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1.
Peptides ; 146: 170672, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627957

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinoma is the most frequent form of non-small cell lung cancer. Inside the tumor mass, uncontrolled cell proliferation generates hypoxic areas leading to activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) responsible for neovascularization and tumor metastasis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are two neuropeptides widely distributed in respiratory organs. Previous studies have demonstrated that these peptides interfere with hypoxic pathways in various diseases, including tumors. However, their modulatory role in HIFs expression in lung adenocarcinomas has not yet been evaluated. In the present paper, we detected the expression profile of PACAP, VIP and related receptors in healthy and adenocarcinoma human lung tissue. To characterize peptides' modulatory effects on HIFs expression, we also exposed A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and human normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to microenvironmental hypoxia by treating them with deferoxamine (DFX). The results showed that PACAP and VIP significantly reduced HIF-1α and HIF-2α levels in both cell lines following hypoxic stress. The HIF-3α expression profile was related to cellular phenotype as it was lower in BEAS-2B and higher in A549 cells under low oxygen tension. In lung adenocarcinoma cells, peptide treatment restored HIF-3 α expression to control levels. These results suggest that endogenous PACAP and VIP exert controversial roles in cellular hypoxic microenvironments depending on the pathophysiological conditions of the lung tissue.

2.
Front Surg ; 8: 722312, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490340

RESUMO

Sclerosing mesenteritis (SM) is a rare fibroinflammatory disorder that involves mesenteric adipose tissue, more frequently localized in the small intestine, with an insidious clinical presentation having symptoms related to mass effect, usually resulting in bowel obstruction, mesenteric ischemia, as well as rapid weight loss. We report a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with palpable abdominal mass, mesogastric pain, and a history of rapid weight loss, who underwent exploratory laparoscopy. A hemorrhagic and gelatinous nodular tumor mass of the mesentery was identified and the surgical procedure was converted to a laparotomic approach. Histologically, the mass was composed of a proliferation of bland-looking spindle cells with slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and elongated normochromatic nuclei with mild nuclear atypia, haphazardly set in a collagenized stroma; fat necrosis and inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, plasma-cells, and histiocytes) were also evident. The diagnosis of sclerosing mesenteritis was made. Our case emphasizes that histology remains pre-eminent for a correct diagnosis of SM, as pre-operative radiological-based diagnosis is non-specific.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep angiomyxoma (DAM) is currently included in the category of "specific stromal tumors of the lower female genital tract", along with angiomyofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma and myofibroblastoma. Given the high rate of local recurrences, it is crucial to recognize DAM from other tumors that possess indolent behaviour. In the present paper, we analyzed the morphological and immunohistochemical features of 42 surgically-resected vulvo-vaginal DAMs (36 primary and 6 recurrent lesions) in order to widen the morphological spectrum of this uncommon tumor. METHODS: A series of 36 cases of surgically-resected primary vulvo-vaginal DAMs were retrospectively collected. Locally recurrent tumors were also available for six of these cases. RESULTS: Out of the primary tumors, 25 out of 36 exhibited the classic-type morphology of DAM. In the remaining cases (11/36 cases), the following uncommon features, which sometimes coexist with one another, were observed: (i) alternating myxoid and collagenized/fibrous areas; (ii) hypercellular areas; (iii) neurofibroma-like appearance; (iv) perivascular hyalinization; (v) microcystic/reticular stromal changes; (vi) "microvascular growth pattern"; (vii) perivascular cuffing; (viii) nodular leiomyomatous differentiation; (ix) hypocellular and fibro-sclerotic stroma. Among the six locally recurrent tumors the following features were observed: (i) classic-type morphology; (ii) hypocellular fibro-sclerotic stroma; (iii) extensive perivascular hyalinization, lumen obliteration and formation of confluent nodular sclerotic masses; (iv) hypercellularity. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells of classic-type DAM in both primary and recurrent tumors were diffusely stained with desmin, suggesting a myofibroblastic nature; in contrast, the neoplastic cells showing elongated fibroblastic-like morphology and set in collagenized/fibrosclerotic stroma in both primary and recurrent tumors were negative or only focally stained with desmin, which is consistent with a fibroblastic profile. CONCLUSION: Although diagnosis of DAM is usually straightforward if typical morphology is encountered, diagnostic problems may arise when a pathologist is dealing with unusual morphological features, especially hypercellularity, extensive collagenous/fibrosclerotic stroma or neurofibroma-like appearance.

4.
Pathol Res Pract ; 226: 153577, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455362

RESUMO

A minority of mixed fibro-epithelial lesions of the breast lacks both fibroadenoma and phyllodes architectural patterns and have been previously labeled with different terms, including "hamartomas", "myoid/muscular hamartomas", "benign fibroadenomatous lesions" or "stromo-epithelial lesions of the breast". This study emphasizes the clinico-pathologic features of 5 cases of mammary benign fibro(stromo)-epithelial lesions sharing as a common morphologic theme the presence of minimally infiltrative margins due to the overgrowth of the stromal component into the surrounding fibro-fatty tissue. Notably the radiological features were suspicious for malignancy in 3 out of 5 cases. The following histologic features were seen in all cases: i) an epithelial component of benign glandular structures exhibiting the morphological spectrum of fibro-cystic disease; ii) a stromal component of bland-looking spindle cell myofibroblasts (vimentin + and α-smooth muscle actin +) set in a variably fibro-myxoid stroma. The present paper contributes to widen the morphological spectrum of the benign fibro-epithelial lesions of the breast, emphasizing the possibility that some cases, exhibiting a predominant myofibroblastic stromal component and minimally infiltrative margins, may be confused with other primary spindle cell mimickers of the breast. Accordingly, we propose the descriptive term "benign myofibroblastic/epithelial lesions of the breast with minimally infiltrative margins" for these previously underrecognized lesions.

5.
Breast J ; 27(9): 726-730, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196064

RESUMO

Myofibroblastoma (MFB) is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor usually occurring in the breast parenchyma. This tumor can present as a palpable nodule or can be incidentally detected as a nonpalpable mass on routine screening mammogram. We first report a rare case of histologically proven MFB of the breast revealed by fluoro-deoxyglucose uptake on PET-CT examination in a patient with a lung nodule. Tumor exhibited an unusual morphology, being predominantly composed of polygonal, epithelioid, and deciduoid-like cells set in a myxoid stroma. The most striking feature was the multifocal presence of atypical/bizarre, mono/bi-nucleated cells that, in addition to diffuse myxoid stromal changes, were a concern of malignancy, especially on core biopsy. The final diagnosis of MFB was achieved on surgically resected specimen and, similarly to other benign soft tissue tumors (especially leiomyoma and schwannoma/neurofibroma), the term "bizarre cell MFB of the breast" is proposed to emphasize the degenerative/reactive nature of the atypia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Tecido Muscular , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias de Tecido Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Tecido Muscular/cirurgia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada
6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare pediatric soft tissue neoplasm composed of small round tumor cells with prominent stromal desmoplasia, polyphenotypic differentiation and EWSR1-WT1 gene fusion. We, herein, present a unique case of DSRCT, exhibiting a pure spindle cell morphology, absence of desmoplastic stroma and showing a novel EWS-WT1 fusion transcript. METHODS: A 12-year-old boy presented multiple intra-abdominal, confluent and mass-forming nodules that affected the entire abdominal and pelvic cavities. RESULTS: Histologically, the nodules were composed of spindle cells with scant cytoplasm and oval nuclei arranged into short, intersecting fascicles and set in a scant, non-desmoplastic, stroma. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were stained with vimentin, desmin, WT-1 (C-terminus antibodies) and EMA. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of an unusual chimeric transcript, composed of an in-frame junction of exon 9 of EWS to exon 7 of WT1, confirming the histological diagnosis of DSRCT. CONCLUSIONS: The present case contributes to widen the morphological spectrum of this entity; notably, the additional presence of a novel chimeric fusion transcript contributes to making the present case even more unique. Whether the detection of the above-mentioned fusion transcripts could explain the unusual morphology of the tumor remains to be established.

7.
Case Rep Oncol Med ; 2021: 6692538, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728080

RESUMO

Intestinal and pancreatic metastases are rare and often challenging to recognize and manage. Lung cancer patients with enteric involvement usually display poor outcomes. Hyperprogression to immunotherapy represents a concern, even though there is currently no agreement on its exact definition. Gastrointestinal hyperprogression to immune checkpoint inhibitors has not been described so far. In these cases, distinguishing disease-related symptoms from immune-related adverse events may represent a diagnostic conundrum. Here, we report two cases of non-small-cell lung cancer experiencing a rapid pancreatic and colic progression to immunotherapy, respectively. While further investigations to identify biomarkers associated with hyperprogression are warranted, clinicians should be aware of the potential unusual clinical presentations of this phenomenon.

8.
Brain Sci ; 11(2)2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561993

RESUMO

Cellular composition and molecular signatures of the glioma core compared with infiltrative margins are different, and it is well known that the tumor edge is enriched in microglia. In this review of the literature, we summarize the role of the peritumoral area in high-grade gliomas (HGGs) from surgical and biological points of view. There is evidence on the dual role of microglia in HGGs-a scavenger-tumoricidal role when microglia are activated in an M1 phenotype and a role favoring tumor growth and infiltration/migration when microglia are activated in an M2 phenotype. Microglia polarization is mediated by complex pathways involving cross-talk with glioma cells. In this scenario, extracellular vesicles and their miRNA cargo seem to play a central role. The switch to a specific phenotype correlates with prognosis and the pathological assessment of a specific microglial setting can predict a patient's outcome. Some authors have designed an engineered microglial cell as a biologically active vehicle for the delivery of intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent dye with the aim of helping surgeons detect peritumoral infiltrated areas during resection. Furthermore, the pharmacological modulation of microglia-glioma cross-talk paves the way to more effective therapies.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to investigate the immunohistochemical expression and distribution of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) (transcription factor produced by the tumor suppressor gene of the same name) in a series of 114 cases of bland-looking mesenchymal spindle cell lesions of the dermis/subcutaneous tissues to establish whether this immunomarker is differentially expressed in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) versus its potential morphological mimickers. METHODS: This retrospective multi-centric immunohistochemical study included 57 DFSP cases, 15 dermatofibromas, 5 deep fibrous histiocytomas, 8 neurofibromas, 5 spindle cell lipomas, 8 dermal scars, 6 nodular fasciitis, 5 cutaneous leiomyomas and 5 solitary fibrous tumors. Among the 57 DFSP cases, 11 were recurrent lesions; 2 non-recurrent cases exhibited an additional "fibrosarcomatous" overgrowth and 1 recurrent and 2 primary tumors contained a minority of "giant cell fibroblastoma" components. RESULTS: Most DFSP (95% of cases) exhibited cytoplasmic staining for WT1; 11/11 residual/recurrent tumors showed diffuse and strong WT1 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity; apart from neurofibromas, WT1 expression was lacking in all the other cases studied. CONCLUSIONS: The cytoplasmic expression of WT1 may be exploitable as a complementary diagnostic immunomarker to CD34 in confirming the diagnosis of DFSP and to better evaluate the residual/recurrent tumor component.

10.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 20(2): 151-163, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extent of tumor resection (EOTR) in glioblastoma surgery plays an important role in improving survival. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy, safety and reliability of fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images used to guide glioblastoma resection (FLAIRectomy) and to volumetrically measure postoperative EOTR, which was correlated with clinical outcome and survival. METHODS: A total of 68 glioblastoma patients (29 males, mean age 65.8) were prospectively enrolled. Hyperintense areas on FLAIR images, surrounding gadolinium-enhancing tissue on T1-weighted MR images, were screened for signal changes suggesting tumor infiltration and evaluated for supramaximal resection. The surgical protocol included 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence, neuromonitoring, and intraoperative imaging tools. 5-ALA fluorescence intensity was analyzed and matched with the different sites on navigated MR, both on postcontrast T1-weighted and FLAIR images. Volumetric evaluation of EOTR on T1-weighted and FLAIR sequences was compared. RESULTS: FLAIR MR volumetric evaluation documented larger tumor volume than that assessed on contrast-enhancing T1 MR (72.6 vs 54.9 cc); residual tumor was seen in 43 patients; postcontrast T1 MR volumetric analysis showed complete resection in 64 cases. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter was methylated in 8/68 (11.7%) cases; wild type Isocytrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1) was found in 66/68 patients. Progression free survival and overall survival (PFS and OS) were 17.43 and 25.11 mo, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant correlation between EOTR based on FLAIR, PFS (R2 = 0.46), and OS (R2 = 0.68). CONCLUSION: EOTR based on FLAIR and 5-ALA fluorescence is feasible. Safety of resection relies on the use of neuromonitoring and intraoperative multimodal imaging tools. FLAIR-based EOTR appears to be a stronger survival predictor compared to gadolinium-enhancing, T1-based resection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020459

RESUMO

Advances in functional imaging are supporting neurosurgery and radiotherapy for glioblastoma, which still remains the most aggressive brain tumor with poor prognosis. The typical infiltration pattern of glioblastoma, which impedes a complete surgical resection, is coupled with a high rate of invasiveness and radioresistance, thus further limiting efficient therapy, leading to inevitable and fatal recurrences. Hypoxia is of crucial importance in gliomagenesis and, besides reducing radiotherapy efficacy, also induces cellular and molecular mediators that foster proliferation and invasion. In this review, we aimed at analyzing the biological mechanism of glioblastoma invasiveness and radioresistance in hypoxic niches of glioblastoma. We also discussed the link between hypoxia and radiation-induced radioresistance with activation of SRC proto-oncogene non-receptor tyrosine kinase, prospecting potential strategies to overcome the current limitation in glioblastoma treatment.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899428

RESUMO

B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) are often characterized by the development of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and/or relapse. During drug-induced apoptosis, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) transcription factor might modulate the expression of apoptotic regulators genes. The present study was aimed to: (1) examine the potential oncogenic role of YY1 in reversing drug resistance in B-NHLs; and (2) identify YY1 transcriptional target(s) that regulate the apoptotic pathway in B-NHLs. Predictive analyses coupled with database-deposited data suggested that YY1 binds the promoter of the BIRC5/survivin anti-apoptotic gene. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) analyses of several B-NHL repositories revealed a conserved positive correlation between YY1 and survivin, both highly expressed, especially in aggressive B-NHLs. Further validation experiments performed in Raji Burkitt's lymphomas cells, demonstrated that YY1 silencing was associated with survivin downregulation and sensitized the cells to apoptosis. Overall, our results revealed that: (1) YY1 and survivin are positively correlated and overexpressed in B-NHLs, especially in BLs; (2) YY1 strongly binds to the survivin promoter, hence survivin may be suggested as YY1 transcriptional target; (3) YY1 silencing sensitizes Raji cells to drug-induced apoptosis via downregulation of survivin; (4) both YY1 and survivin are potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for the treatment of resistant/relapsed B-NHLs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Survivina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição YY1/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Survivina/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Fator de Transcrição YY1/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética
13.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962198

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition in the hepatic parenchyma as a consequence of complex interactions among matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and liver-resident and infiltrating cells. In addition to the liver, the process of fibrosis may represent end-stage disease of several diseases including kidneys, lungs, spleens, heart, muscles and at certain extent, the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves. To date, antifibrotic treatment of fibrosis represents an unconquered area for drug development. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of a new drug combination for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in order to provide a proof-of-concept for the use of therapeutic agents in clinical practice. For this purpose, we have studied the effects of the PDGF inhibitor imatinib and the angiogenesis inhibitor sorafenib, administered alone or in combination, in reducing the progression of the fibrogenetic process in a pre-clinical model of liver damage induced in mice by repeated administration of Concanavalin A (ConA), resembling long-tern autoimmune hepatitis. Our results suggest that treatments with imatinib and sorafenib can modulate potently and, in a superimposable fashion, the fibrinogenic process when administered alone. However, and in agreement with the computational data presently generated, they only exert partial overlapping antifibrotic effects in modulating the main pathways involved in the process of liver fibrosis, without significant additive or synergist effects, when administered in combination.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores do Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Concanavalina A/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
15.
Updates Surg ; 72(3): 793-800, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632764

RESUMO

According to the American Joint Committee on Cancer, at least 12 lymph nodes are required to accurately stage locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT) reduces the number of lymph nodes retrieved during surgery. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NACRT on lymph node retrieval and prognosis in patients with LARC. We performed an observational study of 142 patients with LARC. Although our analysis was retrospective, data were collected prospectively. Half the patients were treated with NACRT and total mesorectal excision (TME) and the other half underwent TME only. The number of lymph nodes retrieved and the number of metastatic lymph nodes were significantly reduced in the NACRT group (P > 0.001). In the univariate and multivariate analyses, only NACRT and patient age were significantly associated with reduced lymph node retrieval. The number of metastatic lymph nodes and the lymph node ratio (LNR) both had a significant effect on prognosis when the patient population was examined as a whole (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). However, the LNR was the only significant, independent prognostic factor in both treatment groups (P = 0.007 for the NACRT group; P = 0.04 for the no-NACRT group). NACRT improves patient prognosis only when the number of metastatic lymph nodes is reduced. The number of metastatic lymph nodes and the LNR are important prognostic factors. Lymph node retrieval remains an indispensable tool for staging and prognostic assessment of patients with rectal carcinoma treated with NACRT.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Metástase Linfática/terapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reto/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8854, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483125

RESUMO

Diverticular disease affects ∼5-10% people worldwide, yet the indications for elective colectomy in uncomplicated diverticulitis are unclear. As there is no strong scientific evidence regarding histology in diverticular disease, the primary outcome of the study was to analyze the degree of inflammation of colonic wall in patients that underwent elective colectomy for uncomplicated diverticulitis and to retrospectively assess the correlation between patient clinical history and pathological features of surgical specimens in order to find some predictive factors that may be strictly correlated with histology. An observational retrospective study was conducted. Patients undergoing elective colectomy for uncomplicated diverticulitis between January 2014 and January 2016 in an academic medical center were collected. The majority of patients (46.2%) had previously encountered one episode of acute diverticulitis prior to colectomy, while 21.5% and 10.8% had experienced two and three or more prior episodes respectively. Most patients had recurrent or chronic abdominal pain in the left iliac fossa (66.2%) for diverticular disease and a large proportion also experienced constipation (40.0%). Diverticulitis was identified pathologically as being "mild" in 44.6% patients and "severe" in 55.4% patients. The mean age was significantly lower in patients with severe diverticulitis (56.7 years) than in patients with mild diverticulitis (67.0 years). 71.9% of males had severe diverticulitis compared to 39.4% of females. Males have a 3.9 times higher risk of histological severe diverticulitis than females (OR = 3.932; 1.390-11.122; p = 0.008). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that age and gender were independent factors associated with histological diagnosis. Single-institution data and retrospective design were main limitations of this study. Age and gender are independent factors associated with severity inflammation index derived at histological analysis and they could be translated to clinical practice to better categorize patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis at the bedside.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/cirurgia , Diverticulite/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Colectomia , Doenças do Colo/patologia , Diverticulite/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155777

RESUMO

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) shows overlapping epidemiology with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, sharing similar risk factorssuch as age, mammographic density, family history, and hormonal therapy as well as genetic factors such as BRCA1/BRCA2, histotypes, and molecular subtypes such as luminal A and B, HER2 enriched, and basal-type, thus suggesting its potential precursor role. A small percentage of patients with a history of DCIS die without a documented intermediate diagnosis of invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). The increased risk of death is usually associated with ipsilateral recurrence such as IBC. The slightly variable incidence of DCIS in different countries is mainly due to a different diffusion of mammographic screening and variability of the risk factors. The majority of DCIS lesions are not palpable lesions, which can be only radiologically detected because of the association with microcalcifications. Mammography is a highly sensitive diagnostic procedure for detecting DCIS with microcalcifications, while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered more sensitive to detect DCIS without calcifications and/or multifocal lesions. The aim of the present overview was to focus on the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of DCIS of the breast, with an emphasis on the practical diagnostic approach, predictive prognostic factors, and therapeutic options.

19.
Pathologica ; 112(1): 42-45, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202538

RESUMO

Angioleiomyoma is a benign soft tissue tumor which usually occurs in superficial or deep soft tissues. Only rarely does this tumor occur at unusual sites, including retroperitoneum. We present a rare case of lumbo-sacral angioleiomyoma in a 54-year-old man. Apart from this unusual site, the most striking morphological feature was the presence of numerous keloid-like collagen fibers interspersed among the fascicles of the neoplastic cells. Radiological, morphological and immunohistochemical features are presented, and differential diagnosis with its potential morphological mimickers is discussed.


Assuntos
Angiomioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Colágeno , Queloide/diagnóstico por imagem , Região Lombossacral/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Mol Ther Oncolytics ; 16: 197-206, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099899

RESUMO

Herein, we assess the gene expression changes activated in thyroid tumors through a computational approach, using the MapReduce algorithm. Through this predictive analysis, we identified the TfR1 gene as a critical mediator of thyroid tumor progression. Then, we investigated the effect of TfR1 gene silencing through small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) pathway and c-Myc in human differentiated follicular and undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid cancer. The expression levels of cyclin D1, p53, and p27, proteins involved in cell cycle progression, were also evaluated. The effect of TfR1 gene silencing through siRNA on the apoptotic pathway activation was also tested. Computational prediction and in vitro studies demonstrate that TfR1 plays a key role in thyroid cancer and that its downregulation was able to inhibit the ERK pathway, reducing also c-Myc expression, which blocks the cell cycle and activates the apoptotic pathway. We demonstrate that TfR1 plays a crucial role for a rapid and transient activation of the ERK signaling pathway, which induces a deregulation of genes involved in the aberrant accumulation of intracellular free iron and in drug resistance. We also suggest that TfR1 might represent an important target for thyroid cancer therapy.

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