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1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747977

RESUMO

The Swedish Twin Registry functions as research infrastructure containing information on 216,258 twins born between 1886 and 2015, of whom 86,199 pairs have zygosity determined by DNA, an intrapair similarity algorithm, or being of opposite sex. In essence, practically all twins alive and currently 9 years or older have been invited for participation and donation of DNA on which genomewide single nucleotide polymorphisms array genotyping has been performed. Content, management and alternatives for future improvements are discussed.

2.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(11): 1590-1596, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors associated with CKD. By studying the genetic and environmental influences on how traits of metabolic syndrome correlate with CKD, the understanding of the etiological relationships can be improved. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: From the population-based TwinGene project within the Swedish Twin Registry, 4721 complete twin pairs (9442 European ancestry participants) were included in this cross-sectional twin study. Metabolic syndrome-related continuous traits were measured, and the binary components as well as the status of metabolic syndrome were defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. The eGFR was calculated by cystatin C-based equations from the CKD epidemiology collaboration group, and CKD was defined by eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Genetic and environmental contributions to the correlations between traits of metabolic syndrome and CKD were estimated by using twin-based bivariate structural equation models. RESULTS: The correlation between metabolic syndrome and eGFR-defined CKD was 0.16 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.12 to 0.20), out of which 51% (95% CI, 12% to 90%) was explained by genes, whereas 15% (95% CI, 0% to 42%) and 34% (95% CI, 16% to 52%) was explained by the shared and nonshared environment, respectively. The genetic and environmental correlations between metabolic syndrome and CKD were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.51) and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.41), respectively. For the correlation between abdominal obesity and eGFR, 69% (95% CI, 10% to 100%) was explained by genes and 23% (95% CI, 5% to 41%) was explained by environment. The genetic correlation between abdominal obesity and eGFR was -0.30 (95% CI, -0.54 to -0.06), whereas the environmental correlation was -0.14 (95% CI, -0.22 to -0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Both genes and environment contribute to the correlation between metabolic syndrome and eGFR-defined CKD. The genetic contribution is particularly important to the correlation between abdominal obesity and eGFR.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, with high mortality rate and substantial disability among survivors. Its causes are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate risk factors for SAH using a novel nationwide cohort consortium. METHODS: We obtained individual participant data of 949 683 persons (330 334 women) between 25 and 90 years old, with no history of SAH at baseline, from 21 population-based cohorts. Outcomes were obtained from the Swedish Patient and Causes of Death Registries. RESULTS: During 13 704 959 person-years of follow-up, 2659 cases of first-ever fatal or non-fatal SAH occurred, with an age-standardized incidence rate of 9.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) (7.4-10.6)/100 000 person-years] in men and 13.8 [(11.4-16.2)/100 000 person-years] in women. The incidence rate increased exponentially with higher age. In multivariable-adjusted Poisson models, marked sex interactions for current smoking and body mass index (BMI) were observed. Current smoking conferred a rate ratio (RR) of 2.24 (95% CI 1.95-2.57) in women and 1.62 (1.47-1.79) in men. One standard deviation higher BMI was associated with an RR of 0.86 (0.81-0.92) in women and 1.02 (0.96-1.08) in men. Higher blood pressure and lower education level were also associated with higher risk of SAH. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SAH is 45% higher in women than in men, with substantial sex differences in risk factor strengths. In particular, a markedly stronger adverse effect of smoking in women may motivate targeted public health initiatives.

4.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(4): 764-773, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148414

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to investigate whether metabolomic profiling of blood can lead to novel insights into heart failure pathogenesis or improved risk prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling was performed in plasma or serum samples from three community-based cohorts without heart failure at baseline (total n = 3924; 341 incident heart failure events; median follow-up ranging from 4.6 to 13.9 years). Cox proportional hazard models were applied to assess the association of each of the 206 identified metabolites with incident heart failure in the discovery cohorts Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) (n = 920) and Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) (n = 1121). Replication was undertaken in the independent cohort TwinGene (n = 1797). We also assessed whether metabolites could improve the prediction of heart failure beyond established risk factors (age, sex, body mass index, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid medication, diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood pressure medication, glomerular filtration rate, smoking status, and myocardial infarction prior to or during follow-up). Higher circulating urobilin and lower sphingomyelin (30:1) were associated with incident heart failure in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted models in the discovery and replication sample. The hazard ratio for urobilin in the replication cohort was estimated to 1.29 per standard deviation unit, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03-1.63), and for sphingomyelin (30:1) to 0.72 (95% CI 0.58-0.89). Results remained similar after further adjustment for established heart failure risk factors in meta-analyses of all three cohorts. Urobilin concentrations were inversely associated with left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline in the PIVUS cohort (ß = -0.70, 95% CI -1.03 to -0.38). No major improvement in risk prediction was observed when adding the top 2 metabolites (C-index 0.787, 95% CI 0.752-0.823) or nine Lasso-selected metabolites (0.790, 95% CI 0.754-0.826) to a modified Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities heart failure risk score model (0.780, 95% CI 0.745-0.816). CONCLUSIONS: Our metabolomic profiling of three community-based cohorts study identified associations of circulating levels of the haem breakdown product urobilin, and sphingomyelin (30:1), a cell membrane component involved in signal transduction and apoptosis, with incident heart failure.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242253

RESUMO

AIMS: Statin-related myopathy (SRM), which includes rhabdomyolysis, is an uncommon but important adverse drug reaction because the number of people prescribed statins world-wide is large. Previous association studies of common genetic variants have had limited success in identifying a genetic basis for this adverse drug reaction. We conducted a multi-site whole-exome sequencing study to investigate whether rare coding variants confer an increased risk of SRM. METHODS AND RESULTS: SRM 3-5 cases (N = 505) and statin treatment-tolerant controls (N = 2047) were recruited from multiple sites in North America and Europe. SRM 3-5 was defined as symptoms consistent with muscle injury and an elevated creatine phosphokinase level >4 times upper limit of normal without another likely cause of muscle injury. Whole-exome sequencing and variant calling was coordinated from two analysis centres, and results of single-variant and gene-based burden tests were meta-analysed. No genome-wide significant associations were identified. Given the large number of cases, we had 80% power to identify a variant with minor allele frequency of 0.01 that increases the risk of SRM 6-fold at genome-wide significance. CONCLUSIONS: In this large whole-exome sequencing study of severe statin-related muscle injury conducted to date, we did not find evidence that rare coding variants are responsible for this adverse drug reaction. Larger sample sizes would be required to identify rare variants with small effects, but it is unclear whether such findings would be clinically actionable.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2773, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235808

RESUMO

Dental caries and periodontitis account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending, yet their genetic basis remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify self-reported dental disease proxies which have similar underlying genetic contributions to clinical disease measures and then combine these in a genome-wide association study meta-analysis, identifying 47 novel and conditionally-independent risk loci for dental caries. We show that the heritability of dental caries is enriched for conserved genomic regions and partially overlapping with a range of complex traits including smoking, education, personality traits and metabolic measures. Using cardio-metabolic traits as an example in Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate causal relationships and provide evidence suggesting that the processes contributing to dental caries may have undesirable downstream effects on health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Periodontite/genética , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Genômica , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 94, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty index (FI) is a well-established predictor of all-cause mortality, but less is known for cause-specific mortality and whether familial effects influence the associations. Middle-aged individuals are also understudied for the association between FI and mortality. Furthermore, the population mortality impact of frailty remains understudied. METHODS: We estimated the predictive value of FI for all-cause and cause-specific mortality, taking into account familial factors, and tested whether the associations are time-dependent. We also assessed the proportion of all-cause and cause-specific deaths that are attributable to increased levels of frailty. We analyzed 42,953 participants from the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin Study (aged 41-95 years at baseline) with up to 20 years' mortality follow-up. The FI was constructed using 44 health-related items. Deaths due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory-related causes, and cancer were considered in the cause-specific analysis. Generalized survival models were used in the analysis. RESULTS: Increased FI was associated with higher risks of all-cause, CVD, and respiratory-related mortality, with the corresponding hazard ratios of 1.28 (1.24, 1.32), 1.31 (1.23, 1.40), and 1.23 (1.11, 1.38) associated with a 10% increase in FI in male single responders, and 1.21 (1.18, 1.25), 1.27 (1.15, 1.34), and 1.26 (1.15, 1.39) in female single responders. No significant associations were observed for cancer mortality. No attenuation of the mortality associations in unrelated individuals was observed when adjusting for familial effects in twin pairs. The associations were time-dependent with relatively greater effects observed in younger ages. Before the age of 80, the proportions of deaths attributable to FI levels > 0.21 were 18.4% of all-cause deaths, 25.4% of CVD deaths, and 20.4% of respiratory-related deaths in men and 19.2% of all-cause deaths, 27.8% of CVD deaths, and 28.5% of respiratory-related deaths in women. After the age of 80, the attributable proportions decreased, most notably for all-cause and CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Increased FI predicts higher risks of all-cause, CVD, and respiratory-related mortality independent of familial effects. Increased FI presents a relatively greater risk factor at midlife than in old age. Increased FI has a significant population mortality impact that is greatest through midlife until the age of 80.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fragilidade/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7554, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101867

RESUMO

Dogs were the first domesticated animal and, according to the archaeological evidence, have had a close relationship with humans for at least 15,000 years. Today, dogs are common pets in our society and have been linked to increased well-being and improved health outcomes in their owners. A dog in the family during childhood is associated with ownership in adult life. The underlying factors behind this association could be related to experiences or to genetic influences. We aimed to investigate the heritability of dog ownership in a large twin sample including all twins in the Swedish Twin Registry born between 1926 and 1996 and alive in 2006. Information about dog ownership was available from 2001 to 2016 from national dog registers. The final data set included 85,542 twins from 50,507 twin pairs with known zygosity, where information on both twins were available in 35,035 pairs. Structural equation modeling was performed to estimate additive genetic effects (the heritability), common/shared environmental, and unique/non-shared environmental effects. We found that additive genetic factors largely contributed to dog ownership, with heritability estimated at 57% for females and 51% for males. An effect of shared environmental factors was only observed in early adulthood. In conclusion, we show a strong genetic contribution to dog ownership in adulthood in a large twin study. We see two main implications of this finding: (1) genetic variation may have contributed to our ability to domesticate dogs and other animals and (2) potential pleiotropic effects of genetic variation affecting dog ownership should be considered in studies examining health impacts of dog ownership.

9.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 425-435, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941497

RESUMO

Heritability is the most commonly used measure of genetic contribution to disease outcomes. Being the fraction of the variance of latent trait liability attributable to genetic factors, heritability of binary traits is a difficult technical concept that is sometimes misinterpreted as the more-easily understandable concept of attributable fraction. In this paper we use the liability threshold model to describe the analytical relationship between heritability and attributable fraction. Towards this end, we consider a hypothetical intervention that is aimed to reduce the genetic risk of the disease for a specified target group of the population. We show how the relation between the heritability and the attributable fraction depends on the disease prevalence, the intervention effect and the size of the target group. We use two real examples to illustrate the practical implications of our theoretical results.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Herança Multifatorial , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Causalidade , Doença/etiologia , Doença/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 665-684, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929738

RESUMO

The extent to which genetic risk factors are shared between childhood-onset (COA) and adult-onset (AOA) asthma has not been estimated. On the basis of data from the UK Biobank study (n = 447,628), we found that the variance in disease liability explained by common variants is higher for COA (onset at ages between 0 and 19 years; h2g = 25.6%) than for AOA (onset at ages between 20 and 60 years; h2g = 10.6%). The genetic correlation (rg) between COA and AOA was 0.67. Variation in age of onset among COA-affected individuals had a low heritability (h2g = 5%), which we confirmed in independent studies and also among AOA-affected individuals. To identify subtype-specific genetic associations, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the UK Biobank for COA (13,962 affected individuals) and a separate GWAS for AOA (26,582 affected individuals) by using a common set of 300,671 controls for both studies. We identified 123 independent associations for COA and 56 for AOA (37 overlapped); of these, 98 and 34, respectively, were reproducible in an independent study (n = 262,767). Collectively, 28 associations were not previously reported. For 96 COA-associated variants, including five variants that represent COA-specific risk factors, the risk allele was more common in COA- than in AOA-affected individuals. Conversely, we identified three variants that are stronger risk factors for AOA. Variants associated with obesity and smoking had a stronger contribution to the risk of AOA than to the risk of COA. Lastly, we identified 109 likely target genes of the associated variants, primarily on the basis of correlated expression quantitative trait loci (up to n = 31,684). GWAS informed by age of onset can identify subtype-specific risk variants, which can help us understand differences in pathophysiology between COA and AOA and so can be informative for drug development.

11.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(5): 855-865, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze how parental education modifies the genetic and environmental variances of BMI from infancy to old age in three geographic-cultural regions. METHODS: A pooled sample of 29 cohorts including 143,499 twin individuals with information on parental education and BMI from age 1 to 79 years (299,201 BMI measures) was analyzed by genetic twin modeling. RESULTS: Until 4 years of age, parental education was not consistently associated with BMI. Thereafter, higher parental education level was associated with lower BMI in males and females. Total and additive genetic variances of BMI were smaller in the offspring of highly educated parents than in those whose parents had low education levels. Especially in North American and Australian children, environmental factors shared by co-twins also contributed to the higher BMI variation in the low education level category. In Europe and East Asia, the associations of parental education with mean BMI and BMI variance were weaker than in North America and Australia. CONCLUSIONS: Lower parental education level is associated with higher mean BMI and larger genetic variance of BMI after early childhood, especially in the obesogenic macro-environment. The interplay among genetic predisposition, childhood social environment, and macro-social context is important for socioeconomic differences in BMI.

12.
Kidney Int ; 95(5): 1225-1233, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898340

RESUMO

It is unknown whether the association between body mass index (BMI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is mediated by genetic confounding or obesity-associated diabetes. We investigated the association between BMI and incident CKD in 29,136 Swedish twins with no history of CKD or diabetes, first using traditional Cox regression in a cohort design, and second controlling for shared genetic factors within twin pairs. Hazard ratios (HR) per unit increase in BMI were calculated and adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and lifestyle factors. We contrasted CKD risk between twins with discordant BMI and adjusted for diabetes as a time-varying covariate. During an average follow-up of 12.8 years, 1,113 (3.8%) incident CKD and 2,282 (7.8%) diabetes cases were observed. BMI was associated with CKD risk in the traditional cohort analysis (HR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.11-1.14). Effect sizes were similar in analyses clustered by twin pairs to adjust for factors shared by twins (HR 1.16; 95 CI 1.09-1.22 in same-sex fraternal twins and HR 1.17; 95% CI 1.06-1.29 in identical twins). Heavier twins had higher incidence rates of both CKD and diabetes than their leaner siblings, particularly when BMI differed by >2 kg/m2. The proportion of CKD cases attributable to BMI ≥25 kg/m2 was estimated to be 32%, with approximately 19% of those cases explained by diabetes. We conclude that a higher BMI, irrespective of genetic confounding, is associated with increased CKD risk. A large proportion of CKD cases might be prevented if the population maintained a normal BMI.

13.
EBioMedicine ; 40: 595-604, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of narcolepsy rose sharply after the swine influenza A (H1N1) vaccination campaign with Pandemrix. Narcolepsy is an immune-related disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness. The most frequent form is strongly associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02, but only a minority of carriers develop narcolepsy. We aimed to identify genetic markers that predispose to Pandemrix-induced narcolepsy. METHODS: We tested for genome-wide and candidate gene associations in 42 narcolepsy cases and 4981 controls. Genotyping was performed on Illumina arrays, HLA alleles were imputed using SNP2HLA, and single nucleotide polymorphisms were imputed using the haplotype reference consortium panel. The genome-wide significance threshold was p < 5 × 10-8, and the nominal threshold was p < 0.05. Results were replicated in 32 cases and 7125 controls. Chromatin data was used for functional annotation. FINDINGS: Carrying HLA-DQB1*06:02 was significantly associated with narcolepsy, odds ratio (OR) 39.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.3, 137], p = 7.9 × 10-9. After adjustment for HLA, GDNF-AS1 (rs62360233) was significantly associated, OR = 8.7 [95% CI 4.2, 17.5], p = 2.6 × 10-9, and this was replicated, OR = 3.4 [95% CI 1.2-9.6], p = 0.022. Functional analysis revealed variants in high LD with rs62360233 that might explain the detected association. The candidate immune-gene locus TRAJ (rs1154155) was nominally associated in both the discovery and replication cohorts, meta-analysis OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.4, 2.8], p = 0.0002. INTERPRETATION: We found a novel association between Pandemrix-induced narcolepsy and the non-coding RNA gene GDNF-AS1, which has been shown to regulate expression of the essential neurotrophic factor GDNF. Changes in regulation of GDNF have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This finding may increase the understanding of disease mechanisms underlying narcolepsy. Associations between Pandemrix-induced narcolepsy and immune-related genes were replicated.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Imunidade/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Narcolepsia/etiologia , Narcolepsia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Narcolepsia/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307693

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental problems (NPs) are more common in males, whereas anxiety and depression are more common in females. Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between rare CNVs with NPs, anxiety, and depression in a childhood population sample, as well as to examine sex-specific effects. We analyzed a sample of N = 12,982 children, of whom 5.3% had narrowly defined NPs (clinically diagnosed), 20.9% had broadly defined NPs (based on validated screening measures, but no diagnosis), and 3.0% had clinically diagnosed anxiety or depression. Rare (<1% frequency) CNVs were categorized by size (100-500 kb or > 500 kb), type, and putative relevance to NPs. We tested for association of CNV categories with outcomes and examined sex-specific effects. Medium deletions (OR[CI] = 1.18[1.05-1.33], p = .0053) and large duplications (OR[CI] = 1.45[1.19-1.75], p = .00017) were associated with broadly defined NPs. Large deletions (OR[CI] = 1.85[1.14-3.01], p = .013) were associated with narrowly defined NPs. There were no significant sex differences in CNV burden in individuals with NPs. Although CNVs were not associated with anxiety/depression in the whole sample, in individuals diagnosed with these disorders, females were more likely to have large CNVs (OR[CI] = 3.75[1.45-9.68], p = .0064). Rare CNVs are associated with both narrowly and broadly defined NPs in a general population sample of children. Our results also suggest that large, rare CNVs may show sex-specific phenotypic effects.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200140, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18-69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/m2 higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(9)2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The variation and covariation for many cardiometabolic traits have been decomposed into genetic and environmental fractions, by using twin or single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) models. However, differences in population, age, sex, and other factors hamper the comparison between twin- and SNP-based estimates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four cardiometabolic traits and 700,000 genotyped SNPs were available in the study base of 10 682 twins from TwinGene cohort. For the 27 highly correlated pairs (absolute phenotypic correlation coefficient ≥0.40), twin-based bivariate structural equation models were performed in 3870 complete twin pairs, and SNP-based bivariate genomic relatedness matrix restricted maximum likelihood methods were performed in 5779 unrelated individuals. In twin models, the model including additive genetic variance and unique/nonshared environmental variance was the best-fitted model for 7 pairs (5 of them were between blood pressure traits); the model including additive genetic variance, common/shared environmental variance, and unique/nonshared environmental variance components was best fitted for 4 pairs, but estimates of shared environment were close to zero; and the model including additive genetic variance, dominant genetic variance, and unique/nonshared environmental variance was best fitted for 16 pairs, in which significant dominant genetic effects were identified for 13 pairs (including all 9 obesity-related pairs). However, SNP models did not identify significant estimates of dominant genetic effects for any pairs. In the paired t test, twin- and SNP-based estimates of additive genetic correlation were not significantly different (both were 0.67 on average), whereas the nonshared environmental correlations from these 2 models differed slightly from each other (on average, twin-based estimate=0.64 and SNP-based estimate=0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Beside additive genetic effects and nonshared environment, nonadditive genetic effects (dominance) also contribute to the covariation between certain cardiometabolic traits (especially for obesity-related pairs); contributions from the shared environment seem to be weak for their covariation in TwinGene samples.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 99 loci that contain genetic risk variants shared between asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Many more risk loci shared between these common allergic diseases remain to be discovered, which could point to new therapeutic opportunities. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify novel risk loci shared between asthma, hay fever, and eczema by applying a gene-based test of association to results from a published GWAS that included data from 360,838 subjects. METHODS: We used approximate conditional analysis to adjust the results from the published GWAS for the effects of the top risk variants identified in that study. We then analyzed the adjusted GWAS results with the EUGENE gene-based approach, which combines evidence for association with disease risk across regulatory variants identified in different tissues. Novel gene-based associations were followed up in an independent sample of 233,898 subjects from the UK Biobank study. RESULTS: Of the 19,432 genes tested, 30 had a significant gene-based association at a Bonferroni-corrected P value of 2.5 × 10-6. Of these, 20 were also significantly associated (P < .05/30 = .0016) with disease risk in the replication sample, including 19 that were located in 11 loci not reported to contain allergy risk variants in previous GWASs. Among these were 9 genes with a known function that is directly relevant to allergic disease: FOSL2, VPRBP, IPCEF1, PRR5L, NCF4, APOBR, IL27, ATXN2L, and LAT. For 4 genes (eg, ATXN2L), a genetically determined decrease in gene expression was associated with decreased allergy risk, and therefore drugs that inhibit gene expression or function are predicted to ameliorate disease symptoms. The opposite directional effect was observed for 14 genes, including IL27, a cytokine known to suppress TH2 responses. CONCLUSION: Using a gene-based approach, we identified 11 risk loci for allergic disease that were not reported in previous GWASs. Functional studies that investigate the contribution of the 19 associated genes to the pathophysiology of allergic disease and assess their therapeutic potential are warranted.

18.
Neurobiol Aging ; 67: 202.e1-202.e6, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685649

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is common among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to test the association and causality between blood lipids and ALS, using polygenic analyses on the summary results of genome-wide association studies. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) risk alleles were significantly associated with a higher risk of ALS. Using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specifically associated with LDL-C and TC as the instrumental variables, statistically significant causal effects of LDL-C and TC on ALS risk were identified in Mendelian randomization analysis. No significant association was noted between PRSs based on triglycerides or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol risk alleles and ALS, and the PRSs based on ALS risk alleles were not associated with any studied lipids. This study supports that high levels of LDL-C and TC are risk factors for ALS, and it also suggests a causal relationship of LDL-C and TC to ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Alelos , Humanos , Risco
19.
Early Hum Dev ; 120: 53-60, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that birth size is positively associated with height in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. AIM: To analyze the associations of birth weight, length and ponderal index with height from infancy through adulthood within mono- and dizygotic twin pairs, which provides insights into the role of genetic and environmental individual-specific factors. METHODS: This study is based on the data from 28 twin cohorts in 17 countries. The pooled data included 41,852 complete twin pairs (55% monozygotic and 45% same-sex dizygotic) with information on birth weight and a total of 112,409 paired height measurements at ages ranging from 1 to 69 years. Birth length was available for 19,881 complete twin pairs, with a total of 72,692 paired height measurements. The association between birth size and later height was analyzed at both the individual and within-pair level by linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Within twin pairs, regression coefficients showed that a 1-kg increase in birth weight and a 1-cm increase in birth length were associated with 1.14-4.25 cm and 0.18-0.90 cm taller height, respectively. The magnitude of the associations was generally greater within dizygotic than within monozygotic twin pairs, and this difference between zygosities was more pronounced for birth length. CONCLUSION: Both genetic and individual-specific environmental factors play a role in the association between birth size and later height from infancy to adulthood, with a larger role for genetics in the association with birth length than with birth weight.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(10): 1809-1818, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547969

RESUMO

Phosphorylcholine (PC) is an epitope on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), apoptotic cells and several pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae. Immunoglobulin M against PC (IgM anti-PC) has the ability to inhibit uptake of oxLDL by macrophages and increase clearance of apoptotic cells. From our genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in four European-ancestry cohorts, six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11q24.1 were discovered (in 3002 individuals) and replicated (in 646 individuals) to be associated with serum level of IgM anti-PC (the leading SNP rs35923643-G, combined ß = 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.24, P = 4.3 × 10-11). The haplotype tagged by rs35923643-G (or its proxy SNP rs735665-A) is also known as the top risk allele for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and a main increasing allele for general IgM. By using summary GWAS results of IgM anti-PC and CLL in the polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis, PRS on the basis of IgM anti-PC risk alleles positively associated with CLL risk (explained 0.6% of CLL variance, P = 1.2 × 10-15). Functional prediction suggested that rs35923643-G might impede the binding of Runt-related transcription factor 3, a tumor suppressor playing a central role in the immune regulation of cancers. Contrary to the expectations from the shared genetics between IgM anti-PC and CLL, an inverse relationship at the phenotypic level was found in a nested case-control study (30 CLL cases with 90 age- and sex-matched controls), potentially reflecting reverse causation. The suggested function of the top variant as well as the phenotypic association between IgM anti-PC and CLL risk needs replication and motivates further studies.

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