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1.
Circulation ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985309

RESUMO

Background: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are preferred over warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). Meta-analyses using individual patient data offer significant advantages over study-level data. Methods: We used individual patient data from the COMBINE AF database, which includes all patients randomized in the 4 pivotal trials of DOACs vs warfarin in AF (RE-LY, ROCKET AF, ARISTOTLE, ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48), to perform network meta-analyses using a stratified Cox model with random effects comparing standard-dose DOAC, lower-dose DOAC, and warfarin. Hazard ratios (95% CIs) were calculated for efficacy and safety outcomes. Covariate-by-treatment interaction was estimated for categorical covariates and for age as a continuous covariate, stratified by sex. Results: A total of 71,683 patients were included (29,362 on standard-dose DOAC, 13,049 on lower-dose DOAC, 29,272 on warfarin). Compared with warfarin, standard-dose DOACs were associated with a significantly lower hazard of stroke/systemic embolism (883/29312 [3.01%] vs 1080/29229 [3.69%]; HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.89), death (2276/29312 [7.76%] vs 2460/29229 [8.42%]; HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97) and intracranial bleeding (184/29270 [0.63%] vs 409/29187 [1.40%]; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.37-0.56), but no statistically different hazard of major bleeding (1479/29270 [5.05%] vs 1733/29187 [5.94%]; HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.01), whereas lower-dose DOACs were associated with no statistically different hazard of stroke/systemic embolism (531/13049 [3.96%] vs 1080/29229 [3.69%]; HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.95-1.19) but a lower hazard of intracranial bleeding (55/12985 [0.42%] vs 409/29187 [1.40%]; HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.21-0.37), death (1082/13049 [8.29%] vs 2460/29229 [8.42%]; HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97), and major bleeding (564/12985 [4.34%] vs 1733/29187 [5.94%]; HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.88). Treatment effects for standard- and lower-dose DOACs versus warfarin were consistent across age and sex for stroke/systemic embolism and death, whereas standard-dose DOACs were favored in patients with no history of vitamin K antagonist use (p=0.01) and lower creatinine clearance (p=0.09). For major bleeding, standard-dose DOACs were favored in patients with lower body weight (p=0.02). In the continuous covariate analysis, younger patients derived greater benefits from standard-dose (interaction p=0.02) and lower-dose DOACs (interaction p=0.01) versus warfarin. Conclusions: Compared with warfarin, DOACs have more favorable efficacy and safety profiles among patients with AF.

2.
Am J Nephrol ; : 1-11, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016188

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: KidneyIntelX is a composite risk score, incorporating biomarkers and clinical variables for predicting progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The utility of this score in the context of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors and how changes in the risk score associate with future kidney outcomes are unknown. METHODS: We measured soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1, soluble TNFR-2, and kidney injury molecule 1 on banked samples from CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) trial participants with baseline DKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2 or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥30 mg/g) and generated KidneyIntelX risk scores at baseline and years 1, 3, and 6. We assessed the association of baseline and changes in KidneyIntelX with subsequent DKD progression (composite outcome of an eGFR decline of ≥5 mL/min/year [using the 6-week eGFR as the baseline in the canagliflozin group], ≥40% sustained decline in the eGFR, or kidney failure). RESULTS: We included 1,325 CANVAS participants with concurrent DKD and available baseline plasma samples (mean eGFR 65 mL/min/1.73 m2 and median UACR 56 mg/g). During a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, 131 participants (9.9%) experienced the composite kidney outcome. Using risk cutoffs from prior validation studies, KidneyIntelX stratified patients to low- (42%), intermediate- (44%), and high-risk (15%) strata with cumulative incidence for the outcome of 3%, 11%, and 26% (risk ratio 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.0, 14.2) for the high-risk versus low-risk groups. The differences in eGFR slopes for canagliflozin versus placebo were 0.66, 1.52, and 2.16 mL/min/1.73 m2 in low, intermediate, and high KidneyIntelX risk strata, respectively. KidneyIntelX risk scores declined by 5.4% (95% CI: -6.9, -3.9) in the canagliflozin arm at year 1 versus an increase of 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8, 8.7) in the placebo arm (p < 0.001). Changes in the KidneyIntelX score at year 1 were associated with future risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio per 10 unit decrease 0.80; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.83; p < 0.001) after accounting for the treatment arm, without evidence of effect modification by the baseline KidneyIntelX risk stratum or by the treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS: KidneyIntelX successfully risk-stratified a large multinational external cohort for progression of DKD, and greater numerical differences in the eGFR slope for canagliflozin versus placebo were observed in those with higher baseline KidneyIntelX scores. Canagliflozin treatment reduced KidneyIntelX risk scores over time and changes in the KidneyIntelX score from baseline to 1 year associated with future risk of DKD progression, independent of the baseline risk score and treatment arm.

3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 24(1): 12-20, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463423

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) of canagliflozin in Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and high cardiovascular risk or nephropathy with varying levels of kidney function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This post hoc analysis included integrated, pooled data from the CANVAS Program and CREDENCE trial. The effects of canagliflozin versus placebo on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; i.e. cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke) were assessed in subgroups by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; <45, 45-60, and >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) overall and in the Hispanic cohort. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models, with subgroup by treatment interaction terms added to test for heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 14 543 participants were included; 3029 (20.8%) self-identified as Hispanic. In the overall population, canagliflozin reduced the risk of MACE compared with placebo (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75, 0.92), with no heterogeneity observed across eGFR subgroups (interaction P = .22). In the Hispanic cohort, canagliflozin also reduced the risk of MACE (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55, 0.92), with no heterogeneity by baseline eGFR (interaction P = .25), including among the Hispanic participants at highest risk with a baseline eGFR of less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 . CONCLUSION: Canagliflozin reduced the risk of MACE overall, and among Hispanic participants with T2D and high cardiovascular risk or nephropathy in the CANVAS Program and CREDENCE trial, without heterogeneity by baseline eGFR.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(23): e021661, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854308

RESUMO

Background Studies have suggested that sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors exert anti-inflammatory effects. We examined the association of baseline growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), a marker of inflammation and cellular injury, with cardiovascular events, hospitalization for heart failure (HF), and kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes in the CANVAS (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) and determined the effect of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin on circulating GDF-15. Methods and Results The CANVAS trial randomized 4330 people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk to canagliflozin or placebo. The association between baseline GDF-15 and cardiovascular (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, cardiovascular death), HF, and kidney (40% estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, end-stage kidney disease, renal death) outcomes was assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox regression models. During median follow-up of 6.1 years (N=3549 participants with available samples), 555 cardiovascular, 129 HF, and 137 kidney outcomes occurred. Each doubling in baseline GDF-15 was significantly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0‒1.3), HF (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2‒2.0) and kidney (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2‒2.0) outcomes. Baseline GDF-15 did not modify canagliflozin's effect on cardiovascular, HF, and kidney outcomes. Canaglifozin treatment modestly lowered GDF-15 compared with placebo; however, GDF-15 did not mediate the protective effect of canagliflozin on cardiovascular, HF, or kidney outcomes. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, higher GDF-15 levels were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular, HF, and kidney outcomes. Canagliflozin modestly lowered GDF-15, but GDF-15 reduction did not mediate the protective effect of canagliflozin.

5.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; : CIRCINTERVENTIONS120010390, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic events are reduced with cangrelor, an intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor. We sought to characterize the timing, number, and type of early events (within 2 hours of randomization) in CHAMPION PHOENIX (A Clinical Trial Comparing Cangrelor to Clopidogrel Standard of Care Therapy in Subjects Who Require Percutaneous Coronary Intervention). METHODS: CHAMPION PHOENIX was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that randomized patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention to cangrelor or clopidogrel. For this analysis, we evaluated the efficacy of cangrelor in the first 2 hours postrandomization with regards to the primary end point (death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis). Sensitivity analyses were performed evaluating a secondary, post hoc end point (death, Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or Academic Research Consortium definite stent thrombosis). RESULTS: The majority of events (63%) that occurred in the trial occurred within 2 hours of randomization. The most common early event was myocardial infarction; next were stent thrombosis, ischemia driven revascularization, and death. In the first 2 hours after randomization, cangrelor significantly decreased the primary composite end point compared with clopidogrel (4.1% versus 5.4%; hazard ratio, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.64-0.90], P=0.002). Similar findings were seen for the composite end point of death, Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or Academic Research Consortium stent thrombosis at 2 hours (0.9% versus 1.6%; hazard ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.40-0.80], P=0.001). Between 2 and 48 hours, there was no difference in the primary composite end point (0.6% versus 0.5%; odds ratio, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.71-1.93]; P=0.53). Early (≤2 hours of randomization) GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) moderate or severe bleeding events were infrequent, and there was no significant difference with cangrelor compared with clopidogrel (0.2% [n=10] versus 0.1% [n=4]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 0.37-5.40]; P=0.62). CONCLUSIONS: The reductions in ischemic events and overall efficacy seen with cangrelor in CHAMPION PHOENIX occurred early and during the period of time in which patients were being actively treated with cangrelor. These findings provide evidence that supports the importance of potent platelet inhibition during percutaneous coronary intervention. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01156571.

6.
Circulation ; 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903039

RESUMO

Background: We assessed the effect of once-weekly semaglutide and once-daily liraglutide on kidney outcomes in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Pooled (N=12,637) and by-trial data from SUSTAIN 6 (N=3297) and LEADER (N=9340) were assessed for albuminuria change, annual slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change, and time to persistent eGFR reduction (30%, 40%, 50%, and 57%) from baseline. Results: The median follow-up durations were 2.1 and 3.8 years for SUSTAIN 6 and LEADER, respectively. In the pooled analysis, semaglutide/liraglutide lowered albuminuria from baseline to 2 years post-randomization by 24% versus placebo (95% confidence interval [CI] [20%,27% ], p<0.001). Significant reductions were also observed in by-trial data analyses (p<0.001 for all), the largest being with semaglutide 1.0 mg: 33% (95% CI [24%,40% ], p<0.001) at 2 years. With semaglutide 1.0 mg and liraglutide, eGFR slope decline was significantly slowed by 0.87 and 0.26 mL/min/1.73 m2/year (p<0.0001 and p<0.001), respectively, versus placebo. Effects appeared larger in those with baseline eGFR <60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2 (pinteraction=0.06 and 0.008 for semaglutide 1.0 mg and liraglutide, respectively). Semaglutide/liraglutide significantly lowered risk of persistent 40% and 50% eGFR reductions versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% CI [0.75,0.99], p=0.039, and HR 0.80, 95% CI [0.66,0.97], p=0.023, respectively). Similar, non-significant, directional results were observed for 30% and 57% eGFR reductions (HR 0.92, 95% CI [0.84, 1.02], p=0.10, and HR 0.89, 95% CI [0.69, 1.13], p=0.34). In those with baseline eGFR 30-<60mL/min/1.73m2, the likelihood of persistent reduction for all thresholds was increased, ranging from a HR 0.71 for 30% reduction (95% CI [0.59,0.85], p=0.0003, pinteraction=0.017) to 0.54 for 57% reduction (95% CI [0.36,0.81], p=0.003, pinteraction=0.035). Conclusions: In patients with T2D, semaglutide/liraglutide offered kidney-protective effects, which appeared more pronounced in those with pre-existing chronic kidney disease.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 385(23): 2161-2172, 2021 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor XIa inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism may be more effective and result in less bleeding than conventional anticoagulants. Additional data are needed regarding the efficacy and safety of milvexian, an oral factor XIa inhibitor. METHODS: In this parallel-group, phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned 1242 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty to receive one of seven postoperative regimens of milvexian (25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, or 200 mg twice daily or 25 mg, 50 mg, or 200 mg once daily) or enoxaparin (40 mg once daily). The primary efficacy outcome was venous thromboembolism (which was a composite of asymptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, confirmed symptomatic venous thromboembolism, or death from any cause). The principal safety outcome was bleeding. RESULTS: Among the patients receiving milvexian twice daily, venous thromboembolism developed in 27 of 129 (21%) taking 25 mg, in 14 of 124 (11%) taking 50 mg, in 12 of 134 (9%) taking 100 mg, and in 10 of 131 (8%) taking 200 mg. Among those receiving milvexian once daily, venous thromboembolism developed in 7 of 28 (25%) taking 25 mg, in 30 of 127 (24%) taking 50 mg, and in 8 of 123 (7%) taking 200 mg, as compared with 54 of 252 patients (21%) taking enoxaparin. The dose-response relationship with twice-daily milvexian was significant (one-sided P<0.001), and the 12% incidence of venous thromboembolism with twice-daily milvexian was significantly lower than the prespecified benchmark of 30% (one-sided P<0.001). Bleeding of any severity occurred in 38 of 923 patients (4%) taking milvexian and in 12 of 296 patients (4%) taking enoxaparin; major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding occurred in 1% and 2%, respectively; and serious adverse events were reported in 2% and 4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative factor XIa inhibition with oral milvexian in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty was effective for the prevention of venous thromboembolism and was associated with a low risk of bleeding. (Funded by Bristol Myers Squibb and Janssen Research and Development; AXIOMATIC-TKR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03891524.).

8.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease have been found to have better outcomes with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) than with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but studies in which PCI is guided by measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) have been lacking. METHODS: In this multicenter, international, noninferiority trial, patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to undergo CABG or FFR-guided PCI with current-generation zotarolimus-eluting stents. The primary end point was the occurrence within 1 year of a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event, defined as death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat revascularization. Noninferiority of FFR-guided PCI to CABG was prespecified as an upper boundary of less than 1.65 for the 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio. Secondary end points included a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; safety was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 1500 patients underwent randomization at 48 centers. Patients assigned to undergo PCI received a mean (±SD) of 3.7±1.9 stents, and those assigned to undergo CABG received 3.4±1.0 distal anastomoses. The 1-year incidence of the composite primary end point was 10.6% among patients randomly assigned to undergo FFR-guided PCI and 6.9% among those assigned to undergo CABG (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 2.2), findings that were not consistent with noninferiority of FFR-guided PCI (P = 0.35 for noninferiority). The incidence of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was 7.3% in the FFR-guided PCI group and 5.2% in the CABG group (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9 to 2.1). The incidences of major bleeding, arrhythmia, and acute kidney injury were higher in the CABG group than in the FFR-guided PCI group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, FFR-guided PCI was not found to be noninferior to CABG with respect to the incidence of a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat revascularization at 1 year. (Funded by Medtronic and Abbott Vascular; FAME 3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02100722.).

9.
J Vasc Surg ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amputation remains a frequent and feared outcome in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Although typically characterized as major or minor on the extent of tissue loss, the etiologies and outcomes after amputation by extent are not well-understood. In addition, emerging data suggest that the drivers and outcomes of amputation in patients with PAD may differ in those with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: The EUCLID trial randomized 13,885 patients with symptomatic PAD, including 5345 with concomitant diabetes, to ticagrelor or clopidogrel and followed them for long-term outcomes. Amputations were prospectively reported by trial investigators. Their primary and contributing drivers were adjudicated using safety data, including infection, ischemia, or multifactorial etiologies. Outcomes following major and minor amputations were analyzed, including recurrent amputation, major adverse limb events, adverse cardiovascular events, and mortality. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors of minor amputations. Analyses were performed overall and stratified by the presence or absence of DM at baseline. RESULTS: Of the patients randomized, 398 (2.9%) underwent at least one lower extremity nontraumatic amputation, for a total of 511 amputations (255 major and 256 minor) over a median of 30 months. A history of minor amputation was the strongest independent predictor for a subsequent minor amputation (odds ratio, 7.29; 95% confidence interval, 5.17-10.30; P < .001) followed by comorbid DM (odds ratio, 4.60; 95% confidence interval, 3.16-6.69; P < .001). Compared with patients who had a major amputation, those with a minor amputation had similar rates of subsequent major amputation (12.2% vs 13.6%), major adverse limb events (15.1% vs 14.9%), and major adverse cardiovascular events (17.6% vs 16.3%). Ischemia alone was the primary driver of amputation (51%), followed by infection alone (27%), and multifactorial etiologies (22%); however, infection was the most frequent driver in those with DM (58%) but not in those without DM (15%). CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes after amputation remain poor regardless of whether they are categorized as major or minor. The pattern of amputation drivers in PAD differs by history of DM, with infection being the dominant etiology in those with DM and ischemia in those without DM. Greater focus is needed on the prognostic importance of minor amputation and of the multifactorial etiologies of amputation in PAD. Nomenclature with anatomical description of amputations and eliminating terms "major" or "minor" would seem appropriate.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e022485, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569249

RESUMO

Background In event-driven clinical trials, study termination is based on accrual of a target number of primary efficacy events. For noninferiority trials in which superiority is conditionally examined, the ideal cohort in which to track event accrual is unclear. We used data from the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial to determine the effect of primary efficacy-event tracking in the per-protocol cohort during the on-treatment period versus the intention-to-treat (ITT) cohort during the ITT period. Methods and Results ROCKET AF was terminated after accruing 429 primary efficacy events (stroke or systemic embolism) in the per-protocol cohort during the on-treatment period for noninferiority. We identified the date on which 429 events occurred in the ITT cohort during the ITT period. We performed noninferiority and superiority analyses based on hypothetical study termination on this date. ROCKET AF would have terminated 226 days earlier if events were tracked during the ITT period. Similar to the main trial findings, rivaroxaban would have met noninferiority versus warfarin for the primary efficacy end point (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.96; P<0.001). In contrast to the main trial findings, rivaroxaban would have met superiority for the primary efficacy end point (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P=0.038). In both termination scenarios, rivaroxaban was associated with a lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage and similar risk of other safety end points. Conclusions Clinical trial termination based on event accrual in the ITT cohort versus the per-protocol cohort may have important implications on trial results depending on rates of study drug discontinuation and event rates off treatment.

12.
Vasc Med ; : 1358863X211038620, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516308

RESUMO

Regional variations exist in the epidemiology of peripheral artery disease (PAD), in comorbidities, use of secondary prevention, and outcomes. Large studies of these variations in worldwide populations are rare. The EUCLID (Examining Use of tiCagreLor In peripheral artery Disease) trial included 13,885 patients with PAD from four geographical regions (Central/South America, Europe, Asia, North America) and compared monotherapy with ticagrelor and clopidogrel. Inclusion criteria were either an ankle-brachial index < 0.80 or a prior revascularization. The primary efficacy endpoint was time to first occurrence of any event in the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke and did not differ between the study arms. This post hoc analysis of EUCLID confirmed that regional differences occurred in the inclusion criteria with more prior revascularization in North America (73.9%) and Asia (72.5%) compared with Central/South America (34.0%) and Europe (51.6%). The characteristics of patients also differed. Prior amputation at baseline was most frequent in Central/South America (6.3%) compared with other regions (1.6-2.8%). A history of stroke was most common in Asia, coronary heart disease in North America, and diabetes in Central/South America compared with other regions. The incidence of outcomes in patients with PAD varied by region. North America had the highest rate of the primary combined endpoint (5.97 events/100 patient-years). Corresponding rates were 4.80, 3.95, and 3.87 for Asia, Europe, and Central/South America, respectively. Hospitalization for acute limb ischemia (events/100 patient-years) was most frequent in Europe (0.75) and North America (0.74) compared with Asia (0.60) and Central/South America (0.33). Adjustment for inclusion criteria and relevant PAD characteristics did not have a major impact on these regional differences. Further adjustment for concomitant disease, risk factors, and preventive medication modified the regional differences only marginally. In conclusion, substantial regional differences were found in cardiovascular and limb outcomes in patients with PAD and were not explained by variation in the category of included patients, concomitant disease, risk factors, and prevention. Such differences, which may be due to variation in other factors such as background population rates or clinical care, need to be considered when designing and interpreting large international studies (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01732822).

13.
Heart Rhythm O2 ; 2(3): 215-222, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337571

RESUMO

Background: Insulin use may be a better predictor of stroke risk and morbidity and mortality than diabetes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Objectives: Determine if the increased risk of stroke observed in patients with AF and diabetes is restricted to those treated with insulin. Methods: We analyzed the association between diabetes and treatment and the occurrence of stroke/systemic embolism, myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause death, vascular death, composite outcomes, and bleeding risk in the ROCKET AF trial. Results: In a cohort of 14,264 patients, there were 40.3% (n = 5746) with diabetes, 5.9% (n = 842) on insulin, 18.9% (n = 2697) on oral medications, and 11.9% (n = 1703) diet-controlled. Compared to those without diabetes, patients with non-insulin-treated diabetes had increased risks of stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.68), MI (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.17-2.30), all-cause death (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.46), vascular death (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), and composite outcomes (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.18-1.157). Patients with insulin-treated diabetes had a significantly higher risk of MI (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.33-4.01) and composite outcomes (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.08) compared to those without diabetes. There were no significant differences between insulin-treated and non-insulin-treated diabetes for any outcome. Conclusion: Among patients with AF and diabetes, there were no significant differences in outcomes in insulin-treated diabetes compared to non-insulin-treated diabetes.

14.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(12): 2707-2715, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402161

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the reasons for hospitalizations in the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) programme and the effects of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor canagliflozin on hospitalization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A secondary analysis was performed on the CANVAS programme that included 10 142 participants with type 2 diabetes randomized to canagliflozin or placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of total (first plus all recurrent) all-cause hospitalizations (ACH). Secondary outcomes were total hospitalizations categorized by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities hierarchy at the system organ class level, reported by investigators at each centre. Outcomes were assessed using negative binomial models. RESULTS: Of the 7115 hospitalizations reported, the most common reasons were cardiac disorders (23.7%), infections and infestations (15.0%), and nervous system disorders (9.0%). The rate of total ACH was lower in the canagliflozin group (n = 5795) compared with the placebo group (n = 4347): 197.9 versus 215.8 participants per 1000 patient-years, respectively (rate ratio [RR] 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86, 0.98). Canagliflozin reduced the rate of total hospitalizations because of cardiac disorders (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.75, 0.88). There was no significant difference between the canagliflozin and placebo groups in the rates of total hospitalizations because of infections and infestations (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86, 1.02) or nervous system disorders (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.88, 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the CANVAS programme, the most common reasons for hospitalization were cardiac disorders, infections and infestations, and nervous system disorders. Canagliflozin, compared with placebo, reduced the rate of total ACH.

15.
Diabetologia ; 64(10): 2147-2158, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415356

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Higher plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-2 and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) have been found to be associated with higher risk of kidney failure in individuals with type 2 diabetes in previous studies. Whether drugs can reduce these biomarkers is not well established. We measured these biomarkers in samples of the CANVAS study and examined the effect of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin on these biomarkers and assessed whether the early change in these biomarkers predict cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes in the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS). METHODS: Biomarkers were measured with immunoassays (proprietary multiplex assay performed by RenalytixAI, New York, NY, USA) at baseline and years 1, 3 and 6. Mixed-effects models for repeated measures assessed the effect of canagliflozin vs placebo on the biomarkers. Associations of baseline levels and the early change (baseline to year 1) for each biomarker with the kidney outcome were assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. RESULTS: In total, 3523/4330 (81.4%) of the CANVAS participants had available samples at baseline. Each doubling in baseline TNFR-1, TNFR-2 and KIM-1 was associated with a higher risk of kidney outcomes, with corresponding HRs of 3.7 (95% CI 2.3, 6.1; p < 0.01), 2.7 (95% CI 2.0, 3.6; p < 0.01) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.8; p < 0.01), respectively. Canagliflozin reduced the level of the plasma biomarkers with differences in TNFR-1, TNFR-2 and KIM-1 between canagliflozin and placebo during follow-up of 2.8% (95% CI 3.4%, 1.3%; p < 0.01), 1.9% (95% CI 3.5%, 0.2%; p = 0.03) and 26.7% (95% CI 30.7%, 22.7%; p < 0.01), respectively. Within the canagliflozin treatment group, each 10% reduction in TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 at year 1 was associated with a lower risk of the kidney outcome (HR 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 1.0; p = 0.02] and 0.9 [95% CI 0.9, 1.0; p < 0.01] respectively), independent of other patient characteristics. The baseline and 1 year change in biomarkers did not associate with cardiovascular or heart failure outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Canagliflozin decreased KIM-1 and modestly reduced TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 compared with placebo in individuals with type 2 diabetes in CANVAS. Early decreases in TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 during canagliflozin treatment were independently associated with a lower risk of kidney disease progression, suggesting that TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 have the potential to be pharmacodynamic markers of response to canagliflozin.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423370

RESUMO

AIMS: Hyperkalaemia is a common complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and limits the optimal use of agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with CKD, sodium‒glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors provide cardiorenal protection, but whether they affect the risk of hyperkalaemia remains uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: The CREDENCE trial randomized 4401 participants with T2DM and CKD to the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin or matching placebo. In this post hoc analysis using an intention-to-treat approach, we assessed the effect of canagliflozin on a composite outcome of time to either investigator-reported hyperkalaemia or the initiation of potassium binders. We also analysed effects on central laboratory-determined hyper- and hypokalaemia (serum potassium ≥6.0 and <3.5 mmol/L, respectively) and change in serum potassium. At baseline, the mean serum potassium in canagliflozin and placebo arms was 4.5 mmol/L; 4395 (99.9%) participants were receiving renin-angiotensin system blockade. The incidence of investigator-reported hyperkalaemia or initiation of potassium binders was lower with canagliflozin than with placebo [occurring in 32.7 vs. 41.9 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.95, P = 0.014]. Canagliflozin similarly reduced the incidence of laboratory-determined hyperkalaemia (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.98, P = 0.031), with no effect on the risk of hypokalaemia (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71-1.20, P = 0.53). The mean serum potassium over time with canagliflozin was similar to that of placebo. CONCLUSION: Among patients treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibition with canagliflozin may reduce the risk of hyperkalaemia in people with T2DM and CKD without increasing the risk of hypokalaemia.

17.
Diabetologia ; 64(11): 2402-2414, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448033

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus can manifest over a broad clinical range, although there is no clear consensus on the categorisation of disease complexity. We assessed the effects of canagliflozin, compared with placebo, on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program over a range of type 2 diabetes mellitus complexity, defined separately by baseline intensity of treatment, duration of diabetes and glycaemic control. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of the effects of canagliflozin on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) according to baseline glucose-lowering treatments (0 or 1, 2 or 3+ non-insulin glucose-lowering treatments, or insulin-based treatment), duration of diabetes (<10, 10 to 16, >16 years) and HbA1c (≤53.0 mmol/mol [<7.0%], >53.0 to 58.5 mmol/mol [>7.0% to 7.5%], >58.5 to 63.9 mmol/mol [>7.5 to 8.0%], >63.9 to 69.4 mmol/mol [8.0% to 8.5%], >69.4 to 74.9 mmol/mol [>8.5 to 9.0%] or >74.9 mmol/mol [>9.0%]). We analysed additional secondary endpoints for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, including a combined kidney outcome of sustained 40% decline in eGFR, end-stage kidney disease or death due to kidney disease. We used Cox regression analyses and compared the constancy of HRs across subgroups by fitting an interaction term (p value for significance <0.05). RESULTS: At study initiation, 5095 (50%) CANVAS Program participants were treated with insulin, 2100 (21%) had an HbA1c > 74.9 mmol/mol (9.0%) and the median duration of diabetes was 12.6 years (interquartile interval 8.0-18 years). Canagliflozin reduced MACE (HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.75, 0.97]) with no evidence that the benefit differed between subgroups defined by the number of glucose-lowering treatments, the duration of diabetes or baseline HbA1c (all p-heterogeneity >0.17). Canagliflozin reduced MACE in participants receiving insulin with no evidence that the benefit differed from other participants in the trial (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.72, 1.00]). Similar results were observed for other cardiovascular outcomes and for the combined kidney outcome (HR for combined kidney outcome 0.60 [95% CI 0.47, 0.77]), with all p-heterogeneity >0.37. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In people with type 2 diabetes mellitus at high cardiovascular risk, there was no evidence that cardiovascular and renal protection with canagliflozin differed across subgroups defined by baseline treatment intensity, duration of diabetes or HbA1c.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate a US hospital's cost implications and outcomes of cangrelor use in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients with two or more angiographic high-risk features (HRFs), including avoidance of oral P2Y12 inhibitor pretreatment in patients requiring cardiac surgery. Intravenous cangrelor provides direct, immediate onset and rapid-offset P2Y12 inhibition, which may reduce the necessity for oral P2Y12 pretreatment. METHODS: A decision analytic model was developed, estimating the annual impact over 3 years of cangrelor availability. Ischemic and bleeding events (48 h) from randomized clinical trial data were extrapolated to 30 days. Event costs were from the CHAMPION PHOENIX Economics substudy. Rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) presentation, PCI, oral P2Y12 pretreatment, and inpatient hospitalization costs were from published literature and clinical experts. Scenario analyses evaluated the impact of cangrelor availability on potential reduced P2Y12 pretreatment rates by 50-100%. Drug costs were 2019 wholesale acquisition costs and, where necessary, all costs were adjusted to 2019 dollars. RESULTS: In a hospital treating 1000 CAD PCI inpatients annually, increasing cangrelor use from 11 to 32% resulted in a reduction in 48-h ischemic events/year by 5.7%, while bleeding events increased by 2.9%. Total costs of $1,135,472 declined 12.8%, with a 50% reduction in P2Y12 pretreatment or 30% with no pretreatment. Savings were driven by a decrease in ischemic events, decrease in glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use, and less need for and shorter oral P2Y12 inhibitor washout period for surgery patients. CONCLUSION: Use of cangrelor in patients with two or more angiographic HRFs may improve outcomes and lower hospital budgets, mainly from avoiding surgery delays necessitated by oral P2Y12 inhibitor pretreatment.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117963, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297072

RESUMO

Importance: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are critical in advancing patient care, yet conducting such large-scale trials requires tremendous resources and coordination. Clinical site start-up performance metrics can provide insight into opportunities for improved trial efficiency but have not been well described. Objective: To measure the start-up time needed to reach prespecified milestones across sites in large cardiovascular RCTs in North America and to evaluate how these metrics vary by time and type of regulatory review process. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study evaluated cardiovascular RCTs conducted from July 13, 2004, to February 1, 2017. The RCTs were coordinated by a single academic research organization, the Duke Clinical Research Institute. Nine consecutive trials with completed enrollment and publication of results in their target journal were studied. Data were analyzed from December 4, 2019, to January 11, 2021. Exposures: Year of trial enrollment initiation (2004-2007 vs 2008-2012) and use of a central vs local institutional review board (IRB). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the median start-up time (from study protocol delivery to first participant enrollment) as compared by trial year and type of IRB used. The median start-up time for the top 10% of sites was also reported. Secondary outcomes included time to site regulatory approval, time to contract execution, and time to site activation. Results: For the 9 RCTs included, the median site start-up time shortened only slightly over time from 267 days (interquartile range [IQR], 185-358 days) for 2004-2007 trials to 237 days (IQR, 162-343 days) for 2008-2012 trials (overall median, 255 days [IQR, 177-350 days]; P < .001). For the top 10% of sites, median start-up time was 107 days (IQR, 95-121 days) for 2004-2007 trials vs 104 days (IQR, 84-118 days) for 2008-2012 trials (overall median, 106 days [IQR, 90-120 days]; P = .04). The median start-up time was shorter among sites using a central IRB (199 days [IQR, 140-292 days]) than those using a local IRB (287 days [IQR, 205-390 days]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study of North American research sites in large cardiovascular RCTs found a duration of nearly 9 months from the time of study protocol delivery to the first participant enrollment; this metric was only slightly shortened during the study period but was reduced to less than 4 months for top-performing sites. These findings suggest that the use of central IRBs has the potential to improve RCT efficiency.

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