Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 28
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 22(11): 1808-16, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25086401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is no evidence that a knee arthroscopy is more beneficial to middle-aged patients with meniscal symptoms compared to other treatments. This randomised controlled trial aimed to determine whether an arthroscopic intervention combined with a structured exercise programme would provide more benefit than a structured exercise programme alone for middle-aged patients with meniscal symptoms that have undergone physiotherapy. METHOD: 150 out of 179 eligible patients, aged 45 to 64 (mean:54 ± 5), symptom duration more than 3 months and standing X-ray with Ahlbäck grade 0, were randomised to: (1) a physiotherapy appointment within 2 weeks of inclusion that included instructions for a 3-month exercise programme (non-surgery group); or (2) the same as (1) plus, within 4 weeks of inclusion, knee arthroscopy for resection of any significant meniscal injuries (surgery group). The primary outcome was change in pain at 12 months, assessed with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOSPAIN). RESULTS: In the Intention-To-Treat analysis, pain at 12 months was significantly lower in the surgery than in the non-surgery group. The change in KOOSPAIN was significantly larger in the surgery than in the non-surgery group (between-group difference was 10.6 points of change; 95% CI: 3.4 to 17.7, P = 0.004). The As-Treated analysis results were consistent with the Intention-To-Treat analysis results. CONCLUSION: Middle-aged patients with meniscal symptoms may benefit from arthroscopic surgery in addition to a structured exercise programme. Patients' age or symptom history (i.e., mechanical symptoms or acute onset of symptoms) didn't affect the outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01288768.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Traumatismos do Joelho/cirurgia , Lesões do Menisco Tibial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 54(4): 487-93, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25034550

RESUMO

AIM: Groin pain is common in soccer players. Comparison of results from different studies, especially between genders, is difficult as studies use different definitions and data collection procedures. Therefore we conducted a study of both male and female soccer players enabling direct gender comparison. METHODS: The study enrolled 479 male soccer players aged 25 years (17-43) (mean with range) and 144 female soccer players aged 23 years (16-47), who answered a mailed questionnaire that included specific questions on groin pain and sports history. Data are presented as proportions (%) or as mean with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Groin pain was experienced by 55% of male soccer players and 28% of female soccer players, resulting in an odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 (95% CI 1.9, 4.5). Groin pain occurred more often in the preseason, than during the rest of the season in both male and female players (both P<0.001). Playing position in the team or playing league did not seem to influence the risk of suffering groin pain. CONCLUSION: In soccer players, male gender and preseasonal training appear to be risk factors for developing groin pain.


Assuntos
Virilha , Dor/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo , Futebol , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 20(1): 52-6, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24480501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) have high bone mineral density (BMD) and high BMI. If the same accounts for patients with foot or ankle OA is unknown. METHODS: We measured BMD and femoral neck (FN) width by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 42 women and 19 men with idiopathic OA in the foot or ankle, and in 99 women and 82 men as controls. RESULTS: Women with OA had significant higher BMI than controls. Women with OA had higher BMI-adjusted BMD (p<0.01) and smaller BMI-adjusted FN width (p<0.01) than controls. Men with OA had higher BMI adjusted-BMD (p<0.05) and smaller BMI-adjusted FN width (p<0.01) than controls. CONCLUSION: Patients with OA in the foot or ankle have higher BMD and smaller bone size than being expected by their BMI. This phenotype may provide unfavourable forces across the joint and is hypothetically important for development of OA.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Densidade Óssea , Articulações do Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Radiografia
4.
Osteoporos Int ; 24(3): 747-62, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23296743

RESUMO

The proportion of elderly in the society increases and fall frequency increases with advancing age. Many falls result in fractures and also soft tissue injuries, longstanding pain, functional impairment, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and excess in healthcare costs. Due to the magnitude of these negative effects, a variety of single- and multicomponent fall-preventive intervention programs has been initiated.This review identifies programs that, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), have been shown with fall-reductive effects.The most effective strategies in community-dwelling elderly include regular physical training with program that includes several different training modalities. Modification of the overall or patient-specific risk factor profile in home hazard modification program has been proven to decrease fall risk in community-living elderly. The elderly in the community benefit also from wearing antislip shoe devices when walking in icy conditions, from adjustment of psychotropic medication, and from structured modification of multipharmacy. If vitamin D levels in blood are low, supplementation is beneficial as is the first eye cataract surgery and pacemaker implantation in patients with cardioinhibitory carotid sinus hypersensitivity. In addition to modification of specific risk factors, generalized and individualized multifactorial preventive programs, all including some sort of physical training, have been found to decrease the fall risk. In summary, there is now strong evidence in the literature that structured fall-preventive programs in the elderly, especially in high-risk groups, are beneficial in reducing both the number of fallers and the number of falls in community.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Acidentes Domésticos/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/etiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
5.
J Food Sci ; 73(1): S11-9, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18211364

RESUMO

Development of new technologies and preservation methods to offer conveniently packed fish with sufficient keeping quality is important to meet increasing demand for value-added fresh fish products on the market. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined application of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and superchilled storage on the shelf life of fresh cod loins. Fresh cod loins were packed in polystyrene boxes and in MA (CO(2)/N(2)/O(2): 50%/45%/5%) on day 3 postcatch and stored at chilled (1.5 degrees C) and superchilled (-0.9 degrees C) temperatures. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and physical, chemical, and microbial analyses were carried out during the 21 d of storage. Superchilled storage alone compared with traditional chilled storage in polystyrene boxes increased the total shelf life (days from catch) of cod loins from 9 to 16 or 17 d. Chilled MA packaging increased the shelf life from 9 to 14 d and when MAP and superchilled storage were combined, a synergistic effect was observed and the shelf life was further extended to at least 21 d. It is noteworthy that the characteristic fresh and sweet taste can be maintained longer under such conditions. This could contribute to enhanced eating quality of fresh cod fillets for consumers in distant markets. However, MAP combined with superchilled storage resulted in different textural properties. Superchilled MA packed cod loins had more meaty texture compared to other sample groups after 7-d storage.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Gadus morhua/microbiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/normas , Animais , Atmosfera , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Temperatura Baixa , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Comportamento do Consumidor , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Controle de Qualidade , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Br J Psychiatry ; 187: 35-42, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15994569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between physical health and depression are consistent across cultures among adults up to 65 years of age. In later life, the impact of physical health on depression is much more substantial and may depend on sociocultural factors. AIMS: To examine cross-national differences in the association between physical health and depressive symptoms in elderly people across western Europe. METHOD: Fourteen community-based studies on depression in later life in nine western European countries contributed to a total study sample of 22 570 respondents aged 65 years and older. Measures were harmonized for depressive symptoms (EURO-D scale), functional limitations and chronic physical conditions. RESULTS: In the majority of the participating samples, the association of depressive symptoms with functional disability was stronger than with chronic physical conditions. Associations were slightly more pronounced in the UK and Ireland. CONCLUSIONS: The association between physical health and depressive symptoms in later life is consistent across western Europe.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Nível de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Cognição , Comparação Transcultural , Depressão/epidemiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
7.
Am J Sports Med ; 29(6): 712-5, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11734482

RESUMO

Medial tibial stress syndrome, a common condition of uncertain origin found in athletes, is characterized by pain in the distal posteromedial aspect of the tibia during exercise, with or without increased scintigraphic uptake in the affected region. To determine whether medial tibial stress syndrome with increased scintigraphic uptake is associated with a change in tibial bone mineral density confined to the site of the increased uptake, we measured bone mineral density (in grams per square centimeter) in 18 adult male athletes with long-standing medial tibial stress syndrome and compared the measurements with those of 16 age- and sex-matched control subjects and with those of 18 athletes without medial tibial stress syndrome who had a comparable training regimen. Tibial bone mineral density in the region corresponding to the pain was 15%+/-9% lower in the patients than in control subjects and 23%+/-8% lower than in the athletic control subjects (both significant differences). Bone mineral densities in most other regions of the body were higher than in the control subjects but lower than in the athletic controls at the corresponding sites. In summary, medial tibial stress syndrome is associated with low regional bone mineral density.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Densidade Óssea , Dor/fisiopatologia , Tíbia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome
8.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 69(2): 78-83, 2001 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11683427

RESUMO

Higher bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in weight-loaded skeletal regions and lower BMD in unloaded regions in active athletes compared with controls. These discrepancies remain the first decades after cessation of active careers in former athletes with no remaining discrepancies found after age 65 years compared with age- and gender-matched controls. Physical activity is reduced after a hip fracture and BMD decreases in weight-loaded skeletal regions following the injury. If BMD increases in unloaded regions following a fracture of the hip it is not known. A BMD increase in an unloaded region would support the hypothesis of discrepancies in BMD response to physical activity in loaded and unloaded skeletal regions. BMD (g/cm2) was measured longitudinally using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 32 women, mean age 77 years (range 57-90) and 12 men, mean age 74 years (range 53-89) with a hip fracture, the upper part of the skull representing an unloaded skeletal region, the arms a partly loaded region, and the femoral neck a weight-loaded region. Measurements (mean) were done in 11 days, 5 months, and 13 months after the hip fracture. Data are presented as mean +/- SEM. BMD increased in the upper part of the skull by 1.9%+/-0.8% the first 5 months and 3.7%+/-0.9% the first 13 months after the fracture (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). BMD did not change in the arms but decreased in the nonfractured femoral neck by 4.7%+/-1.8% the first 5 months and 4.5%+/-1.7% the first 13 months after the fracture (both P < 0.01, respectively). In summary, in this longitudinal study, BMD increased in an unloaded skeletal region and decreased in a weight-loaded region following a hip fracture with reduced activity level, suggesting that loaded and unloaded skeletal regions confer different BMD response after changed activity level.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Fraturas do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Feminino , Fêmur/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suporte de Carga
9.
Psychol Med ; 31(5): 803-14, 2001 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11459378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The protective effects of religion against late life depression may depend on the broader sociocultural environment. This paper examines whether the prevailing religious climate is related to cross-cultural differences of depression in elderly Europeans. METHODS: Two approaches were employed, using data from the EURODEP collaboration. First, associations were studied between church-attendance, religious denomination and depression at the syndrome level for six EURODEP study centres (five countries, N = 8398). Secondly, ecological associations were computed by multi-level analysis between national estimates of religious climate, derived from the European Value Survey and depressive symptoms, for the pooled dataset of 13 EURODEP study centres (11 countries, N = 17,739). RESULTS: In the first study, depression rates were lower among regular church-attenders, most prominently among Roman Catholics. In the second study, fewer depressive symptoms were found among the female elderly in countries, generally Roman Catholic, with high rates of regular church-attendance. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were found among the male elderly in Protestant countries. CONCLUSIONS: Religious practice is associated with less depression in elderly Europeans, both on the individual and the national level. Religious practice, especially when it is embedded within a traditional value-orientation, may facilitate coping with adversity in later life.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Religião e Psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Meio Social , Valores Sociais
10.
Bone ; 28(1): 128-32, 2001 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11165954

RESUMO

Exercise is associated with increased peak bone mineral density (BMD). To determine the relationship between the duration of exercise and BMD, we measured BMD of the axial and appendicular skeleton by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and speed of sound (SOS), broadband attenuation (BUA), and stiffness index by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus, in 67 active male national soccer players (mean age 23 years, range 17-35), which included 23 premier-league players exercising 12 h/week (range 8-18), 23 third-league players exercising 8 h/week (range 3-18), and 21 sixth-league players exercising 6 h/week (range 2-10). Results were compared with 24 sedentary age- and gender-matched controls and presented as mean +/- SEM. BMD was higher in all weight-bearing regions for the whole group relative to controls (BMD: total body 6.8 +/- 0.7%, leg 9.6 +/- 0.8%, lumbar spine 13.2 +/- 1.2%, femoral neck 12.7 +/- 1.2% [all p < 0.001]; calcaneus SOS 4.2 +/- 0.3%, BUA 8.7 +/- 1.5%, and stiffness index 24.2 +/- 2.0% [all p < 0.01]). No differences were found in head or arm BMD. There were no differences in BMD or QUS measurements when comparing soccer players exercising for different activity durations. Duration of activity correlated with BMD weight-loaded regions and with QUS, provided it was less <6 h/week (p < 0.01 respectively), but not when exercising more frequently. Femoral neck BMD increased by 3.3% across every hour increase in activity in those with 0-6 h of exercise/week and by 0.7% in those exercising more than this (p < 0.01). We conclude that, in national-league soccer, the BMD needed to attain a bone strength commensurate with that of duration of activity is achieved by 6 h of exercise per week. Beyond this, additional exercise confers no higher BMD. The skeleton adapts to the prevalent level of exercise intensity required and no further.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Ultrassonografia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
11.
Osteoporos Int ; 12(11): 950-5, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11804022

RESUMO

Exercise during growth and adolescence increases bone mineral density (BMD) in weight-loaded skeletal regions. The development of BMD in unloaded or minimally loaded regions during activity is unclear. We measured BMD in one unloaded, one partly loaded and one highly loaded skeletal region in 67 active soccer players, mean age 22.7 years (range 17-35 years), 128 former soccer players, mean age 54.0 years (range 19-85 years) and 138 controls, mean age 50.6 years (range 19-80 years). The active soccer players played at three different levels: premier league, 3rd league or 6th league. Duration of exercise in these three grou s was 12, 8 and 6 h/week, respectively. BMD (g/cm ) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the upper part of the skull (the unloaded skeletal region), the arms (the partly loaded region) and the femoral neck (the maximal loaded region). Data are presented as mean +/- SD. Active soccer players had 10.3 +/- 10.4% lower BMD in the upper part of the skull (p < 0.001), 1.4 +/- 6.3% higher BMD in the arm (NS) and 12.7 +/- 9.8% higher BMD in the femoral neck (p<0.001) compared with age- and gender-matched controls. All three levels of soccer players demonstrated, independent of activity level, the same discrepancies in BMD compared with controls. Former soccer players had lower BMD in the upper part of the skull until age 70 years and higher BMD in the femoral neck until age 50 years compared with controls. The BMD of the arm was not different in former soccer players compared with controls. In summary, active soccer players had lower BMD in the unloaded skeletal region, no difference in BMD in the partly loaded region and higher BMD in the weight-loaded region compared with controls. The discrepancies compared with controls diminished with age so that no differences were found in BMD after age 70 years. In conclusion, unloaded and weight-loaded skeletal regions may respond differently to increased and decreased physical activity.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Colo do Fêmur/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Crânio , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Classe Social
12.
Br J Psychiatry ; 174: 312-21, 1999 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10533550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the first report of results from the EURODEP Programme. AIMS: To assess the prevalence of depression judged suitable for intervention in randomised samples of those aged > or = 65 in nine European centres. METHOD: The GMS-AGECAT package. RESULTS: Differences in prevalence are apparent, 8.8% (Iceland) to 236% (Munich). When sub-cases and cases are added together, five high- and four low-scoring centres emerge. Women predominated over men. Proportions of sub-cases to cases revealed striking differences but did not explain prevalence. There was no constant association between prevalence and age. A meta-analysis (n = 13,808) gave an overall prevalence of 12.3%, 14.1% for women and 8.6% for men. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation occurs in the levels of depression across Europe, the cause for which is not immediately obvious. Case and sub-case levels taken together show greater variability, suggesting that it is not a matter of case/sub-case selection criteria, which were standardised by computer. Substantial levels of depression are shown but 62-82% of persons had no depressive level. Opportunities for treatment exist.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
13.
Br J Psychiatry ; 174: 322-9, 1999 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10533551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotypes of older people suggest that they are depressed. AIMS: To examine depression symptoms among people aged > or = 65 in the general population and to ask the following questions. Are there high proportions of depressive symptoms among otherwise well people? Do these levels reflect the prevalence of depression? Do key symptoms vary with age and do they confirm stereotypes? METHOD: Nine centres contributed data from community-based random samples, using standardised methods (GMS-AGECAT package). RESULTS: Proportions of depressive symptoms varied between centres. Some often associated with ageing were rare. Many were more common in women. Low-prevalence centres tended to have fewer symptoms among 'well' people, but there were inconsistencies. Low levels of symptoms among the well population of a centre did not necessarily predict lower levels in the depressed. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in the prevalence of depressive symptoms occurred between centres, not always related to levels of illness. There was no consistent relationship between proportions of symptoms in well persons and cases for all centres. Few symptoms were present in > 60% of the older population--stereotypes of old age were not upheld.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Estereotipagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comparação Transcultural , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo
14.
Br J Psychiatry ; 174: 330-8, 1999 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10533552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an 11-country European collaboration, 14 population-based surveys included 21,724 subjects aged > or = 65 years. Most participating centres used the Geriatric Mental State (GMS), but other measures were also used. AIMS: To derive from these instruments a common depression symptoms scale, the EURO-D, to allow comparison of risk factor profiles between centres. METHOD: Common items were identified from the instruments. Algorithms for fitting items to GMS were derived by observation of item correspondence or expert opinion. The resulting 12-item scale was checked for internal consistency, criterion validity and uniformity of factor-analytic profile. RESULTS: The EURO-D is internally consistent, capturing the essence of its parent instrument. A two-factor solution seemed appropriate: depression, tearfulness and wishing to die loaded on the first factor (affective suffering), and loss of interest, poor concentration and lack of enjoyment on the second (motivation). CONCLUSIONS: The EURO-D scale should permit valid comparison of risk-factor associations between centres, even if between-centre variation remains difficult to attribute.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Distribuição por Sexo
15.
Br J Psychiatry ; 174: 339-45, 1999 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10533553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from surveys involving 21,724 subjects aged > or = 65 years were analysed using a harmonised depression symptom scale, the EURO-D. AIMS: To describe and compare the effects of age, gender and mental status on depressive symptoms across Europe. METHOD: We tested for the effects of centre, age, gender and marital status on EURO-D score. Between-centre variance was partitioned according to centre characteristics: region, religion and survey instrument used. RESULTS: EURO-D scores tended to increase with age, women scored higher than men, and widowed and separated subjects scored higher than others. The EURO-D scale could be reduced into two factors: affective suffering, responsible for the gender difference, and motivation, accounting for the positive association with age. CONCLUSIONS: Large between-centre differences in depression symptoms were not explained by demography or by the depression measure used in the survey. Consistent, small effects of age, gender and marital status were observed across Europe. Depression may be overdiagnosed in older persons because of an increase in lack of motivation that may be affectively neutral, and is possibly related to cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 45(2): 157-61, 1998 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9924947

RESUMO

Iceland is a major producer of cold water shrimp, Pandalus borealis. In recent years considerable attention has been given to improve hygiene in the factories producing cooked, peeled and frozen shrimp. To keep track of the bacteriological status of the end product, shrimp from most of the factories is routinely analysed bacteriologically by the request of shrimp exporters. This paper reports on the results of a bacteriological analysis of 7913 samples of shrimp from 26 Icelandic factories over a 6-year period. The results showed that the geometric mean of APC (at 35 degrees C) was 1718 per g and 57% of the samples had APC under 1000 per g. Some 70% of the samples had less than one coliform per g and 99.9% of the samples had less than one faecal coliform per g. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in less than 0.2% of the samples. The results show improvement in bacterial profiles, mainly total coliforms, over the 6-year period. Overall, the results show acceptable bacterial numbers in the finished product, indicating a high level of hygiene. Listeria spp. were, however, found in 270 of 3331 samples examined or 8.1%. Species identification was done on 49 of the 270 positive samples. The proportion of L. monocytogenes was found to be 26.5%.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Pandalidae/microbiologia , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Islândia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alimentar Estafilocócica/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
18.
Eur J Biochem ; 238(1): 48-53, 1996 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8665951

RESUMO

Semenogelin I and semenogelin II constitute the major gel-forming proteins in human semen. The gel proteins were rapidly solubilized and separated from spermatozoa in ejaculates collected at pH 9.7 in buffer containing 4 mol/l urea and dithiothreitol. This protected the semenogelins from proteolytic degradation by prostate-specific antigen, and allowed their isolation by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. Semenogelins I and II were almost selectively retained and eluted partially separated in 0.25 mol/l NaCl. Further purification was achieved by chromatography on Superose. Approximately 10-20 mg semenogelin I and 2-5 mg semenogelin II were recovered from each sample with a purity exceeding 95% as judged by SDS/PAGE. The molecular mass of semenogelin I (49 958 Da) and the major form of semenogelin II (63 539 Da) measured by mass spectrometry was consistent with the reported cDNA data. The occurrence of a second, larger form of semenogelin II was due to asparagine-linked glycosylation. The amino-termini of the purified proteins were blocked, but digestion with pyroglutamate amino-peptidase enabled the identification of amino-terminal sequences consistent with the reported cDNA data. The amino acid compositions of the purified proteins were also consistent with those derived from cDNA data. The absorption coefficients (280 nm, 1%, 1 cm) for semenogelins I and II were 5.5 and 5.4, respectively, and the isoelectric point was above pH 9.5 for both proteins.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/química , Precursores de Proteínas/química , Sêmen/química , Proteínas de Plasma Seminal , Proteínas Secretadas pela Vesícula Seminal , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Géis/química , Glicosilação , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/isolamento & purificação , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo-N4-(N-acetil-beta-glucosaminil) Asparagina Amidase , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Solubilidade
19.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 60(12): 4580-3, 1994 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7529017

RESUMO

An assay based on reverse transcription and nested PCR amplification of hypervariable regions within the 16S rRNA sequence was used to specifically detect Renibacterium salmoninarum, the slowly growing causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. This assay detected 1 to 10 bacteria per sample and took 1 to 2 days to perform. The assay was used to detect R. salmoninarum in ovarian fluid obtained from naturally infected fish. The assay was unreliable when it was used to examine kidney tissue.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Nefropatias/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Salmão/microbiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Rim/microbiologia , Nefropatias/microbiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ovário/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Ann Neurol ; 36 Suppl 2: S175-9, 1994 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7998786

RESUMO

The profile of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Iceland based on a total population study from 1900 to 1990 is reviewed. The first survey in the late 1950s was a retrospective one. Since then, there has been a continuous prospective study that extends over a period of 40 years. The incidence of MS, which was 2.5/100,000 in the 1930s, rose to 3.5 to 4.1/100,000 between 1975 and 1990, but the data from the 1930s must be considered unreliable. There was a similar stepwise increase in prevalence from 30 to approximately 100/100,000 in 1990. It is most likely that the changes in prevalence are the result of improved case ascertainment, the growing number of well-trained neurologists in the country, and the greater awareness of the disease due to the activities of the Icelandic MS Society. No local or regional clusters were identified, but from 1900 to 1980 there was a steady and unexpected increase in the number of cases in rural areas, both by date of clinical onset and date of putative disease acquisition. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that an epidemic of MS had occurred in Iceland following the arrival of British, Canadian, and American troops during the Second World War. The proposed epidemic in the Faroe Islands was also reexamined, in particular because of the identical ethnic, historical, demographic, and geographical similarities with Iceland. The available data are not supportive of that idea.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA