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1.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 35, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whereas many adolescents and young people with HIV require the transfer of care from paediatric/adolescent clinics to adult ART clinics, this transition is beset with a multitude of factors that have the potential to hinder or facilitate the process, thereby raising ethical challenges of the transition process. Decisions made regarding therapy, such as when and how to transition to adult HIV care, should consider ethical benefits and risks. Understanding and addressing ethical challenges in the healthcare transition could ensure a smooth and successful transition. The purpose of this study was to analyze the ethical challenges of transitioning HIV care for adolescents into adult HIV clinics. METHODS: Data presented were derived from 191 adolescents attending nine different health facilities in Uganda, who constituted 18 focus group discussions. In the discussions, facilitators and barriers regarding adolescents transitioning to adult HIV clinics were explored. Guided by the Silences Framework for data interpretation, thematic data analysis was used to analyze the data. The principles of bioethics and the four-boxes ethics framework for clinical care (patient autonomy, medical indications, the context of care, and quality of life) were used to analyze the ethical issues surrounding the transition from adolescent to adult HIV care. RESULTS: The key emerging ethical issues were: reduced patient autonomy; increased risk of harm from stigma and loss of privacy and confidentiality; unfriendly adult clinics induce disengagement and disruption of the care continuum; patient preference to transition as a cohort, and contextual factors are critical to a successful transition. CONCLUSION: The priority outcomes of the healthcare transition for adolescents should address ethical challenges of the healthcare transition such as loss of autonomy, stigma, loss of privacy, and discontinuity of care to ensure retention in HIV care, facilitate long-term self-care, offer ongoing all-inclusive healthcare, promote adolescent health and wellbeing and foster trust in the healthcare system. Identifying and addressing the ethical issues related to what hinders or facilitates successful transitions with targeted interventions for the transition process may ensure adolescents and young people with HIV infection remain healthy across the healthcare transition.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 835, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing number of adolescents and young adults living with HIV (YPLHIV) who require the transfer of care from pediatric/ adolescent clinics to adult Antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics. A successful transition is critical for optimum health outcomes, yet facilities may lack infrastructure, human resources (with appropriate knowledge and skills), and a supportive environment, as only 3% of clinics in Uganda caring for YPLHIV have a process for supporting this critical transition from pediatric to adult care, and, facilitators and barriers of a successful transition are not well documented. The purpose of this study was to explore the facilitators and barriers of transitioning among adolescents from adolescent clinics to adult ART clinics. METHOD: Eighteen focus group discussions were held in nine health facilities with 174 adolescents and YPLHIV to assess barriers and facilitators regarding transitioning to adult clinics. The focus group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed. The Silences Framework using a thematic approach guided the analysis. RESULTS: The key emerging issues were: Unfriendly adults in adult clinics, Care provided in the adolescent clinics, fear of stigma from health care providers, Congestion and long waiting time, fear to lose friends were barriers to transitioning. Transitioning preparation is key to a successful transition, moving as a cohort facilitates transition, and care in adult clinics offers new opportunities, could facilitate readiness and transition. CONCLUSION: YPLHIV expressed fear to transition to adult clinics mainly because of the perceived better care provided in the adolescent clinic, thus constituting a barrier to smooth transition A range of individual, social and health system and services-related factors hindered transitioning. The expectation of transitioning as a group, assurance of similar care as in the adolescent clinic, and guarantees of confidentiality, privacy, and autonomy in decision-making for care was perceived as facilitators. Understanding barriers and facilitators can enable the Ministry of Health to improve the quality of life of YPLHIV through linkage to care, adherence, retention, and viral suppression. There is a need to better planning and preparation for clinical providers and YPLHIV with a focus on age-appropriate and individualized case management transition as well as focus on improving both clinical and psychosocial support throughout the process.

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