including amiodarone, in 166 (59%) patients. The median follow-up after the last procedure was 48 (19-67) months. Overall, VT-free survival was 69% at 60-month follow-up. Transplant-free survival was 76% and 68% at 60- and 120-month follow-up, respectively. Among the 58 (21%) patients with VT recurrence, CA still resulted in a significant reduction of VT burden, with 31 (53%) patients having only isolated (1-3) VT episodes in 12 (4-35) months after the procedure. At the last follow-up, 128 (45%) patients were only on ß-blockers or no treatment, 41 (15%) were on sotalol or class I antiarrhythmic drugs, and 62 (22%) were on amiodarone. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and VT, endocardial and adjuvant epicardial CA is effective in achieving long-term VT freedom in 69% of cases, with a substantial improvement in VT burden in many of the remaining patients.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27516457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation (CA) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis can be challenging because of the complex underlying substrate. We sought to determine the long-term outcome of CA of VT in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 31 patients (age, 55±10 years) with diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis based on Heart Rhythm Society criteria and VT who underwent CA. In 23 (74%) patients, preprocedure cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomographic (PET) evaluation were performed. Preprocedure magnetic resonance imaging was positive for late gadolinium enhancement in 21 of 23 (91%) patients, whereas abnormal 18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was found in 15 of 23 (65%) cases. In 14 of 15 patients with positive PET at baseline, PET was repeated after 6.1±3.7-month follow-up. After a median follow-up of 2.5 (range, 0-10.5) years, 1 (3%) patient died and 4 (13%) underwent heart transplant. Overall VT-free survival was 55% at 2-year follow-up. Among the 16 (52%) patients with VT recurrences, CA resulted in a significant reduction of VT burden, with 8 (50%) having only isolated (1-3) VT episodes and only 1 patient with recurrent VT storm. The presence of late gadolinium enhancement at magnetic resonance imaging, a positive PET at baseline, and lack of PET improvement over follow-up were associated with increased risk of recurrent VT. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with cardiac sarcoidosis and VT, CA is effective in achieving long-term freedom from VT or improvement in VT burden in the majority of patients. The presence of late gadolinium enhancement at magnetic resonance imaging, a positive PET scan at baseline, or lack of improvement at repeat PET over follow-up predict worse arrhythmia-free survival.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Sarcoidose/complicações , Sarcoidose/cirurgia , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Mapeamento Epicárdico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Europace ; 18(2): 288-93, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26333380

RESUMO

AIMS: Malfunctions of cardiac implantable electronical devices (CIED) have been described after high-energy radiation therapy even in the absence of direct exposure to ionizing radiation, due to diffusion of neutrons (n) causing soft errors in inner circuits. The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of scattered radiation on different types and models of CIED and the possible sources of malfunctions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-nine explanted CIED were placed on an anthropomorphous phantom of tissue-equivalent material, and a high-energy photon (15 MV) radiotherapy course (total dose = 70 Gy) for prostate treatment was performed. All devices were interrogated before and after radiation. Radiation dose, the electromagnetic field, and neutron fluence at the CIED site were measured. Thirty-four pacemakers (PM) and 25 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) were analysed. No malfunctions were detected before radiation. After radiation a software malfunction was evident in 13 (52%) ICD and 6 (18%) PM; no significant electromagnetic field or photon radiations were detected in the thoracic region. Neutron capture was demonstrated by the presence of the (198)Au((197)Au + n) or (192)Ir((191)Ir + n) isotope activation; it was significantly greater in ICD than in PM and non-significantly greater in damaged devices. A greater effect in St Jude PM (2/2 damaged), Boston (9/11), and St Jude ICD (3/6) and in older ICD models was observed; the year of production was not relevant in PM. CONCLUSION: High-energy radiation can cause different malfunctions on CIED, particularly ICD, even without direct exposure to ionizing radiation due to scattered radiation of neutrons produced by the linear accelerator.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Marca-Passo Artificial , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Nêutrons , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Espalhamento de Radiação , Design de Software
11.
J Thorac Dis ; 7(2): 178-84, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25713734

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Recent guidelines recommend pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) as the main procedural endpoint to control recurrent AF in symptomatic patients resistant to antiarrhythmic drugs. The efficacy of such procedure is higher in paroxysmal AF while is still unsatisfactory in persistent and long-standing persistent AF. This review will summarize the state-of-the-art of AF ablation techniques in patients with persistent AF, discussing the evidence underlying different approaches with a particular focus on adjunctive ablation strategies beyond PVI including linear ablation, ablation of complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE), ablation of ganglionated plexi, dominant frequency, rotors and other anatomical sites frequently involved in AF triggers.

12.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 8(1): 68-75, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25491601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of periprocedural acute hemodynamic decompensation (AHD) in patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) has not been previously investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified univariate predictors of periprocedural AHD in 193 consecutive patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation of scar-related VT. AHD was defined as persistent hypotension despite vasopressors and requiring mechanical support or procedure discontinuation. AHD occurred in 22 (11%) patients. Compared with the rest of the population, patients with AHD were older (68.5±10.7 versus 61.6±15.0 years; P=0.037); had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (36% versus 18%; P=0.045), ischemic cardiomyopathy (86% versus 52%; P=0.002), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (41% versus 13%; P=0.001), and VT storm (77% versus 43%; P=0.002); had more severe heart failure (New York Heart Association class III/IV: 55% versus 15%, P<0.001; left ventricular ejection fraction: 26±10% versus 36±16%, P=0.003); and more often received periprocedural general anesthesia (59% versus 29%; P=0.004). At 21±7 months follow-up, the mortality rate was higher in the AHD group compared with the rest of the population (50% versus 11%, log-rank P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AHD occurs in 11% of patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation of scar-related VT and is associated with increased risk of mortality over follow-up. AHD may be predicted by clinical factors, including advanced age, ischemic cardiomyopathy, more severe heart failure status (New York Heart Association class III/IV, lower ejection fraction), associated comorbidities (diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), presentation with VT storm, and use of general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Cicatriz/complicações , Hemodinâmica , Hipotensão/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Ablação por Cateter/mortalidade , Cicatriz/diagnóstico , Cicatriz/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/mortalidade , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/terapia , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/mortalidade , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
13.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 12(7): 799-802, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24898263

RESUMO

The MediGuide™ system is a novel technology for non-fluoroscopic 3D catheter tracking during cardiovascular electrophysiological procedures. The system allows for precise catheter visualization on pre-recorded conventional fluoroscopy images, with significant reduction of fluoroscopy exposure. This might translate into improved safety for both patients and operators, without affecting the procedural efficacy. Preliminary data suggest that the MediGuide technology is at least as safe and effective as conventional systems for mapping and catheter ablation of a variety of supraventricular arrhythmias, with a significantly reduced fluoroscopy exposure. In this review, the authors summarize data from the available literature data on catheter ablation of typical atrial flutter using the novel MediGuide technology.


Assuntos
Flutter Atrial/cirurgia , Cateteres Cardíacos , Ablação por Cateter/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Europace ; 16(3): 363-71, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24189477

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the long-term changes of clinical and echocardiographic parameters, the incidence of cardiac events and parameters associated with late cardiac events in 'super-responders' to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with [CRT defibrillator (CRT-D)] or without defibrillator back-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: In all consecutive patients treated with CRT in two Italian centres (Trieste and Udine) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤0.35 at implantation (Timp) and LVEF > 0.50 1 and/or 2 years (Tnorm) after implantation, the long-term outcome and the evolution of echocardiographic parameters were assessed; factors associated with a higher risk of cardiac events, defined as hospitalization or death for heart failure (HF), sudden death, or CRT-D appropriate interventions, were also analysed. Among the 259 patients evaluated, 62 (24%) had LVEF ≥ 0.50 at Tnorm (n = 44 with at 1 year, n = 18 at 2 years). During a mean follow-up of 68 ± 30 months, one cardiac death (for HF) and eight cardiovascular events (two hospitalization for HF and six appropriate CRT-D interventions) occurred. At the last echo evaluation (Tfup) performed 51 ± 26 months after Timp, LVEF was <0.50 in five patients (>0.45 in four of them). At univariable analysis, only LV end-systolic volume evaluated at Tfup was associated with a higher risk of cardiac events during follow-up. CONCLUSION: In 'super-responders' to CRT long-term outcome is excellent. However, cardiac events, mainly CRT-D appropriate interventions, can occur despite the persistence of LVEF > 0.50. Early identification of these patients is still an unsolved issue.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/mortalidade , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 109(5): 729-35, 2012 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22176998

RESUMO

To assess the proportion and long-term outcomes of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and potential indications for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator before and after optimization of medical treatment, 503 consecutive patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were evaluated from 1988 to 2006. A total of 245 patients (49%) satisfied the "Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT) criteria," defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤0.35 and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III on registration. Among these, 162 (group A) were re-evaluated 5.4 ± 2 months later with concurrent ß-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. Of the 162 patients, 50 (31%) still had "SCD-HeFT criteria" (group A1), 109 (67%) had an improved left ventricular ejection fraction and/or New York Heart Association class (group A2), and 3 (2%) were in NYHA class IV. Of the 227 patients without baseline "SCD-HeFT criteria" (left ventricular ejection fraction >0.35 or NYHA class I), 125 were evaluated after 5.5 ± 2 months. Of these 227 patients, 13 (10%) developed "SCD-HeFT criteria" (group B1), 111 (89%) remained without "SCD-HeFT criteria" (group B2), and 1 (1%) had worsened to NYHA class IV. The 10-year mortality/heart transplantation and sudden death/sustained ventricular arrhythmia rate was 57% and 37% in group A1, 23% and 20% in group A2 (p <0.001 for mortality/heart transplantation and p = 0.014 for sudden death/sustained ventricular arrhythmia vs group A1), 45% and 41% in group B1 (p = NS vs group A1), 16% and 14% in group B2 (p = NS vs group A2), respectively. In conclusion, two thirds of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and "SCD-HeFT criteria" at presentation did not maintain implantable cardioverter-defibrillator indications 3 to 9 months later with optimal medical therapy. Their long-term outcome was excellent, similar to that observed for patients who had never met the "SCD-HeFT criteria."


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 12(9): 577-87, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21892218

RESUMO

At present, high-risk pulmonary embolism represents a cardiovascular emergency burdened with high in-hospital mortality and characterized by acute right ventricular dysfunction and hemodynamic impairment. In addition to circulatory support and anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy has become the cornerstone of the treatment in patients presenting with this condition. Despite the recommendations, a consistent proportion of patients does not currently receive thrombolytic therapy. Although performed in a limited number of patients, transcatheter and surgical embolectomy procedures are an alternative or synergistic therapeutic strategy to thrombolysis, enabling a prompt resolution of right ventricular volume overload. In this review, data from the literature are discussed with the aim of defining an algorithm for the treatment of high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Angioplastia , Embolectomia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/cirurgia
17.
Eur J Echocardiogr ; 12(9): 696-701, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21821609

RESUMO

AIMS: To identify a correction of the modified Bernoulli formula used to estimate systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressure [sPAP and mPAP; respectively: sPAP = 4 × TRv (tricuspid regurgitation velocity)(2)+ RAP (right atrial pressure); and mPAP = 0.61sPAP + 2], applicable in the follow-up of pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: From January 1979 to December 2009, 60 patients with precapillary (class I and IV) and 'out of proportion' PH were consecutively enrolled in the PH Registry of Trieste. All patients underwent both echocardiographic and right heart catheter evaluation. We used a simple-linear-regression method in order to compare sPAP and mPAP Doppler-estimated values with the respective right-heart catheterization invasive variables. The comparison of the estimated with the traditional modified Bernoulli formula echo-Doppler data and the effective invasive values confirmed a significant association between them (for sPAP P< 0.001; for mPAP P= 0.006). Simple-linear-regression-derived formulas were sPAP = 1.07 × (4TRv(2)+ RAP) + 7.4 (1) and mPAP = 1.1 × (0.61sPAP + 2) + 2.5 (2). These regression-corrected formulas were validated in an external population of PH patients. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that formulas (1) and (2) could be more reliable with respect to the traditional modified Bernoulli equation, when estimating echocardiographically sPAP and mPAP in patients with PH confirmed by right-heart catheterization.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sístole
18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 66(1): 192-200, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21037251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the darunavir genotypic inhibitory quotient (gIQ) has been suggested as one of the predictors of virological response to darunavir-containing salvage regimens. Nevertheless, which resistance algorithm should be used to optimize the calculation of gIQ is still debated. The aim of our study was to compare seven different free-access resistance algorithms and their derived gIQs as predictors of 48 week virological response to darunavir-based salvage therapy in the clinical setting. METHODS: patients placed on two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors + 600/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir twice daily  ±â€Š enfuvirtide were prospectively evaluated. Virological response was assessed at 48 weeks. Darunavir resistance interpretation was performed according to seven different algorithms, of which two were weighted algorithms. Analysis of other factors potentially associated with virological response at 48 weeks was performed. RESULTS: fifty-six treatment-experienced patients were included. Overall, 35 patients (62.5%) had a virological response at 48 weeks. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that De Meyer's weighted score (WS) and its derived gIQ (gIQ WS) were the most accurate parameters defining virological response, and related cut-offs showed the best sensitivity/specificity pattern. In univariate logistic regression analysis, baseline log viral load (P = 0.028), optimized background score ≥ 2 (P = 0.048), WS >5 (P = 0.001) and WS gIQ ≥ 600 (P < 0.0001) were independently associated with virological response. In multivariate analysis, only baseline log viral load (P = 0.008) and WS gIQ ≥ 600 (P < 0.0001) remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS: in our study, although different resistance interpretation algorithms and derived gIQs were associated with virological response, gIQ WS was the most accurate predictive model for achieving a successful virological response.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Darunavir , Feminino , Genótipo , HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
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