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1.
Public Health Nurs ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender women of color (TWC) are an underserved population who often experience high rates of HIV and barriers to care including stigma, violence, and trauma. Few health information technology interventions are tailored to serve TWC. The purpose of this study was to inform the development of a TWC-specific telehealth intervention to increase access to care. METHODS: Formative qualitative semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted to develop a customized telehealth intervention for TWC. Participants were TWC ≥ 18 years living in the Washington, DC metropolitan area, with at least one structural barrier to care and clinicians ≥18 years who provide care to TWC. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic coding and content analysis; barriers for TWC were categorized into Individual, Organizational, and Environmental levels. Several day-long meetings with TWC and stakeholders were convened to develop the intervention. RESULTS: Saturation of theme on barriers to care was reached with 22 interviews. Identified barriers to service receipt included survival, instability, temporal discounting, and prioritizing hormone therapy over care, incongruence between providers and patients, pessimism, and lack of cultural competency. Each was intentionally addressed with the telehealth intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Data informed the development of an innovative and customized telehealth intervention for TWC. Through the integration of technology and peer consultant outreach, we developed a novel approach that can address population-specific challenges to care. Further development of this model may be able to improve health outcomes among TWC.

2.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897832

RESUMO

Sexual and gender identity have frequently been assessed in public health research as static states. However, a substantial and growing body of evidence indicates that both identities may have greater potential for change over time than once supposed. Despite this evidence, research into adult identity change remains relatively limited. Using longitudinal data from 1553 Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) aged 18-68 years and recruited from study locations in six major cities across the country, we examined changes in sexual and gender identities over a period of 12 months. The results showed that sexual and gender identity did indeed change among adult BMSM. Additionally, we explored internalized homophobia (IH) as a potential driver of identity change and found that IH significantly impacts the degree and direction of change, with individuals who reported higher baseline IH more likely to demonstrate a shift toward a heterosexual/straight identity at 6 and 12 months. The results are discussed in light of what is known and unknown regarding identity change, and potential avenues for future research are explored.

3.
AIDS Behav ; 24(1): 274-283, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352633

RESUMO

Accurate HIV risk assessment among men who have sex with men (MSM) is important to help providers assess risk, and target HIV prevention interventions. We sought to develop an evidence-based HIV risk assessment tool for US MSM that is inclusive of Black MSM. Data from four large longitudinal cohorts of MSM were used to develop (EXPLORE), and validate (VAX004, HPTN061, and HVTN505). These data included visits in which participants self-reported HIV risk behavior and underwent HIV testing. We developed a pooled logistic model for incident HIV infection based on self-reported risk behaviors during the 6 months before each study visit. A total of 4069 MSM were used for the development cohort, and 8047 MSM in the three validation cohorts through 2013. The final model includes age (< 35, ≥ 35); Black race and Latino ethnicity; numbers of HIV-negative anal sex partners; number of insertive or receptive anal intercourse episodes; having 1 HIV-negative partner only; self-reported substance use; and bacterial sexually transmitted infection diagnosis. The model showed good discrimination in internal validation (C-statistic = 79.5). The external validation cohorts also showed good discrimination, with C-statistics of 73.1, 71.0, 71.9 in VAX004, HPTN061, and HVTN505 respectively, and acceptable calibration. We developed and validated an HIV risk assessment tool for MSM, which showed good predictive ability, including among the largest cohort of HIV-uninfected Black MSM in the US. This tool is available online (mysexpro.org) and can be used by providers to support targeting of HIV prevention interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis for MSM.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(2): 319-322, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125395

RESUMO

Studies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals suggest excess weight gain with integrase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. The HIV Prevention Trials Network Study 077 evaluated changes in weight and fasting metabolic parameters in HIV-uninfected individuals randomized to cabotegravir or a placebo. No differences between arms were found for change in weight or fasting metabolic parameters overall or for subgroups.

5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82 Suppl 2: S124-S127, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to intentionally develop and expand mentoring for junior faculty from underrepresented communities in the area of HIV research. Such a goal is increasingly recognized as essential across all scientific fields because profound disparities exist regarding which doctorally prepared individuals ultimately end up entering research fields in academic settings. The purpose of this article is to describe a novel inter-Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) program designed to support underrepresented scientists in research to address the HIV epidemic in the Mid-Atlantic region. METHODS: Three CFARs in the Mid-Atlantic region (the District of Columbia, Johns Hopkins University CFAR, and University of Pennsylvania CFARs) developed a Scholars program designed for underrepresented minority scholars interested in studying the HIV epidemic in the region. The program provided resources for scholarship as well as cross-institutional mentoring and training. RESULTS: Scholars in the first cohort have been successful in implementing novel research that informs our understanding of the HIV epidemic in the region as well as increasing skills, publications, and grant submissions and funded applications. Lessons learned from the first cohort will inform future years of the MACC Scholars Program. CONCLUSIONS: The MACC Scholars Program offers a model for other inter-CFAR collaborations wishing to find novel ways to support the next generation of scientists.

6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(2): e25223, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768776

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, limited research has examined initiation and adherence to PrEP among Black MSM (BMSM) in the United States (US) who are disproportionately represented among newly HIV infected and late to care individuals. This research reports on the HIV Prevention Trials Network 073 (HPTN 073) study aimed to examine PrEP initiation, utilization and adherence among Black MSM utilizing the theoretically principled, culturally informed and client-centered care coordination (C4) model. METHODS: The HPTN 073 study enrolled and followed 226 HIV-uninfected Black MSM in three US cities (Los Angeles, CA; Washington DC; and Chapel Hill, NC) from February 2013 through September 2015. Study participants were offered once daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF) PrEP combined with C4 and followed up for 52 weeks. Participants received HIV testing, risk reduction education and clinical monitoring. RESULTS: Of the 226 men enrolled, 178 participants initiated PrEP (79%), and of these 64% demonstrated PrEP utilization at week 26 (mid-point of the study) based on pharmacokinetic testing. Condomless anal sex with an HIV-infected or unknown status casual male partner was statistically significantly associated with a greater likelihood of PrEP initiation (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7, 11.7). Greater age (≥25 vs. <25, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.37 -6.37), perception of having enough money (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.7) and knowledge of male partner taking PrEP before sex (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.79) were statistically significantly associated with increased likelihood of PrEP adherence at week 26. Annualized HIV incidence was 2.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 7.9) among those who initiated PrEP, compared to 7.7 (95% CI 2.5 to 24.1) among those who did not initiate PrEP (p = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a high level of PrEP initiation among at-risk Black MSM, a group historically characterized as hard to reach. The data support the importance of addressing contextual factors that affect PrEP initiation and adherence, and of additional research on the ultimate benefit of PrEP in HIV prevention among Black MSM.

7.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 33(2): 79-88, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715918

RESUMO

Efforts to identify and address social inequities in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) access are urgently needed. We investigated early-adopting PrEP prescribers' beliefs about how stigma contributes to PrEP access disparities in health care and explored potential intervention strategies within the context of PrEP service delivery. US-based PrEP prescribers were recruited through professional networks and participant referrals. Qualitative interviews were conducted, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. Participants (n = 18) were primarily male (72%); white (39%) or Asian (33%); and heterosexual (56%). Most practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) United States; were physicians (94%); and specialized in HIV/infectious disease (89%). Participants described multiple forms of structural and interpersonal stigma impeding PrEP access. The requirement that PrEP be prescribed was a perceived deterrent for populations with medical mistrust and/or low health literacy. Practice norms such as discussing PrEP only in response to patient requests were seen as favoring more privileged groups. When probed about personally held biases, age-related stereotypes were the most readily acknowledged, including assumptions about older adults being sexually inactive and uncomfortable discussing sex. Participants criticized providers who chose not to prescribe PrEP within their clinical practice, particularly those whose decision reflected personal values related to condomless sex or discomfort communicating about sex with their patients. Suggested solutions included standardizing PrEP service delivery across patients and increasing cultural competence training. These early insights from a select sample of early-adopting providers illuminate mechanisms through which stigma could compromise PrEP access for key populations and corresponding points of intervention within the health care system.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Estigma Social , Confiança , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estereotipagem , Estados Unidos
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(9): 1597-1604, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) Study 073 (HPTN 073) assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for black men who have sex with men (BMSM). The purpose of this analysis was to characterize the relationship between PrEP uptake and use and incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among participants enrolled in HPTN 073. METHODS: A total of 226 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected BMSM were enrolled in 3 US cities; all participants received client-centered care coordination (C4) and were offered daily oral PrEP. Participants were followed for 12 months with STI testing (rectal and urine nucleic acid amplification test for gonorrhea and chlamydia, rapid plasma reagin for syphilis) conducted at baseline, week 26, and week 52. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between STI incidence and PrEP uptake. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate associations between age, PrEP acceptance, sexual behaviors, and incident STIs. RESULTS: Baseline STI prevalence was 14.2%. Men aged <25 years were more likely to have a baseline STI (25.3% vs 6.7%; odds ratio [OR], 4.39; 95% confidence interval [CI:, 1.91, 10.11). Sixty participants (26.5%) acquired ≥1 STI during follow-up; the incidence rate was 34.2 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 27.4, 42.9). In adjusted analyses, baseline STI diagnosis (OR, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.82, 9.87; P < .001) and additional C4 time (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00, 1.06; P = .027) were associated with having an incident STI. STI incidence was not associated with PrEP acceptance or adherence. CONCLUSIONS: While we found higher rates of STIs in younger BMSM, overall rates of STI were lower than in prior PrEP trials, with no increase over time. BMSM with STIs at PrEP initiation may require additional interventions that target STI acquisition risk. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01808352.

9.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 35(1): 81-91, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353737

RESUMO

To explore reasons for the disproportionate metabolic and cardiovascular disease burdens among older HIV-infected persons, we investigated whether associations of CD4 count and HIV viral load (VL) with non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] differed by age. Longitudinal clinical and laboratory data were collected between 2011 and 2016 for HIV-infected outpatients in the DC Cohort study. Using data for patients aged ≥21 years with ≥1 cholesterol result and contemporaneous CD4/VL results, we created multivariable linear regression models with generalized estimating equations. Among 3,912 patients, the median age was 50 years, 78% were male, 76% were non-Hispanic black, 93% were using antiretroviral therapy, 8% had a CD4 count <200 cells/µL, and 18% had an HIV VL ≥200 copies/mL. Overall, CD4 count <200 (vs. >500) cells/µL and VL ≥200 copies/mL were associated with lower non-HDL-C concentrations (p < .01), but associations were more positive with increasing age (CD4-age/VL-age interactions, p < .01). CD4 count <200 cells/µL was associated with lower non-HDL-C among patients aged <50 years [ß = -7.8 mg/dL (95% confidence interval, CI: -13.2 to -2.4)] but higher non-HDL-C among patients aged 60-69 years [ß = +8.1 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.02-16.2)]. VL ≥200 copies/mL was associated with lower non-HDL-C among patients aged <50 years [ß = -3.3 mg/dL (95% CI: -6.7 to 0.1)] but higher non-HDL-C among patients aged ≥70 years [ß = +16.0 mg/dL (95% CI: -1.4 to 33.3)], although precision was reduced in age-stratified analyses. Although no age differences were detected for HDL-C, VL ≥200 copies/mL was more strongly associated with lower HDL-C concentrations when CD4 count was <200 cells/µL [ß = -7.0 mg/dL (95% CI: -9.7 to -4.3)] versus 200-500 cells/µL [ß = -4.2 (95% CI: -5.9 to -2.6)] or >500 cells/µL [ß = -2.2 (95% CI: -3.7 to -0.8)] (CD4-VL interaction, p < .01). We detected a novel age-modified relationship between immunosuppression and viremia and atherogenic cholesterol patterns. These findings may contribute to our understanding of the high risk of dyslipidemia observed among persons aging with HIV.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Lipídeos/sangue , Viremia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Telemed Telecare ; 25(10): 581-586, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001668

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peritoneal dialysis is a home-based therapy for individuals with end-stage renal disease. Telehealth, and in particular - remote monitoring, is making inroads in managing this cohort. METHODS: We examined whether daily remote biometric monitoring (RBM) of blood pressure and weight among peritoneal dialysis patients was associated with changes in hospitalization rate and hospital length of stay, as well as outpatient, inpatient and overall cost of care. RESULTS: Outpatient visit claim payment amounts (in US dollars derived from CMS data) decreased post-intervention relative to pre-intervention for those at age 18-54 years. For certain subgroups, non- or nearly-significant changes were found among female and Black participants. There was no change in inpatient costs post-intervention relative to pre-intervention for females and while the overall visit claim payment amounts increased in the outpatient setting slightly (US$511.41 (1990.30) vs. US$652.61 (2319.02), p = 0.0783) and decreased in the inpatient setting (US$10,835.30 (6488.66) vs. US$10,678.88 (15,308.17), p = 0.4588), these differences were not statistically significant. Overall cost was lower if RBM was used for assessment of blood pressure and/or weight (US$-734.51, p < 0.05). Use of RBM collected weight was associated with fewer hospitalizations (adjusted odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.89) and fewer days hospitalized (adjusted odds ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.81). Use of RBM collected blood pressure was associated with increased days of hospitalization and increased odds of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: RBM offers a powerful opportunity to provide care to those receiving home therapies such as peritoneal dialysis. RBM may be associated with reduction in both inpatient and outpatient costs for specific sub-groups receiving peritoneal dialysis.

11.
AIDS Behav ; 23(1): 105-115, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171452

RESUMO

Daily emtricitabine/tenofovor is effective at preventing HIV acquisition and is approved for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Blacks in the United States have a disproportionately high rate of HIV, and uptake of PrEP has been very low in this population. We conducted a pilot study in a high-prevalence city to test whether a culturally-tailored counseling center for young Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) positively impacted their access and uptake of PrEP. 50 young BMSM were randomized to either a PrEP counseling center group or a control group, and were then encouraged to obtain PrEP from a PrEP provider. At the end of 3 month study, six participants in the intervention group compared with none in the control group had initiated PrEP (p = 0.02). This pilot study demonstrates that a culturally-tailored counseling center might be an effective at increasing the uptake of PrEP in young BMSM.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento/métodos , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , District of Columbia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS Med ; 15(11): e1002690, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabotegravir (CAB) is a novel strand-transfer integrase inhibitor being developed for HIV treatment and prevention. CAB is formulated both as an immediate-release oral tablet for daily administration and as a long-acting injectable suspension (long-acting CAB [CAB LA]) for intramuscular (IM) administration, which delivers prolonged plasma exposure to the drug after IM injection. HIV Prevention Trials Network study 077 (HPTN 077) evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of CAB LA in HIV-uninfected males and females at 8 sites in Brazil, Malawi, South Africa, and the United States. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HPTN 077 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2a trial. Healthy individuals age 18-65 years at low HIV risk were randomized (3:1) to receive CAB or placebo (PBO). In the initial oral phase, participants received 1 daily oral tablet (CAB or PBO) for 4 weeks. Those without safety concerns in the oral phase continued and received injections in the injection phase (Cohort 1: 3 injections of CAB LA 800 mg or 0.9% saline as PBO IM every 12 weeks for 3 injection cycles; Cohort 2: CAB LA 600 mg or PBO IM for 5 injection cycles; the first 2 injections in Cohort 2 were separated by 4 weeks, the rest by 8 weeks). The primary analysis included weeks 5 to 41 of study participation, encompassing the injection phase. The cohorts were enrolled sequentially. Primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. Secondary outcomes included pharmacokinetics and events occurring during the oral and injection phases. Between February 9, 2015, and May 27, 2016, the study screened 443 individuals and enrolled 110 participants in Cohort 1 and 89 eligible participants in Cohort 2. Participant population characteristics were as follows: 66% female at birth; median age 31 years; 27% non-Hispanic white, 41% non-Hispanic black, 24% Hispanic/Latino, 3% Asian, and 6% mixed/other; and 6 transgender men and 1 transgender woman. Twenty-two (11%) participants discontinued the oral study product; 6 of these were for clinical or laboratory adverse events (AEs). Of those who received at least 1 CAB LA injection, 80% of Cohort 1 and 92% of Cohort 2 participants completed all injections; injection course completion rates were not different from those in the PBO arm. Injection site reactions (ISRs) were common (92% of Cohort 1 and 88% of Cohort 2 participants who received CAB LA reported any ISR). ISRs were mostly Grade 1 (mild) to Grade 2 (moderate), and 1 ISR event (Cohort 1) led to product discontinuation. Grade 2 or higher ISRs were the only AEs reported more commonly among CAB LA recipients than PBO recipients. Two Grade 3 (severe) ISRs occurred in CAB recipients, 1 in each cohort, but did not lead to product discontinuation in either case. Seven incident sexually transmitted infections were diagnosed in 6 participants. One HIV infection occurred in a participant 48 weeks after last injection of CAB LA: CAB was not detectable in plasma both at the time of first reactive HIV test and at the study visit 12 weeks prior to the first reactive test. Participants in Cohort 2 (unlike Cohort 1) consistently met prespecified pharmacokinetic targets of at least 95% of participants maintaining CAB trough concentrations above PA-IC90, and 80% maintaining trough concentrations above 4× PA-IC90. Study limitations include a modest sample size, a short course of injections, and a low-risk study population. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, CAB LA was well tolerated at the doses and dosing intervals used. ISRs were common, but infrequently led to product discontinuation. CAB LA 600 mg every 8 weeks met pharmacokinetic targets for both male and female study participants. The safety and pharmacokinetic results observed support the further development of CAB LA, and efficacy studies of CAB LA for HIV treatment and prevention are in progress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Trial number: NCT02178800.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/sangue , Brasil , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/sangue , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 21(6): e25147, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite healthcare providers' growing awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), prescription rates remain low. PrEP is an efficacious HIV prevention strategy recommended for use with condoms but still protective in their absence. Concern about the impact of PrEP on condom use and other risk behaviour is, nonetheless, among the barriers to prescription commonly reported. To understand the implications of this concern for PrEP access, we examined how medical students' willingness to prescribe PrEP varied by patients' condom use and partnering practices. We also assessed the perceived acceptability of various reasons for condom discontinuation with PrEP. METHODS: An online survey was distributed to 854 medical students in the Northeastern US in 2015. Participants (n = 111) were surveyed about their willingness to prescribe PrEP for each of six male patients who systematically differed in their reported condom use (sustained use, sustained nonuse, or discontinuation with PrEP) and partnering practices (single male partner with untreated HIV or multiple male partners of unknown HIV status). Participants also reported perceived acceptability of four reasons for condom discontinuation: pleasure, sexual functioning, intimacy, and conception. RESULTS: Willingness to prescribe PrEP was inconsistent with patient risk: When the patient used condoms and planned to sustain condom use, most participants were willing to prescribe PrEP - 93% if the patient had a single partner and 86% if the patient had multiple partners. Fewer were willing to prescribe if the patient did not use condoms and planned to sustain nonuse (53% and 45%, respectively) or used condoms but planned to discontinue use (27% and 28%). Significantly fewer participants were willing to prescribe for a patient with multiple partners versus a single partner when the patient reported sustained condom use or sustained condom nonuse. The number of participants who were willing to prescribe was similarly low for a patient with multiple partners versus a single partner when the patient reported that he planned to discontinue condom use. More participants accepted a patient discontinuing condoms for conception (69%) than for intimacy (23%), pleasure (14%), or sexual functioning (13%). CONCLUSION: Medical students' clinical judgments were misaligned with patient risk and suggest misconceptions or personal values may undermine provision of optimal HIV prevention services.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 32(2): 58-69, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561173

RESUMO

Statin coverage has been examined among HIV-infected patients using Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines, although not with newer National Lipid Association (NLA) guidelines. We investigated statin eligibility, prescribing practices, and therapeutic responses using these three guidelines. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected between 2011 and 2016 for HIV-infected outpatients enrolled in the DC Cohort, a multi-center, prospective, observational study in Washington, DC. This analysis included patients aged ≥21 years receiving primary care at their HIV clinic site with ≥1 cholesterol result available. Of 3312 patients (median age 52; 79% black), 52% were eligible for statins based on ≥1 guideline, including 45% (NLA), 40% (ACC/AHA), and 30% (ATP III). Using each guideline, 49% (NLA), 56% (ACC/AHA), and 73% (ATP III) of eligible patients were prescribed statins. Predictors of new prescriptions included older age (aHR = 1.16 [1.08-1.26]/5 years), body mass index ≥30 (aHR = 1.50 [1.07-2.11]), and diabetes (aHR = 1.35 [1.03-1.79]). Hepatitis C coinfection was inversely associated with statin prescriptions (aHR = 0.67 [0.45-1.00]). Among 216 patients with available cholesterol results pre-/post-prescription, 53% achieved their NLA cholesterol goal after 6 months. Hepatitis C coinfection was positively associated (aHR = 1.87 [1.06-3.32]), and depression (aHR = 0.56 [0.35-0.92]) and protease inhibitor use (aHR = 0.61 [0.40-0.93]) were inversely associated, with NLA goal achievement. Half of patients were eligible for statins based on current US guidelines, with the highest proportion eligible based on NLA guidelines, yet, fewer received prescriptions and achieved treatment goals. Greater compliance with recommended statin prescribing practices may reduce cardiovascular disease risk among HIV-infected individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Estudos de Coortes , District of Columbia , Dislipidemias/complicações , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
AIDS Behav ; 22(4): 1122-1138, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29151200

RESUMO

Social biases among healthcare providers could limit PrEP access. In this survey study of 115 US medical students, we examined associations between biases (racism and heterosexism) and PrEP clinical decision-making and explored prior PrEP education as a potential buffer. After viewing a vignette about a PrEP-seeking MSM patient, participants reported anticipated patient behavior (condomless sex, extra-relational sex, and adherence), intention to prescribe PrEP to the patient, biases, and background characteristics. Minimal evidence for racism affecting clinical decision-making emerged. In unadjusted analyses, heterosexism indirectly affected prescribing intention via all anticipated behaviors, tested as parallel mediators. Participants expressing greater heterosexism more strongly anticipated increased risk behavior and adherence problems, which were associated with lower prescribing intention. The indirect effect via condomless sex remained significant adjusting for background characteristics. Prior PrEP education did not buffer any indirect effects. Heterosexism may compromise PrEP provision to MSM and should be addressed in PrEP-related medical education.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homofobia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Racismo , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Arch Sex Behav ; 47(1): 143-156, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28224313

RESUMO

Sexual stereotypes may adversely affect the health of Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Greater understanding of the nature and nuances of these stereotypes is needed. This online, survey-based study used an inductive, intersectional approach to characterize the sexual stereotypes ascribed to Black MSM by the U.S. general public, their distinctiveness from those ascribed to Black men and MSM in general, and their relative prototypicality as compared to dominant subgroups. Members of the public, recruited in 2014-2015, were randomly assigned to survey conditions that varied systematically by race (Black, White, or unspecified) and sexual orientation (gay, heterosexual, or unspecified) of a designated social group. Participants (n = 285) reported stereotypes of their assigned group that they perceived to exist in U.S. culture in an open-response format. Cross-condition comparisons revealed that, overall, Black gay male stereotypes were non-prototypical of Black men or gay men. Rather, stereotypes of Black men were more similar to Black heterosexual men and stereotypes of gay men were more similar to White gay men. Nonetheless, 11 of the 15 most frequently reported Black gay male stereotypes overlapped with stereotypes of Black men (e.g., large penis), gay men (e.g., deviant), or both (e.g., promiscuous). Four stereotypes were unique relative to both Black men and gay men: down low, diseased, loud, and dirty. Findings suggest that Black MSM face multiple derogatory sexual stereotypes, several of which are group-specific. These stereotypes are consistent with cultural (mis)representations of Black MSM and suggest a need for more accurate portrayals of existing sexual diversity within this group.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Racismo , Parceiros Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sexo sem Proteção/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Perit Dial Int ; 37(5): 576-578, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931699

RESUMO

We examined participant uptake and utilization of remote monitoring devices, and the relationship between remote biometric monitoring (RBM) of weight (Wt) and blood pressure (BP) with self-monitoring requirements. Participants on peritoneal dialysis (PD) (n = 269) participated in a Telehealth pilot study of which 253 used remote monitoring of BP and 255 for Wt. Blood pressure and Wt readings were transmitted in real time to a Telehealth call center, which were then forwarded to the PD nurses for real-time review. Uptake of RBM was substantial, with 89.7% accepting RBM, generating 74,266 BP and 52,880 Wt measurements over the study period. We found no significant correlates of RBM uptake with regard to gender, marital, educational, socio-economic or employment status, or baseline experience with computers; frequency of use of BP RBM by Black participants was less than non-Black participants, as was Wt RBM, and participants over 55 years old were more likely to use the Wt RBM than their younger counterparts. Having any review of the breach by a nurse was associated with reduced odds of a subsequent BP breach after adjusting for sex, age, and race. Remote biometric monitoring was associated with adherence to self-monitoring BP and Wt requirements associated with PD. Remote biometric monitoring was feasible, allowing for increased communication between patient and PD clinical staff with real-time patient data for providers to act on to potentially improve adherence and outcomes.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183521, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical trials are currently investigating the safety and efficacy of long-acting injectable (LAI) agents as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data, we assessed the self-reported willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM) to use LAI PrEP and their preference for LAI versus daily oral PrEP. METHODS: In 2014, venue-based sampling was used to recruit MSM aged ≥18 years in Washington, DC. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey followed by voluntary HIV testing. This analysis included MSM who self-reported negative/unknown HIV status at study entry. Correlates of being "very likely" to use LAI PrEP and preferring it to daily oral PrEP were identified using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 314 participants who self-reported negative/unknown HIV status, 50% were <30 years old, 41% were non-Hispanic Black, 37% were non-Hispanic White, and 14% were Hispanic. If LAI PrEP were offered for free or covered by health insurance, 62% were very likely, 25% were somewhat likely, and 12% were unlikely to use it. Regarding preferred PrEP modality, 67% chose LAI PrEP, 24% chose oral PrEP, and 9% chose neither. Correlates of being very likely versus somewhat likely/unlikely to use LAI PrEP included age <30 years (aOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.68), reporting ≥6 (vs. 1) sex partners in the last year (aOR 2.60; 95% CI 1.22-5.53), previous oral PrEP use (aOR 3.67; 95% CI 1.20-11.24), and being newly identified as HIV-infected during study testing (aOR 4.83; 95% CI 1.03-22.67). Black (vs. White) men (aOR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.96) and men with an income of <$20,000 (vs. ≥$75,000; aOR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15-0.93) were less likely to prefer LAI to oral PrEP. CONCLUSIONS: If LAI PrEP were found to be efficacious, its addition to the HIV prevention toolkit could facilitate more complete PrEP coverage among MSM at risk for HIV.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Homossexualidade Masculina , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , District of Columbia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 75 Suppl 3: S276-S280, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic studies show links between heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) that are more numerous than from heterosexual men to women suggesting that HIV infections among heterosexual women may stem from MSM. Poor communities have been associated with high rates of HIV among heterosexual women. Our analysis investigates potential transmission of HIV between MSM and female heterosexuals. METHODS: National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data describe transmission risk behaviors of MSM, and HIV case reporting data describe the percentages of cases that are attributed to transmission risk categories. We examined correlations between the percentages of men who were MSM who also have sex with women and female heterosexual cases. We also examined census data to characterize each city in terms of poverty level and race/ethnicity makeup. RESULTS: There was a high correlation (0.93) between the percentage of reported living HIV cases attributed to male heterosexual contact and female heterosexual contact and a moderate nonsignificant correlation (0.49) between the percentage of MSM who were men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance and the percentage of reported cases that were attributed to female heterosexual contact suggesting some potential overlap. Cities with high levels of poverty and African American/Black residents had higher levels of MSMW and higher levels of heterosexual female cases. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing HIV in cities with high levels of MSMW may have the dual effect of improving the health of MSM populations that have a high burden of HIV and to improve the health of their larger communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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