Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 482
Filtrar
1.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316282

RESUMO

Canagliflozin slows the progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and induces a reversible acute drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), believed to be a hemodynamic effect. Predictors of the initial drop and its association with long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes are unknown. To assess this, we performed a post-hoc analysis of 4289 participants in the CREDENCE trial with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease equally split into treatment and placebo groups who had eGFR measured at both baseline and week three. The eGFR was categorized at week three as greater than a 10% decline; between 0 and 10% decline; and no decline. Long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes were estimated in each category of acute eGFR change by linear mixed effects models and Cox regression after adjustment for baseline characteristics and medications use. Significantly more participants in the canagliflozin (45%) compared to the placebo (21%) group experienced an acute drop in eGFR over 10%. An over 30% drop occurred infrequently (4% of participants with canagliflozin and 2% with placebo). The odds ratio for a drop in eGFR over 10% with canagliflozin compared to placebo was significant at 3.03 (95% confidence interval 2.65, 3.47). Following the initial drop in eGFR, multivariable adjusted long-term eGFR trajectories, as well as overall and kidney safety profiles, in those treated with canagliflozin were similar across eGFR decline categories. Thus, although acute drops in eGFR over 10% occurred in nearly half of all participants following initiation of canagliflozin, the clinical benefit of canagliflozin was observed regardless. Additionally, safety outcomes were similar among subgroups of acute eGFR drop.

2.
Am Heart J ; 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358942

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy according to prior history of heart failure in the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial. We found that participants with a prior history of heart failure at baseline (15%) were more likely to be older, female, white, have a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and use diuretics and beta blockers (all P<0.001), and that, compared with placebo, canagliflozin safely reduced renal and cardiovascular events with consistent effects in patients with and without a prior history of heart failure (all efficacy P interaction >0.150). These results support the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy regardless of prior history of heart failure.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) with renal and cardiac outcomes among participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Associations between IGFBP7 levels and clinical outcomes were assessed among participants in the Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. RESULTS: Among CANVAS participants, 3,577 and 2,898 had IGFBP7 measured at baseline and 1 year, respectively. Per log-unit higher concentration, baseline IGFBP7 was significantly associated with the composite renal end point of sustained 40% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate, need for renal replacement therapy, or renal death (hazard ratio [HR] 3.51; P < 0.001), and the composite renal end point plus cardiovascular death (HR 4.90; P < 0.001). Other outcomes, including development or progression of albuminuria, were also predicted by baseline IGFBP7. Most outcomes were improved by canagliflozin regardless of baseline IGFBP7; however, those with baseline concentrations ≥96.5 ng/mL appeared to benefit more from canagliflozin relative to the first progression of albuminuria compared with those with lower baseline IGFBP7 (HR 0.64 vs. 0.95; P interaction = 0.003). Canagliflozin did not lower IGFBP7 concentrations by 1 year; however, at 1 year, higher IGFBP7 concentrations more strongly predicted the composite renal end point (HR 15.7; P < 0.001). Patients with rising IGFBP7 between baseline and 1 year had the highest number of composite renal events. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma IGFBP7 concentrations predicted renal and cardiac events among participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. More data are needed regarding circulating IGFBP7 and progression of diabetic kidney disease and its complications.

4.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(12): 1705-1714, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial demonstrated that the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor canagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular events in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CKD. Little is known about the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The participants in the CREDENCE study had type 2 diabetes mellitus, a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio >300-5000 mg/g, and an eGFR of 30 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at screening. This post hoc analysis evaluated participants with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at randomization. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Effects of eGFR slope through week 130 were analyzed using a piecewise, linear, mixed-effects model. Efficacy was analyzed in the intention-to-treat population, on the basis of Cox proportional hazard models, and safety was analyzed in the on-treatment population. At randomization (an average of 29 days after screening), 174 of 4401 (4%) participants had an eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (mean [SD] eGFR, 26 [3] ml/min per 1.73 m2). RESULTS: From weeks 3 to 130, there was a 66% difference in the mean rate of eGFR decline with canagliflozin versus placebo (mean slopes, -1.30 versus -3.83 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; difference, -2.54 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 4.17). Effects of canagliflozin on kidney, cardiovascular, and mortality outcomes were consistent for those with eGFR <30 and ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (all P interaction >0.20). The estimate for kidney failure in participants with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.27) was similar to those with eGFR ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.91; P interaction=0.80). There was no imbalance in the rate of kidney-related adverse events or AKI associated with canagliflozin between participants with eGFR <30 and ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (all P interaction >0.12). CONCLUSIONS: This post hoc analysis suggests canagliflozin slowed progression of kidney disease, without increasing AKI, even in participants with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

5.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(11): e006550, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease is common and associated with high mortality. There are limited data detailing causes of death among patients with peripheral artery disease. METHODS: EUCLID (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in Peripheral Artery Disease) was a randomized clinical trial that assigned patients with peripheral artery disease to clopidogrel or ticagrelor. We describe the causes of death in EUCLID using mortality end points adjudicated through a clinical events classification process. The association between baseline factors and cardiovascular death was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards modeling. The competing risk of noncardiovascular death was assessed by the cumulative incidence function for cardiovascular death and the Fine and Gray method to ascertain the association between baseline characteristics and cardiovascular mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1263 out of 13 885 (9.1%) patients died (median follow-up: 30 months). There were 706 patients (55.9%) with a cardiovascular cause of death and 522 (41.3%) with a noncardiovascular cause of death. The most common cause of cardiovascular death was sudden cardiac death (20.1%); while myocardial infarction (5.2%) and ischemic stroke (3.2%) were uncommon. The most common causes of noncardiovascular death were malignancies (17.9%) and infections (11.9%). The factor most associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular death was age per 5 year increase (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.20-1.32]). Female sex was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular death (HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.56-0.82]). To evaluate the effect of noncardiovascular death as a competing risk, we superimposed the cumulative incidence function curve with the Kaplan-Meier curve. These curves closely approximated each other. After accounting for the competing risk of noncardiovascular death, the magnitude and direction of the factors associated with cardiovascular death were minimally changed. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease, noncardiovascular causes of death reflected a high proportion (40%) of deaths. Accounting for noncardiovascular deaths as a competing risk, there was not a significant change in the risk estimation for cardiovascular death. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01732822.

6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(11): 903-914, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors might enhance erythropoiesis and increase red blood cell mass. We assessed the long-term effects of canagliflozin on anaemia-related outcomes. METHODS: In a post-hoc analysis of the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial, we included patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease who were randomly assigned to treatment with canagliflozin or placebo at 690 sites in 34 countries. We assessed the effects of canagliflozin versus matched placebo on haemoglobin and haematocrit using linear mixed-effects models. The primary outcome of this post-hoc analysis was a composite outcome of investigator-reported anaemia or treatment for anaemia, which was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models. All analyses were done by intention to treat. FINDINGS: Between March 24, 2014, and May 5, 2017, 4401 participants were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin (100 mg; n=2202) or placebo (n=2199). At baseline, mean haemoglobin concentration was 132·0 g/L (SD 17·7), 1599 (36%) of 4401 participants had anaemia (defined as haemoglobin <130 g/L in men or <120 g/L in women), and 33 (<1%) of 4401 participants used erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. During a median follow-up period of 2·6 years (IQR 2·1-3·1), mean haemoglobin concentration was 7·1 g/L (95% CI 6·4-7·8) higher and haematocrit was 2·4% (2·2-2·6) higher in the canagliflozin group than the placebo group. Overall, 573 of 4401 participants had either an investigator-reported anaemia event or initiation of treatment for anaemia: 358 (8%) of 4401 participants reported anaemia events, 343 (8%) initiated iron preparations, 141 (3%) initiated erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and 114 (2%) received blood transfusion. The risk of the composite outcome of anaemia events or initiation of treatment for anaemia was lower in the canagliflozin group than the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·65, 95% CI 0·55-0·77; p<0·0001). Compared with the placebo group, participants in the canagliflozin group also had lower risks of anaemia events alone (0·58, 0·47-0·72; p<0·0001), initiation of iron preparations (0·64, 0·52-0·80; p<0·0001), and need for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (0·65, 0·46-0·91; p=0·012). INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that canagliflozin reduces the risk of anaemia-associated outcomes, including the need for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, among patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. FUNDING: Janssen Research and Development.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anemia/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(12): 2925-2936, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between early changes in albuminuria and kidney and cardiovascular events is primarily based on trials of renin-angiotensin system blockade. It is unclear whether this association occurs with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition. METHODS: The Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial enrolled 4401 patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio [UACR] >300 mg/g). This post hoc analysis assessed canagliflozin's effect on albuminuria and how early change in albuminuria (baseline to week 26) is associated with the primary kidney outcome (ESKD, doubling of serum creatinine, or kidney death), major adverse cardiovascular events, and hospitalization for heart failure or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Complete data for early change in albuminuria and other covariates were available for 3836 (87.2%) participants in the CREDENCE trial. Compared with placebo, canagliflozin lowered UACR by 31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 27% to 36%) at week 26, and significantly increased the likelihood of achieving a 30% reduction in UACR (odds ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 2.35 to 3.07). Each 30% decrease in UACR over the first 26 weeks was independently associated with a lower hazard for the primary kidney outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.76; P<0.001), major adverse cardiovascular events (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.96; P<0.001), and hospitalization for heart failure or cardiovascular death (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.90; P<0.001). Residual albuminuria levels at week 26 remained a strong independent risk factor for kidney and cardiovascular events, overall and in each treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS: In people with type 2 diabetes and CKD, use of canagliflozin results in early, sustained reductions in albuminuria, which were independently associated with long-term kidney and cardiovascular outcomes.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(18): 2076-2085, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin reduces cardiovascular events including hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Elevated amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations are associated with HF diagnosis and predict cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to measure NT-proBNP in CANVAS (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) participants. METHODS: Associations between baseline NT-proBNP and cardiovascular, renal, and mortality outcomes and intervention-associated changes were determined. RESULTS: Of the 4,330 participants in the CANVAS trial, NT-proBNP was measured in 3,587, 2,918, and 995 participants at baseline, 1 year, and 6 years, respectively. The median baseline NT-proBNP concentration was 91 pg/ml, and 39.3% had NT-proBNP ≥125 pg/ml. NT-proBNP was higher in those with investigator-reported HF (13% of participants at baseline) versus those without (187 pg/ml vs. 81 pg/ml), with substantial overlap between groups. By 1 year, NT-proBNP increased with placebo, whereas canagliflozin reduced NT-proBNP by 11% (geometric mean ratio for canagliflozin vs. placebo = 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84 to 0.94]; p < 0.001). Lower NT-proBNP with canagliflozin was also observed at 6 years (p = 0.004). In adjusted models, baseline NT-proBNP ≥125 pg/ml was prognostic for incident HHF (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.40; 95% CI: 2.67 to 10.9), HHF/cardiovascular death (HR: 3.52; 95% CI: 2.38 to 5.20), and all-cause death (HR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.78 to 3.61). Mediation analyses suggested that 10.4% of the effects of canagliflozin on HHF were reflected in NT-proBNP lowering. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of patients in the CANVAS trial had elevated NT-proBNP values. Canagliflozin reduced NT-proBNP concentrations versus placebo; however, reduction in NT-proBNP explained only a small proportion of the benefit of canagliflozin on HF events. (CANVAS [CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study]; NCT01032629).

9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043620

RESUMO

AIM: To assess whether the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on cardiovascular, kidney and mortality outcomes are consistent with and without concomitant metformin use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of event-driven, randomized, placebo-controlled SGLT2 inhibitor trials that reported cardiovascular, kidney or mortality outcomes by baseline metformin use. Treatment effects, reported as hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. The main outcomes in this analysis were (i) major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and (ii) hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: We included six trials of four SGLT2 inhibitors that enrolled a total of 51 743 participants. Baseline metformin use varied from 21% in DAPA-HF to 82% in DECLARE-TIMI 58. SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of MACE, with and without concomitant metformin use (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-1.00 and HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71-0.86, respectively; P-heterogeneity = 0.14). There were also clear and separate reductions in HHF or cardiovascular death with SGLT2 inhibitors, irrespective of metformin use (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.73-0.86 and HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.87, respectively; P-heterogeneity = 0.48), as well as for major kidney outcomes and all-cause mortality (all P-heterogeneity > 0.40). CONCLUSION: Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors results in clear and consistent reductions in cardiovascular, kidney and mortality outcomes regardless of whether patients are receiving or not receiving metformin.

10.
Kidney Int ; 98(4): 849-859, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998816

RESUMO

Kidney failure is an important outcome for patients, clinicians, researchers, healthcare systems, payers, and regulators. However, no harmonized international consensus definitions of kidney failure and key surrogates of progression to kidney failure exist specifically for clinical trials. The International Society of Nephrology convened an international multi-stakeholder meeting to develop consensus on this topic. A core group, experienced in design, conduct, and outcome adjudication of clinical trials, developed a database of 64 randomized trials and the 163 included definitions relevant to kidney failure. Using an iterative process, a set of proposed consensus definitions were developed and subsequently vetted by the larger multi-stakeholder group of 83 participants representing 18 different countries. The consensus of the meeting participants was that clinical trial kidney failure outcomes should be comprised of a composite that includes receipt of a kidney transplant, initiation of maintenance dialysis, and death from kidney failure; it may also include outcomes based solely on laboratory measurements of glomerular filtration rate: a sustained low glomerular filtration rate and a sustained percent decline in glomerular filtration rate. Discussion included important considerations, such as (i) recognition of existing nomenclature for kidney failure; (ii) applicability across resource settings; (iii) ease of understanding for all stakeholders; and (iv) avoidance of inappropriate complexity so that the definitions can be used across ranges of populations and trial methodologies. The final definitions reflect the consensus for use in clinical trials.

11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971190

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Canagliflozin reduces the risk for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relative and absolute effects of canagliflozin on clinical outcomes across different KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) risk categories based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. STUDY DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: The CANVAS Program randomly assigned 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk and with eGFR≥30mL/min/1.73m2 to treatment with canagliflozin or placebo. INTERVENTION(S): Canagliflozin or matching placebo. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, with a set of other cardiovascular and kidney prespecified outcomes. RESULTS: Of 10,142 participants, 10,031 (98.9%) had available baseline eGFR and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio data. The proportion of participants in low-, moderate-, high-, and very high-risk KDIGO categories was 58.6%, 25.8%, 10.6%, and 5.0%, respectively. The relative effect of canagliflozin on the primary outcome (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.97) was consistent across KDIGO risk categories (P trend=0.2), with similar results for other cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. Absolute reductions in the primary outcome were greater within higher KDIGO risk categories (P trend=0.03) with a similar pattern of effect for the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (P trend=0.06) and for chronic eGFR slope (P trend = 0.04). LIMITATIONS: Predominantly a low kidney risk population, relatively few participants in higher KDIGO risk categories, and exclusion of individuals with eGFR<30mL/min/1.73m2. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relative effects of canagliflozin are similar across KDIGO risk categories, absolute risk reductions are likely greater for individuals at higher KDIGO risk. The KDIGO classification system may be able to identify individuals who might derive greater benefits for end-organ protection from treatment with canagliflozin. FUNDING: This post hoc analysis was not specifically funded. The original CANVAS Program trials were funded by Janssen Research & Development, LLC and were conducted as a collaboration between the funder, an academic steering committee, and an academic research organization, George Clinical. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The original trials of the CANVAS Program were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with study numbers NCT01032629 and NCT01989754.

13.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large-scale outcome trials of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes have identified consistent effects on major adverse cardiovascular events, heart failure, and progression of kidney disease. However, the magnitude of effects on cardiovascular and all-cause death appeared to vary between some of the studies. METHODS: We explored the impact of differences in trial methodologies, participant characteristics, types of deaths, follow-up duration, effects on intermediate markers of risk, and drug selectivity for SGLT2 on the magnitude of the protective effect against fatal events achieved in the 4 trials. RESULTS: The trial populations differed substantively in the proportions with baseline atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease history (99.2% in EMPA-REG OUTCOME to 40.6% in DECLARE-TIMI 58), and macroalbuminuria (88.0% in CREDENCE to 7.6% in the CANVAS Program). Meta-regression analyses identified no clear effect of these (both P > 0.09) or other participant characteristics on mortality benefits (all P > 0.55). Other differences between the trials (duration, selectivity of the SGLT2 inhibitor, or effects on intermediate markers of risk) also did not explain the heterogeneity in effects on mortality observed (all P > 0.30). CONCLUSION: No clear explanation for the statistical evidence of heterogeneity in effects of SGLT2 inhibition on fatal outcomes between the trials could be identified. While the analyses had limited statistical power, these results raise the possibility that the observed variations in treatment effects on fatal outcomes between trials may be at least partly due to chance.

14.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(9): e006512, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend aggressive management of hypertension. Recent evidence suggested potential harm with low blood pressure targets in patients with peripheral artery disease. We investigated the association of a history of hypertension and office systolic blood pressure (SBP) with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and major adverse limb events (MALEs). METHODS AND RESULTS: The EUCLID trial (Examining the Use of Ticagrelor in Peripheral Artery Disease) included 13 885 participants with symptomatic peripheral artery disease; median follow-up was 30 months. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for any MACE, MALE, and MALE including lower extremity revascularization. A clinical history of arterial hypertension was present in 10 857 (78%) participants, and these participants were older and more likely to be female when compared with the 3026 (22%) patients without hypertension. In patients with a history of hypertension, the adjusted hazard ratio for MACE was 0.94, 95% CI, 0.82-1.08; P=0.39, and the adjusted hazard ratio for MALE was 1.08, 95% CI, 0.96-1.23; P=0.21. During follow-up, average SBP was 135 mm Hg (125-145). Every 10 mmHg increase in SBP>125 mmHg was associated with an increased risk of MACE (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.06-1.14]; P<0.001), a marginally increased risk of MALE (HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00-1.15]; P=0.062), and an increased risk of MALE/lower extremity revascularization (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.04-1.11]; P<0.001). Every decrease in 10 mmHg SBP ≤125 mmHg was associated with an increased risk of MACE (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.09-1.31]; P<0.001) but not MALE or MALE/lower extremity revascularization (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.84-1.23], P=0.824; HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.95-1.13], P=0.392, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: History of hypertension was not associated with higher hazard for MACE or MALE in patients with peripheral artery disease. In contrast, there was a higher hazard of MACE in patients with out-of-target low and high SBP. High but not low SBP was associated with an increased risk of ischemic limb events. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01732822.

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e016573, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924754

RESUMO

Background There are limited data on health status instruments in patients with peripheral artery disease and cardiovascular and limb events. We evaluated the relationship between health status changes and cardiovascular and limb events. Methods and Results In an analysis of the EUCLID (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease) trial, we examined the characteristics of 13 801 patients by tertile of health status instrument scores collected in the trial (EuroQol 5-Dimensions [EQ-5D], EQ visual analog scale [VAS], and peripheral artery questionnaire). We assessed the association between the baseline health status measurements and major adverse cardiovascular events, major adverse limb events, and lower-extremity revascularization procedures during trial follow-up and the association between 12-month health status change scores and subsequent end points during follow-up. There were 13 217 (95%) patients with EQ-5D scores, 13 533 (98%) with VAS scores, and 4431 (32%) with peripheral artery questionnaire scores. Patients in the lowest baseline EQ-5D tertile (0 to <0.69) were more likely to be female with severe claudication compared with the highest tertile (0.79-1.0; P<0.01). Patients in the lowest VAS (0-60) and peripheral artery questionnaire (0-49) tertiles had lower ankle-brachial indices compared with the highest tertiles (80-100 and 76-108, respectively; P<0.01). There was a significant association between baseline EQ-5D, VAS, and peripheral artery questionnaire scores and adjusted major adverse cardiovascular events, major adverse limb events, and lower-extremity revascularization (P<0.05). Improved EQ-5D and VAS scores over 12 months were associated with reduced risk of subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events or lower-extremity revascularization (all P<0.01). Conclusions Although health status instruments are rarely used in clinical practice, these measures are associated with outcomes, including major adverse cardiovascular events, major adverse limb events, and lower-extremity revascularization. Further research is needed to determine the relationship between changes in these instruments, revascularization, and outcomes.

16.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 66-71, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826041

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to quantify time in therapeutic range (TTR) before and after a temporary interruption of warfarin due to an intervention in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). AF patients on warfarin who had a temporary interruption followed by resumption were identified. A nonparametric method for estimating survival functions for interval censored data was used to examine the first therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) after interruption. TTR was compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between TTR in the first 3 months after interruption and subsequent outcomes at 3 to 9 months. Of 9,749 AF patients, 71% were on warfarin. Over a median (IQR) follow-up of 2.6 (1.8 to 3.1) y, 33% of patients had a total of 3,022 temporary interruptions. The first therapeutic INR was recorded within 1 week in 35.0% (95% confidence interval 32.6% to 37.4%), 2 weeks in 54.6% (52.2% to 57.0%), 30 days in 70.0% (67.9% to 72.1%) and 90 days in 91.3% (90.0% to 92.5%) of patients. Compared with pre-interruption, TTR 3 months after interruption was significantly lower (61.1% [36.6% to 85.0%] vs 67.6% [50.0% to 81.3%], p <0.0001). A 10 unit increment in the TTR in the first 3 months after interruption was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding [Hazard ratio 0.91 (0.85 to 0.97), p = 0.005]. This association was noted in patients who received bridging anticoagulation, but not in those who did not. In conclusion, temporary interruption of warfarin is common, and nearly half of these patients had subtherapeutic INR after 2 weeks. Lower TTR in the first 3 months after interruption was associated with higher incidence of major bleeding in patients who received bridging anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
17.
Future Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748638

RESUMO

SGLT2 inhibitors have risen to prominence in recent years as Type 2 diabetes mellitus medications with favorable effects on cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes. Canagliflozin is a US FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitor that has demonstrated CV and renal outcome benefits in large scale placebo-controlled randomized trials of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated CV risk. Canagliflozin use may also be associated with serious and nonserious adverse effects requiring ongoing monitoring in patients initiated on this medication. This paper provides a detailed overview of canagliflozin including its pharmacologic profile, clinical efficacy and safety data, with discussion of both clinical trial results, as well as real-world evidence.

18.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691499

RESUMO

This study compared initiation of insulin and other antihyperglycaemic agents (AHAs) with canagliflozin versus placebo for participants with type 2 diabetes and a history/high risk of cardiovascular disease in the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program. After 1 year, fewer participants treated with canagliflozin versus placebo initiated any AHA (7% vs. 16%), insulin (3% vs. 9%) or any non-insulin AHA (5% vs. 12%) (P < .001 for all); overall AHA initiation rates increased over time but were consistently lower with canagliflozin compared with placebo. During the study, the likelihood of initiating insulin was 2.7 times lower for participants treated with canagliflozin compared with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.43; P < .001). The time difference between 10% of patients in the canagliflozin and placebo groups being initiated on insulin from the beginning of the trial was about 2 years. Time to initiation of other AHAs, including metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sulphonylureas, was also delayed for canagliflozin versus placebo (P < .001 for each). Compared with placebo, canagliflozin delayed the need for initiation of other AHAs and delayed time to insulin therapy, an outcome that is important to many people with diabetes.

19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(10): 2446-2456, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, clinical trials evaluating effects of a new therapy with creatinine-based renal end points use doubling of serum creatinine (equivalent to a 57% eGFR reduction), requiring large sample sizes. METHODS: To assess whether eGFR declines <57% could detect canagliflozin's effects on renal outcomes, we conducted a post hoc study comparing effects of canagliflozin versus placebo on composite renal outcomes using sustained 57%, 50%, 40%, or 30% eGFR reductions in conjunction with ESKD and renal death. Because canagliflozin causes an acute reversible hemodynamic decline in eGFR, we made estimates using all eGFR values as well as estimates that excluded early measures of eGFR influenced by the acute hemodynamic effect. RESULTS: Among the 10,142 participants, 93 (0.9%), 161 (1.6%), 352 (3.5%), and 800 (7.9%) participants recorded renal outcomes on the basis of 57%, 50%, 40%, or 30% eGFR reduction, respectively, during a mean follow-up of 188 weeks. Compared with a 57% eGFR reduction (risk ratio [RR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.34 to 0.77), the effect sizes were progressively attenuated when using 50% (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.83), 40% (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.86), or 30% (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.93) eGFR reductions. In analyses that controlled for the acute hemodynamic fall in eGFR, effect sizes were comparable, regardless of whether a 57%, 50%, 40%, or 30% eGFR reduction was used. Estimated sample sizes for studies on the basis of lesser eGFR reductions were much reduced by controlling for this early hemodynamic effect. CONCLUSIONS: Declines in eGFR <57% may provide robust estimates of canagliflozin's effects on renal outcomes if the analysis controls for the drug's acute hemodynamic effect. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS), NCT01032629 and CANVAS-R, NCT01989754.

20.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(7): e006399, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, and major amputation. Data on major amputation from a large randomized trial that included a substantial cohort of patients without critical limb ischemia (CLI) have not been described. The objective was to describe the incidence and types of amputations in the EUCLID trial (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in Peripheral Artery Disease) population, subcategorize amputations in the CLI versus no CLI cohorts, and describe the events surrounding major amputation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Postrandomization major amputation was analyzed in the EUCLID trial. Patients were stratified by baseline CLI status. The occurrence of major amputation was ascertained and defined as the highest level. Perioperative events surrounding major amputation were obtained including acute limb ischemia, revascularization, and all-cause mortality. All variables were assessed for significance in univariable and multivariable models. The rate of major amputation during the course of the trial was 1.6% overall, 8.4% in the CLI at baseline group, and 1.2% in the no CLI at baseline group. The annualized rate of major amputation was 0.6% in PAD overall, 3.9% in the CLI at baseline group, and 0.5% in the no CLI at baseline group. Several factors were associated with increased risk of major amputation, including history of amputation, the presence of diabetes mellitus, baseline Rutherford category 4 to 6, and an ankle-brachial index <0.8. Factors associated with a lower risk for major amputation included prior statin use. The 30-day mortality rate after major amputation was 6.5% overall, 5.6% in the CLI at baseline group, and 6.8% in the no CLI at baseline group. The annual mortality rate following major amputation was 22.8% in the CLI at baseline group and 16.0% in the no CLI at baseline group. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for major amputation in EUCLID patients are similar to previous large registries' reports except for diabetes mellitus in patients with CLI. The mortality following major amputation is lower in the EUCLID trial compared with registry data. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01732822.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA