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1.
Heart ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) require dose adjustment for renal function. We sought to investigate change in renal function over time in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and whether those on NOACs have appropriate dose adjustments according to its decline. METHODS: We included patients with AF enrolled in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation II registry treated with oral anticoagulation. Worsening renal function (WRF) was defined as a decrease of >20% in creatinine clearance (CrCl) from baseline. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved package inserts were used to define the reduction criteria of NOACs dosing. RESULTS: Among 6682 patients with AF from 220 sites (median age (25th, 75th): 72.0 years (65.0, 79.0); 57.1% male; median CrCl at baseline: 80.1 mL/min (57.4, 108.5)), 1543 patients (23.1%) experienced WRF with mean decline in CrCl during 2 year follow-up of -6.63 mL/min for NOACs and -6.16 mL/min for warfarin. Among 4120 patients on NOACs, 154 (3.7%) patients had a CrCl decline sufficient to warrant FDA-recommended dose reductions. Of these, NOACs dosing was appropriately reduced in only 31 (20.1%) patients. Compared with patients with appropriately reduced NOACs, those without were more likely to experience bleeding complications (major bleeding: 1.7% vs 0%; bleeding hospitalisation: 2.6% vs 0%) at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: In the US practice, about one-fourth of patients with AF had >20% decline in CrCl over time during 2 year follow-up. As a result, about 3.7% of those treated with NOACs met guideline criteria for dose reduction, but of these, only 20.1% actually had a reduction.

2.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(12): e007612, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating the effects of atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation versus antiarrhythmic therapy on outcomes have shown mixed results. In addition, guidelines recommend continuing oral anticoagulation (OAC) after ablation for those at risk of stroke, but real-world data are lacking. METHODS: We evaluated outcomes including death, myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism, intracranial bleeding, major bleeding, and hospitalization in patients undergoing AF ablation compared with a propensity score matched cohort of patients treated with anti-arrhythmic medications only in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation registries. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to evaluate the association between AF ablation and outcomes. We then evaluated patterns of treatment with OAC among AF ablation patients. RESULTS: Among 21 595 patients, 1190 (6%) underwent de novo AF ablation. Our propensity score-matched cohort included 1087 patients who underwent AF ablation matched 1:1 with 1087 patients treated with antiarrhythmic medications only. There were no significant differences in the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, and most other major adverse cardiovascular and neurological events. AF catheter ablation was associated with an increased risk of all-cause hospitalization during follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.05-1.46]), particularly in the first 3 months (the standard blanking period) after the procedure. Among those who underwent AF ablation with a CHA2DS2 VASc score ≥2 for men and ≥3 for women, 23% had OAC discontinued after ablation. Among those who discontinued OAC, the median time to discontinuation was 6.2 months. CONCLUSIONS: In this large US national registry, we found no difference in adjusted rates of cardiovascular or all-cause death between patients treated with AF catheter ablation and antiarrhythmic medications only. Notably, discontinuation of OAC after ablation remains relatively common despite guideline recommendations for continued stroke prevention therapy in patients at risk of stroke.

3.
Am Heart J ; 220: 145-154, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amiodarone is the most effective antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) for atrial fibrillation (AF), but it has a high incidence of adverse effects. METHODS: Using the ORBIT AF registry, patients with AF on amiodarone at enrollment, prescribed amiodarone during follow-up, or never on amiodarone were analyzed for the proportion treated with a guideline-based indication for amiodarone, the variability in amiodarone use across sites, and the outcomes (mortality, hospitalization, and stroke) among patients treated with amiodarone. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling with site-specific random intercepts compared rates of amiodarone use across 170 sites. A logistic regression model for propensity to receive amiodarone created a propensity-matched cohort. Cox proportional hazards modeling, stratified by matched pairs evaluated the association between amiodarone and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 6,987 AF patients, 867 (12%) were on amiodarone at baseline and 451 (6%) started on incident amiodarone during the 3-year follow-up. Use of amiodarone varied among sites from 3% in the lowest tertile to 21% in the highest (p<0.0001). Among those treated, 32% had documented contraindications to other AADs or had failed another AAD in the past. Mortality, cardiovascular hospitalization, and stroke were similar among matched patients on and not on amiodarone at baseline, while incident amiodarone use in matched patients was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.35-3.16). CONCLUSIONS: Use of amiodarone among AF patients in community practice is highly variable. More than 2 out of 3 patients treated with amiodarone appeared to be eligible for a different AAD.

4.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707795

RESUMO

Traditional management of diabetes mellitus has focused on glycemic control, beginning with lifestyle changes, followed by metformin, and then other classes of antiglycemic agents.1 Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular (CV) events, including CV death, myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure, and slow progression of renal dysfunction, including prevention of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).2-3 Because initial clinical trials included mostly patients with baseline HbA1c >7%, current guidelines have recommended this class as add-on therapy for patients whose HbA1c is not at goal, typically ≥7%.1 We hypothesized that there would be similar benefits on CV and renal endpoints regardless of baseline HbA1c, including those with HbA1c <7%.

5.
Am Heart J ; 219: 21-30, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and affect prognosis, yet are often undertreated. However, contemporary rates of use of guideline-directed therapies (GDT) for non-AF comorbidities and their association with outcomes are not well described. METHODS: We used the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF) to test the association between GDT for non-AF comorbidities and major adverse cardiac or neurovascular events (MACNE; cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke/thromboembolism, or new-onset heart failure), all-cause mortality, new-onset heart failure, and AF progression. Adjustment was performed using Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression. RESULTS: Only 6,782 (33%) of the 20,434 patients eligible for 1 or more GDT for non-AF comorbidities received all indicated therapies. Use of all comorbidity-specific GDT was highest for patients with hyperlipidemia (75.6%) and lowest for those with diabetes mellitus (43.1%). Use of "all eligible" GDT was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward lower rates of MACNE (HR 0.90 [0.79-1.02]) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.90 [0.80-1.01]). Use of GDT for heart failure was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.77 [0.67-0.89]), and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea was associated with a lower risk of AF progression (OR 0.75 [0.62-0.90]). CONCLUSIONS: In AF patients, there is underuse of GDT for non-AF comorbidities. The association between GDT use and outcomes was strongest in heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea patients where use of GDT was associated with lower mortality and less AF progression.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 381(20): 1909-1917, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optical sensors on wearable devices can detect irregular pulses. The ability of a smartwatch application (app) to identify atrial fibrillation during typical use is unknown. METHODS: Participants without atrial fibrillation (as reported by the participants themselves) used a smartphone (Apple iPhone) app to consent to monitoring. If a smartwatch-based irregular pulse notification algorithm identified possible atrial fibrillation, a telemedicine visit was initiated and an electrocardiography (ECG) patch was mailed to the participant, to be worn for up to 7 days. Surveys were administered 90 days after notification of the irregular pulse and at the end of the study. The main objectives were to estimate the proportion of notified participants with atrial fibrillation shown on an ECG patch and the positive predictive value of irregular pulse intervals with a targeted confidence interval width of 0.10. RESULTS: We recruited 419,297 participants over 8 months. Over a median of 117 days of monitoring, 2161 participants (0.52%) received notifications of irregular pulse. Among the 450 participants who returned ECG patches containing data that could be analyzed - which had been applied, on average, 13 days after notification - atrial fibrillation was present in 34% (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 29 to 39) overall and in 35% (97.5% CI, 27 to 43) of participants 65 years of age or older. Among participants who were notified of an irregular pulse, the positive predictive value was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.92) for observing atrial fibrillation on the ECG simultaneously with a subsequent irregular pulse notification and 0.71 (97.5% CI, 0.69 to 0.74) for observing atrial fibrillation on the ECG simultaneously with a subsequent irregular tachogram. Of 1376 notified participants who returned a 90-day survey, 57% contacted health care providers outside the study. There were no reports of serious app-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of receiving an irregular pulse notification was low. Among participants who received notification of an irregular pulse, 34% had atrial fibrillation on subsequent ECG patch readings and 84% of notifications were concordant with atrial fibrillation. This siteless (no on-site visits were required for the participants), pragmatic study design provides a foundation for large-scale pragmatic studies in which outcomes or adherence can be reliably assessed with user-owned devices. (Funded by Apple; Apple Heart Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03335800.).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Confidencialidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Am Heart J ; 220: 51-58, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates and predictors of major bleeding in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) treated with antiplatelets have not been well studied. This post hoc analysis of EUCLID aimed to determine the incidence of major/minor bleeding, predictors of major bleeding, and risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) following major bleeding events. METHODS: EUCLID, a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 13,885 patients with symptomatic PAD, compared ticagrelor with clopidogrel for the prevention of MACE. The primary safety end point was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding. Baseline characteristics were used to develop a multivariable model to determine factors associated with TIMI major bleeding. The occurrence and timing of MACE relative to a first major bleeding event were determined. RESULTS: TIMI major bleeding occurred in 2.3% of participants overall (0.94 event/100 patient-years). There was no significant difference in major bleeding rates by treatment assignment. Factors associated with TIMI major bleeding included older age, geographic region, Rutherford class, and ß-blocker use. Patients with TIMI major bleeding postrandomization had an increased risk of MACE (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46; 95% CI 3.40-5.84; P < .0001) compared with those without major bleeding; the association was strongest within 30 days after a bleeding event. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic PAD, 0.94 major bleeding event/100 patient-years was observed and associated with older age, residing in North America, disease severity, and ß-blocker use. Patients who had a major bleeding event were significantly more likely to experience MACE, especially within the first 30 days, when compared with patients who did not have major bleeding.

8.
J Vasc Access ; : 1129729819887269, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protease-activated receptor-1 antagonism by vorapaxar could facilitate arteriovenous fistula maturation but may increase bleeding risk. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the Vorapaxar Study for Maturation of arteriovenous fistula for Hemodialysis Access (VorapAccess) was to determine if vorapaxar improves arteriovenous fistula functional maturation in patients with end-stage renal disease. METHODS: VorapAccess was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial comparing 2.5 mg vorapaxar per day with placebo for twelve weeks starting on day two after arteriovenous fistula creation. The primary outcome was time to functional maturation defined as successful cannulation for six hemodialysis sessions within three weeks. The planned sample size was 50 participants. The study was terminated early after withdrawal of planned financial support. Given the small number of randomized patients, we performed descriptive analyses without inference testing. RESULTS: A total of 13 participants were randomly allocated study drug (six vorapaxar and seven placebo). The median age was 56 years and seven participants (54%) were female. The median (minimum-maximum) days to functional maturation were 169 (77-287) days in the vorapaxar group and 145 (48-198) days in the placebo group. Six of the 13 (46%) participants had arteriovenous fistula functional maturation within 180 days; two of six (33%) in the vorapaxar group and four of seven (57%) in the placebo group. There was one bleeding event in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Fewer than half of participants had functional maturation within 180 days after surgery, suggesting a major need for agents or strategies that enhance arteriovenous fistula maturation.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747132

RESUMO

AIMS: Sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and high cardiovascular risk in two large clinical outcome trials: empagliflozin in EMPA-REG OUTCOME and canagliflozin in CANVAS. The scope of eligibility for SGLT-2 inhibitors (empagliflozin and canagliflozin) among patients with type 2 DM and HF, based on clinical trial criteria and current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labelling criteria, remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the US Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Heart Failure registry, we evaluated the proportion of patients with DM and HF eligible for SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy based on the clinical trial criteria and the US FDA labelling criteria. The GWTG-HF registry is a quality improvement registry of patients admitted in hospital with HF in the USA. We included GWTG-HF registry participants meeting eligibility criteria hospitalized between August 2014 and 30 June 2017 from sites fully participating in the registry. The initial inclusion time point reflects when both drugs had FDA approval. Among the 139 317 patients (out of 407 317) with DM hospitalized with HF (in 460 hospitals; 2014 to 2017), the median age was 71 years, 47% (n = 65 685) were female, and 43% (n = 59 973) had HF with reduced ejection fraction. Overall, 43% (n = 59 943) were eligible for the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, 45% (n = 62 818) were eligible for the CANVAS trial, and 34% (n = 47 747) of patients were eligible for either SGLT-2 inhibitors based on the FDA labelling criteria. Among the FDA-eligible patients, 91.5% (n = 43 708) were eligible for either the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial or the CANVAS trial. Patients who were FDA eligible, compared with those who were not, were younger (70.0 vs. 72.0 years of age), more likely to be male (57.7 vs. 50.3%), and had less burden of co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with DM who are hospitalized with HF are not eligible for SGLT-2 inhibitor therapies. Ongoing studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of SGLT-2 inhibitors among patients with HF may potentially broaden the population that may benefit from these therapies.

10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore potential mediators of the effects of canagliflozin on heart failure in the CANVAS Program (CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study; NCT01032629 and CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study-Renal; NCT01989754). BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin reduced the risk of heart failure among patients with type 2 diabetes in the CANVAS Program. The mechanism of protection is uncertain. METHODS: The percentages of mediating effects of 19 biomarkers were determined by comparing the hazard ratios for the effect of randomized treatment from an unadjusted model and from a model adjusting for the biomarker of interest. Multivariable analyses were used to assess the joint effects of biomarkers that mediated most strongly in univariable analyses. RESULTS: Early changes after randomization in levels of 3 biomarkers (urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, serum bicarbonate, and serum urate) were identified as mediating the effect of canagliflozin on heart failure. Average post-randomization levels of 14 biomarkers (systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, weight, body mass index, gamma glutamyltransferase, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, serum albumin, erythrocyte concentration, serum bicarbonate, and serum urate) were identified as significant mediators. Individually, the 3 biomarkers with the largest mediating effect were erythrocyte concentration (45%), hemoglobin concentration (43%), and serum urate (40%). In a parsimonious multivariable model, erythrocyte concentration, serum urate, and urinary albumin:creatinine ratio were the 3 biomarkers that maximized cumulative mediation (102%). CONCLUSIONS: A diverse set of potential mediators of the effect of canagliflozin on heart failure were identified. Some mediating effects were anticipated, whereas others were not. The mediators that were identified support existing and novel hypothesized mechanisms for the prevention of heart failure with sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors.

11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729107

RESUMO

AIMS: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce several cardiovascular risk factors including plasma glucose, blood pressure, albuminuria and body weight. Long-term treatment lowers risks of cardiovascular and renal events. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to determine the effects of canagliflozin treatment versus placebo on clinical outcomes in relation to body mass index (BMI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CANVAS Program randomized 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes to canagliflozin or placebo. These analyses tested the consistency of canagliflozin treatment effects across BMI levels for cardiovascular, renal, safety, and body weight outcomes in 3 groups defined by baseline BMI: <25, 25-<30, and ≥30 kg/m2 . RESULTS: A total of 10,128 participants with baseline BMI measurements were included. There were 966 participants with BMI <25 kg/m2 , 3153 with BMI 25-<30 kg/m2 , and 6009 with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 . Mean body weight reduction with canagliflozin compared to placebo was greater at 12 months (-2.47 kg [95% CI: -2.64, -2.30]) than at 3 months (-1.53 kg [95% CI: -1.63, -1.44]). The HRs (95% CI) for canagliflozin compared with placebo control for the composite outcome of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke were HR 1.03 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.59) in participants with BMI <25 kg/m2 , 0.97 (0.76, 1.23) with BMI 25-<30 kg/m2 , and 0.79 (0.67, 0.93) with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (P for heterogeneity = 0.55). The effects of canagliflozin on each component of the composite were also similar across BMI subgroups, as were effects on heart failure, renal, and safety outcomes (all P for heterogeneity ≥0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin improved cardiovascular and renal outcomes consistently across patients with a broad range of BMI levels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(10): e008069, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between invasive vascular procedures and bleeding in patients with peripheral artery disease has not been well described in the literature. This post hoc analysis from the EUCLID trial (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in Peripheral Artery Disease) aimed to describe the incidence of major and minor postprocedural bleeding and characterize the timing and severity of bleeding events relative to the procedure. METHODS: EUCLID was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of 13 885 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease that tested the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel for the prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events. A total of 2661 patients underwent 3062 coronary revascularization, peripheral revascularization, and amputation during the study. The primary safety end point was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major or minor bleeding. All bleeding events were formally adjudicated by a clinical end point classification group. RESULTS: Major bleeding events most often occurred ≤7 days following the procedure. The incidence of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major or minor bleeding ≤7 days following peripheral revascularization (3.3%; 95% CI, 2.5%-4.1%) was similar to rates after coronary revascularization (4.0%; 95% CI, 2.6%-5.4%) and lower extremity amputation (2.3%; 95% CI, 0.8%-3.8%). The severity of bleeding events (as graded by drop in hemoglobin, need for transfusion, bleeding in a critical location, and fatal bleeding) was also similar following peripheral, coronary revascularization, and lower extremity amputation. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major/minor bleeding following peripheral revascularization is comparable to rates after coronary revascularization and lower extremity amputation, and the majority of bleeding events occur within 7 days following the procedure. The severity of periprocedural bleeding is also similar after procedures, with the most frequently adjudicated reason being a drop in hemoglobin ≥2 g/dL. Future studies should be performed to enhance our understanding of bleeding risk related to revascularization and amputation procedures in peripheral artery disease patients.

13.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(11): 2229-2242, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: If SGLT2 inhibitors protect the kidneys by reducing albuminuria as hypothesized, people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with higher albuminuria should benefit more. METHODS: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program, which randomized 10,142 participants with T2DM and high cardiovascular risk to canagliflozin or placebo. We assessed effects of canagliflozin on renal, cardiovascular, and safety outcomes by baseline albuminuria. The trial included 2266 participants (22.3%) with moderately increased albuminuria (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio [UACR] 30-300 mg/g) and 760 (7.5%) with severely increased albuminuria (UACR >300 mg/g) at baseline. RESULTS: Canagliflozin lowered albuminuria with greater proportional reductions in those with moderately and severely increased albuminuria (P heterogeneity<0.001). After week 13, canagliflozin slowed the annual loss of kidney function across albuminuria subgroups, with greater absolute reductions in participants with severely increased albuminuria (placebo-subtracted difference 3.01 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; P heterogeneity<0.001). Heterogeneity for the renal composite outcome of 40% reduction in eGFR, ESKD, or renal-related death was driven by lesser effects in participants with moderately increased albuminuria (P heterogeneity=0.03), but no effect modification was observed when albuminuria was fitted as a continuous variable (P heterogeneity=0.94). Cardiovascular and safety outcomes were mostly consistent across albuminuria levels including increased risks for amputation across albuminuria subgroups (P heterogeneity=0.66). Greater absolute risk reductions in the renal composite outcome were observed in participants with severely increased albuminuria (P heterogeneity=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The proportional effects of canagliflozin on renal and cardiovascular outcomes are mostly consistent across patients with different levels of albuminuria, but absolute benefits are greatest among those with severely increased albuminuria.

14.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(11): 845-854, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on kidney failure, particularly the need for dialysis or transplantation or death due to kidney disease, is uncertain. Additionally, previous studies have been underpowered to robustly assess heterogeneity of effects on kidney outcomes by different levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria. We aimed to do a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on major kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and to determine the consistency of effect size across trials and different levels of eGFR and albuminuria. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, controlled, cardiovascular or kidney outcome trials of SGLT2 inhibitors that reported effects on major kidney outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. We searched MEDLINE and Embase from database inception to June 14, 2019, to identify eligible trials. The primary outcome was a composite of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease. We used random-effects models to obtain summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs and random-effects meta-regression to explore effect modification by subgroups of baseline eGFR, albuminuria, and use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. This review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019131774). FINDINGS: From 2085 records identified, four studies met our inclusion criteria, assessing three SGLT2 inhibitors: empagliflozin (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), canagliflozin (CANVAS Program and CREDENCE), and dapagliflozin (DECLARE-TIMI 58). From a total of 38 723 participants, 252 required dialysis or transplantation or died of kidney disease, 335 developed end-stage kidney disease, and 943 had acute kidney injury. SGLT2 inhibitors substantially reduced the risk of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease (RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·52-0·86, p=0·0019), an effect consistent across studies (I2=0%, pheterogeneity=0·53). SGLT2 inhibitors also reduced end-stage kidney disease (0·65, 0·53-0·81, p<0·0001), and acute kidney injury (0·75, 0·66-0·85, p<0·0001), with consistent benefits across studies. Although we identified some evidence that the proportional effect of SGLT2 inhibitors might attenuate with declining kidney function (ptrend=0·073), there was clear, separate evidence of benefit for all eGFR subgroups, including for participants with a baseline eGFR 30-45 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (RR 0·70, 95% CI 0·54-0·91, p=0·0080). Renoprotection was also consistent across studies irrespective of baseline albuminuria (ptrend=0·66) and use of RAS blockade (pheterogeneity=0·31). INTERPRETATION: SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes and provided protection against acute kidney injury. These data provide substantive evidence supporting the use of SGLT2 inhibitors to prevent major kidney outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.

16.
Diabetologia ; 62(10): 1854-1867, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399845

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An increased risk of fracture with canagliflozin vs placebo was reported from the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program, with heterogeneity of findings identified between the two trials that comprise the CANVAS Program, CANVAS and CANVAS-R. The objective of these analyses was to identify reasons for the possibly different effects on fracture observed between CANVAS and CANVAS-R. METHODS: This study was an analysis of two highly similar trials, CANVAS and CANVAS-R, conducted in 10,142 individuals with type 2 diabetes and history or high risk of cardiovascular disease who received canagliflozin (pooled 100/300 mg once daily) or placebo. Outcomes assessed in this analysis were effects on adjudicated fractures overall and by type, location, association with a fall, dose and follow-up time. RESULTS: A total of 496 participants recorded ≥1 fracture event during follow-up (15.40 vs 11.93 per 1000 patient-years with canagliflozin vs placebo; HR 1.26 [95% CI 1.04, 1.52]). There was significant heterogeneity in the effects on fracture (p = 0.005) between CANVAS (n = 4330: HR 1.55 [95% CI 1.21, 1.97]) and CANVAS-R (n = 5812: HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.62, 1.19]). The between-study heterogeneity in fracture risk was not clearly explained by differences in baseline characteristics, interactions of randomised treatment with participant characteristics, dose effects, duration of follow-up, metabolic effects, adverse events related to falls or adverse events possibly causing falls. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: There was no evidence to explain clearly the fracture risk observed in the CANVAS Program or the heterogeneity in fracture risk between the two studies. The recently reported null result for fracture in the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial suggests that the observed association in CANVAS is likely to be a chance finding, although an unidentified fall-related mechanism remains a possibility. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01032629, NCT01989754.

17.
Cardiol Ther ; 8(2): 329-343, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432429

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term risk for recurrent cardiovascular events among myocardial infarction (MI) patients in the acute versus chronic stable phase is not well characterized. This study was conducted to evaluate risk factors associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CVD) morbidity and to determine the transition period from the acute to chronic stable phase of disease. METHODS: Administrative claims data from a managed care database (2007-2012) were linked to the Social Security Death Index. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated over a 3-year period. The association between risk factors and clinical endpoints was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Poisson models estimated the 'transition time' from acute to chronic phase of disease. RESULTS: On average, recurrent cardiovascular event rates were higher among acute MI patients in comparison to the chronic MI patients during the first 3 months of follow-up. Over the 3-year follow-up period, survival curves became parallel and for some outcomes (i.e., acute myocardial infarction and bleeding events), were not statistically significantly different between the two groups. In both the acute and chronic MI cohorts, diabetes, heart failure, and renal disease were consistently statistically significant and positively associated with greater risk of death and ischemic events. PAD was consistently associated with increased risk among the chronic cohort and composite endpoints among the acute patients. CONCLUSIONS: Greater understanding of differences in the CVD risk profiles and the transition from acute to chronic stable phase may help identify high-risk patients and inform clinical risk stratification and long-term disease management in MI patients. FUNDING: Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

18.
Cardiol Ther ; 8(2): 283-295, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376090

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and satisfaction endpoints are increasingly important in clinical trials and may be associated with treatment adherence. In this post hoc substudy from ROCKET AF, we examined whether patient-reported satisfaction was associated with study drug discontinuation. METHODS: ROCKET AF (n = 14,264) compared rivaroxaban with warfarin for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. We analyzed treatment satisfaction scores: the Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS) and Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication version II (TSQM II). We compared satisfaction with study drug between the two treatment arms, and examined the association between satisfaction and patient-driven study drug discontinuation (stopping study drug due to withdrawal of consent, noncompliance, or loss to follow-up). RESULTS: A total of 1577 (11%) patients participated in the Patient Satisfaction substudy; 1181 (8.3%) completed both the ACTS and TSQM II 4 weeks after starting study drug. Patients receiving rivaroxaban did not experience significant differences in satisfaction compared with those receiving warfarin. During a median follow-up of 1.6 years, 448 premature study drug discontinuations occurred (213 rivaroxaban group; 235 warfarin group), of which 116 (26%) were patient-driven (52 [24%] rivaroxaban group; 64 [27%] warfarin group). No significant differences were observed between satisfaction level and rates of patient-driven study drug discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Study drug satisfaction did not predict rate of study drug discontinuation. No significant difference was observed between satisfaction with warfarin and rivaroxaban, as expected given the double-blind trial design. Although these results are negative, the importance of PRO data will only increase, and these analyses may inform future studies that explore the relationship between drug-satisfaction PROs, adherence, and clinical outcomes. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT00403767. FUNDING: The ROCKET AF trial was funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer.

19.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(8): e007604, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) require multiple antithrombotic therapies. The optimal strategy is debated suggesting increased treatment variation. This study sought to characterize site-level variation in antithrombotic therapies in AF patients after PCI and determine the association with outcomes. METHODS: Using the retrospective TREAT-AF study (The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF) from the Veterans Health Administration, patients with newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF between 2004 and 2015 followed by a PCI with a P2Y12-antagonist prescription were identified. Patients were grouped according to the therapy dispensed 7 days before until 30 days after the PCI: oral anticoagulation plus platelet inhibition (OAC+PI) or platelet inhibition only. A combined outcome of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major bleeding was assessed 1 year after PCI and Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: Of 230 762 patients with newly diagnosed AF, 4042 (1.8%) underwent PCI and received a P2Y12-antagonist during the observation period (age, 67±9 years; CHA2DS2-VASc, 2.7±1.7; HAS-BLED, 2.6±1.2). Among these, 47% were prescribed OAC+PI, and 53% platelet inhibition only 7 days before until 30 days after the PCI. Across 63 sites, the use of OAC+PI ranged from 19% to 66%. Prescription of OAC+PI was independently associated with a reduction in the combined outcome of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major bleeding compared with platelet inhibition only (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with established AF undergoing PCI, the use of OAC+PI varied substantially across sites in the 30 days post-PCI. Anticoagulation appeared to be underutilized but was associated with improved outcomes. Strategies to promote OAC+PI and minimize site variation may be useful, particularly in light of recent randomized trials.

20.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(6): 871-878, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350002

RESUMO

Recently, cluster analysis was used to identify unique clinically relevant phenotypes of atrial fibrillation (AF) in a cohort from the United States (US) and classified clusters according to the presence of comorbid behavioral disorders, those with conduction disorders, or atherosclerotic comorbidities. Whether these phenotypes are consistent in AF cohorts outside the US remains unknown. Thus, we sought to conduct a cluster analysis in a cohort of Japanese AF patients. We conducted a cluster analysis of phenotypic data (46 variables) in an AF patient cohort recruited from 11 Japanese sites participating in the KiCS-AF Registry. Overall, 2,458 AF patients (median [IQR] age, 68.0 [60.0 to 76.0]; 30.3% female; median [IQR] CHA2DS2-Vasc, 2 [1, 3]) were analyzed. Similar to the US cohort, atherosclerotic comorbidities were identified as distinguishing factors to characterize clusters. Distribution of AF type and left atrial (LA) size substantially varied and was the key feature for cluster formation. CHA2DS2-Vasc score also contributed to cluster formation, although behavioral disorders and/or conduction disorders did not readily characterize clusters. Subsequently, the cohort was classified into 3 clusters: (1) Younger paroxysmal AF (n = 1,190); (2) Persistent/permanent AF with LA enlargement (n = 1,143); and (3) Atherosclerotic comorbid AF in elderly patients (N = 125). In conclusion, conventional classifications, such as atherosclerotic risk factors and CHA2DS2-Vasc score contributed to cluster formation in mutually, whereas in nonatherosclerotic clusters, AF type or LA size rather than the presence or absence of behavior risk factors or sinus node dysfunction (tachy-brady syndrome) seemed to contribute to cluster formation in the Japanese cohort.

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