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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237040, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249252

RESUMO

Abstract This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Resumo Esta investigação apresenta a alimentação e a atividade alimentar de bagres ribeirinhos Rita rita ameaçados de extinção, no período de fevereiro de 2017 a janeiro de 2018. Um total de 225 peixes foi analisado quanto ao conteúdo do estômago, caracterizando os itens alimentares dominantes e as características morfométricas. Os resultados apresentaram dez principais itens alimentares consumidos, preferencialmente escamas e ovos de peixes, teleósteos, copépodes, cladóceros, rotíferos e moluscos. O comprimento total e o peso corporal dos peixes variaram entre 9-34 cm (20,53 ± 6,90 cm) e 10-400 g (9125,94 ± 102,07 g), respectivamente. O índice de importância relativa (IRI%) mostrou a importância dos rotíferos sobre os demais itens alimentares. O índice de sobreposição de dieta de Morisita indicou variações sazonais nas dietas de bagres no verão e nas monções, exibindo a menor sobreposição, enquanto a sobreposição máxima ocorreu durante as estações das monções e do inverno. A escala multidimensional não métrica (nMDS) indicou a estreita associação entre os itens alimentares disponíveis durante o verão e o inverno, com uma diferença significativa entre as estações (ANOSIM, R = 0,638, P = 0,013). O índice de amplitude de nicho de Levin foi organizado na ordem de 0,88 > 0,81 > 0,78 > 0,63 > 0,43 para as classes de tamanho de V, IV, III, II e I, respectivamente. O PCA explicou 95,39% da variação total entre os itens alimentares e os grupos de tamanho de peixes. Peixes de pequeno porte apresentaram maior correlação com itens alimentares adequados ao tamanho da boca. Em conclusão, a variedade e a frequência dos itens alimentares registrados indicaram plasticidade alimentar considerável e comportamento alimentar oportunista, com uma mudança da natureza carnívora para onívora. Este estudo pode fornecer informações úteis sobre os hábitos alimentares e de alimentação de R. rita e apresentar subsídios para a preparação de sua dieta em futuras práticas de aquicultura.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1036-1049, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153451

RESUMO

Abstract The primary objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal fish and crustacean variations concerning taxonomic composition, species richness, and diversity in sandy beach habitat. For this purpose, we investigated the Sonmiani Hor lagoon area during four distinct seasons, i.e., northeast (NE) monsoon, pre-monsoon, south-west (SW) monsoon, and post-monsoon for one year. During each haul, the net was pulled about 100m along the beach in 0.5m depth. The results showed a strong linear correlation between the diversity index and equitability in fishes (r = 0.978). The diversity index was strong negatively correlated with the abundance and biomass (r = -0.978, -0.972, respectively). The physical attributes like sea surface water temperature and salinity showed a strong negative effect on species assemblages (r = -0.981 and -0.943, respectively). The mean air and water temperature illustrated approximately 3°C difference during NE and pre-monsoon seasons. However, salinity, pH, and electrical conductivity did not show any significant seasonal variabilities. Under the ecological indices, the fish species displayed higher diversity (H' = 3.19) during SW monsoon, whereas the lowest diversity was observed during pre-monsoon (H' = 1.58). The equitability and species richness, however, remained more noticeable during SW monsoon (J' = 0.81). The total number of individuals of fish and crustaceans reached 4799 with 3813 fish individuals and 986 individuals of crustaceans. A total of 27 families of fish while five crustacean families comprising of 30 genera and 38 fish species while ten genera and 17 species of crustaceans were recorded. Liza subviridis displayed the highest abundance among the sampled fish species. In conclusion, fish species constituted a significant part of the coastal fauna in the study area. The seasonal variations displayed distinct variations in fish species composition and diversity.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar as variações sazonais de peixes e crustáceos em relação à composição taxonômica, riqueza de espécies e diversidade no habitat de praias arenosas. Para esse fim, investigamos a área da lagoa Sonmiani Hor durante quatro estações distintas, ou seja, monção nordeste (NE), pré-monção, monção sudoeste (SW) e pós-monção, por um ano. Durante cada transporte, a rede foi puxada cerca de 100 m ao longo da praia, a 0,5 m de profundidade. Os resultados mostraram uma forte correlação linear entre o índice de diversidade e a equitabilidade de peixes (r = 0,978). O índice de diversidade apresentou forte correlação negativa com a abundância e a biomassa (r = -0,978 e -0,972, respectivamente). Os atributos físicos, como temperatura da água da superfície do mar e salinidade, apresentaram forte efeito negativo sobre o conjunto de espécies (r = -0,981 e -0,943, respectivamente). A temperatura média do ar e da água teve uma diferença de aproximadamente 3 °C durante a monção NE e a pré-monção. No entanto, salinidade, pH e condutividade elétrica não apresentaram variabilidade sazonal significativa. A respeito dos índices ecológicos, as espécies de peixes apresentaram maior diversidade (H' = 3,19) durante a monção SW, enquanto a menor diversidade observada foi na pré-monção (H' = 1,58). A equitabilidade e a riqueza de espécies, no entanto, permaneceram mais perceptíveis durante a monção SW (J' = 0,81). O número total de peixes e crustáceos foi de 4.799, com 3.813 peixes e 986 crustáceos. Foram registradas 27 famílias de peixes e 5 famílias de crustáceos, com 30 gêneros e 38 espécies de peixes, além de 10 gêneros e 17 espécies de crustáceos. Liza subviridis apresentou a maior abundância entre as espécies de peixes amostradas. Em conclusão, as espécies de peixes constituíram uma parte significativa da fauna costeira na área de estudo. As variações sazonais apresentaram variações distintas na composição e diversidade das espécies de peixes.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468508

RESUMO

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Timerosal , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim , Masculino , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timerosal/metabolismo , Timerosal/toxicidade
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468509

RESUMO

Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.


Assuntos
Cisplatino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Flavonoides , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105668

RESUMO

This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Hábitos , Humanos , Estações do Ano
6.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 1036-1049, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175007

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal fish and crustacean variations concerning taxonomic composition, species richness, and diversity in sandy beach habitat. For this purpose, we investigated the Sonmiani Hor lagoon area during four distinct seasons, i.e., northeast (NE) monsoon, pre-monsoon, south-west (SW) monsoon, and post-monsoon for one year. During each haul, the net was pulled about 100m along the beach in 0.5m depth. The results showed a strong linear correlation between the diversity index and equitability in fishes (r = 0.978). The diversity index was strong negatively correlated with the abundance and biomass (r = -0.978, -0.972, respectively). The physical attributes like sea surface water temperature and salinity showed a strong negative effect on species assemblages (r = -0.981 and -0.943, respectively). The mean air and water temperature illustrated approximately 3°C difference during NE and pre-monsoon seasons. However, salinity, pH, and electrical conductivity did not show any significant seasonal variabilities. Under the ecological indices, the fish species displayed higher diversity (H' = 3.19) during SW monsoon, whereas the lowest diversity was observed during pre-monsoon (H' = 1.58). The equitability and species richness, however, remained more noticeable during SW monsoon (J' = 0.81). The total number of individuals of fish and crustaceans reached 4799 with 3813 fish individuals and 986 individuals of crustaceans. A total of 27 families of fish while five crustacean families comprising of 30 genera and 38 fish species while ten genera and 17 species of crustaceans were recorded. Liza subviridis displayed the highest abundance among the sampled fish species. In conclusion, fish species constituted a significant part of the coastal fauna in the study area. The seasonal variations displayed distinct variations in fish species composition and diversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 823-828, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142532

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a poluição da água examinando a fragmentação do DNA em órgãos de peixes selecionados (rim, fígado, brânquias e tecido muscular) de Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris e Labeo rohita coletados de uma conhecida área poluída do rio Chenab, Paquistão e de um local de controle. Os peixes foram capturados usando uma rede branquial e foram divididos em três grupos de pesos diferentes (W1, W2 e W3) para estudar o grau de variação na fragmentação do DNA em relação ao peso corporal. Nos peixes do local poluído, a fragmentação do DNA foi maior nos rins, fígado, brânquias e músculos, em comparação ao controle. Não foi observada fragmentação significativa do DNA em peixes coletados no local de controle. Relação altamente significativa (P <0,01) entre o peso corporal e a fragmentação do DNA foi encontrada nos órgãos dos peixes adquiridos no local contaminado. Verificou-se que a fragmentação do DNA nos órgãos do corpo é afetada pelas concentrações de chumbo, cobre, níquel e cádmio em W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita e V. vulgarus colhidos no rio Chenab. A fragmentação do DNA em diferentes espécies de peixes de água doce é, portanto, um biomarcador confiável da poluição da água.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 535-543, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132422

RESUMO

Abstract Study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with different levels of full fat soybean meal (FFSBM) on growth and digestive enzyme activities in the stomach, Liver and intestine for Clarias gariepinus. Four diets (D1, D2, D3 and D4) were formulated with 0, 15, 20 and 20 g 100-1 protein + DL-methionine by alternating FFSBM with fish meal. The growth of C. gariepinus was found to be significantly decreased when FFSBM replacement increased. Final body weight was 89.69, 79.70, 70.82 and 68.29 g for fish fed on D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively, with significant differences between treatments. Specific growth rate (SGR) ranged between 3.11 to 2.78%. Proteolytic activity was higher only with alkaline pHs, whereas only very low activity was shown with acidic. Results of liver showed approximately similar results at acid and alkaline. In contrast, higher proteolytic activity in the stomach was observed at acid pHs 3.0 and 4.0 μg tyrosine-1 minute-1 mg-1 protein) whereas lower values were observed at neutral pH 7.0 g tyrosine-1 minute-1 mg-1 protein for catfish fed on the experimental diets. Moreover, trypsin activity was higher for the stomach, followed by the intestine and liver. However, higher amount of amylase observed in the liver than intestine and stomach.


Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da substituição da farinha de peixe por diferentes níveis de farelo de soja integral (FSI) sobre o crescimento e atividades de enzimas digestivas no estômago, fígado e intestino de Clarias gariepinus. Quatro dietas (D1, D2, D3 e D4) foram formuladas com 0, 15, 20 e 20 g 100-1 proteína + DL-metionina, alternando FSI com farinha de peixe. O crescimento de C. gariepinus foi significativamente reduzido quando aumentou a substituição de farinha de peixe por FSI . O peso corporal final foi de 89,69, 79,70, 70,82 e 68,29 g para peixes alimentados com D1, D2, D3 e D4, respectivamente, com diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Taxa de crescimento específico (TCE) variou entre 3,11 a 2,78%. A atividade proteolítica foi maior apenas com pHs alcalinos, enquanto que atividades muito baixas foram somente mostradas com ácido. Os resultados no fígado mostraram valores aproximadamente semelhantes tanto em meio ácido quanto alcalino. Em contraste, observou-se maior atividade proteolítica no estômago em pH ácido (3,0 e 4,0 g de tirosina-1 minuto-1 mg-1 de proteína), ao passo que valores mais baixos foram observados em pH neutro (7,0 g de tirosina-1 minuto-1 mg-1 de proteína) para os bagres que se alimentaram com as dietas experimentais. Além disso, a atividade da tripsina foi maior para o estômago, seguida pelo intestino e pelo fígado. No entanto, observou-se maior quantidade de amilase no fígado,intestino e estômago.

9.
Braz J Biol ; 80(3): 535-543, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644648

RESUMO

Study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with different levels of full fat soybean meal (FFSBM) on growth and digestive enzyme activities in the stomach, Liver and intestine for Clarias gariepinus. Four diets (D1, D2, D3 and D4) were formulated with 0, 15, 20 and 20 g 100-1 protein + DL-methionine by alternating FFSBM with fish meal. The growth of C. gariepinus was found to be significantly decreased when FFSBM replacement increased. Final body weight was 89.69, 79.70, 70.82 and 68.29 g for fish fed on D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively, with significant differences between treatments. Specific growth rate (SGR) ranged between 3.11 to 2.78%. Proteolytic activity was higher only with alkaline pHs, whereas only very low activity was shown with acidic. Results of liver showed approximately similar results at acid and alkaline. In contrast, higher proteolytic activity in the stomach was observed at acid pHs 3.0 and 4.0 µg tyrosine-1 minute-1 mg-1 protein) whereas lower values were observed at neutral pH 7.0 g tyrosine-1 minute-1 mg-1 protein for catfish fed on the experimental diets. Moreover, trypsin activity was higher for the stomach, followed by the intestine and liver. However, higher amount of amylase observed in the liver than intestine and stomach.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Trato Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Soja
10.
Braz J Biol ; 80(4): 823-828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778486

RESUMO

This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Fragmentação do DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Brânquias , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 703-711, Nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001487

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to determine an appropriate replacement of fishmeal with amino acids (AAs) and optimized protein levels in practical diets for Oreochromis niloticus with mean initial body weight 12.52±0.63g. Six experimental and a control diet (total 7 diets) divided into two groups, and a control diet (D1) containing 32% protein. The first group contained three diets that included different dietary protein levels, viz. 20 (D2), 25 (D3), and 30% (D4) with AAs when replacing fishmeal by plant protein sources. In the second group, the diets were contained 20 (D5), 25 (D6), and 30% (D7) without AAs. The best growth performance was achieved in fish fed with diet D1. Total feed intake was increased with an increase in dietary protein level with AAs. The specific growth rate showed a similar pattern with a significant difference between control, D4 and D7 compared to other groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased when protein levels in the diets increased. The protein efficiency ratio showed a similar performance, with a slight increase between the control diet and diets with AAs. However, insignificant differences (P>0.05) were observed between diets with and without AAs. An economic evaluation indicated that inclusion of low fishmeal in tilapia diets reduced the price/kg of diets compared to control.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para determinar uma substituição adequada de farinha de peixe com aminoácidos (AA) e níveis otimizados de proteína em dietas práticas para Oreochromis niloticus com peso corporal inicial médio de 12,52 ± 0,63 g. Seis dietas experimentais e controle (total de 7 dietas) divididas em dois grupos, e uma dieta controle (D1) contendo 32% de proteína. O primeiro grupo continha três dietas que incluíam diferentes níveis de proteína na dieta, viz. 20 (D2), 25 (D3) e 30% (D4) com AAs ao substituir a farinha de peixe por fontes de proteína vegetal. No segundo grupo, as dietas continham 20 (D5), 25 (D6) e 30% (D7) sem AAs. O melhor desempenho de crescimento foi alcançado em peixes alimentados com dieta D1. O consumo total de ração foi aumentado com o aumento do nível de proteína na dieta com AAs. A taxa de crescimento específico mostrou um padrão semelhante com uma diferença significativa entre o controle, D4 ​​e D7 em comparação com outros grupos. A taxa de conversão alimentar diminuiu quando os níveis de proteína nas dietas aumentaram. A taxa de eficiência protéica apresentou desempenho semelhante, com discreto aumento entre a dieta controle e as dietas com AAs. Entretanto, diferenças insignificantes (P> 0,05) foram observadas entre dietas com e sem AAs. Uma avaliação econômica indicou que a inclusão de farinha de peixe baixa em dietas de tilápia reduziu o preço / kg de dietas em relação ao controle.


Assuntos
Animais , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Alimentos Marinhos/normas , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Peso Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/economia
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 651-658, Nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001484

RESUMO

Abstract The organoleptic evaluation and proximate analysis of Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio were determined in fresh fish and when refrigerated at two different temperatures (-21 °C and 4 °C) for a period of six weeks. A panel of twelve trained judges evaluated the color (live), texture, softness and flavor of fish meat after two minutes' steam cooking. Average score revealed a general decline in organoleptic properties such as color, texture, freshness, and taste of C. gariepinus and C. carpio stored at two temperatures compared to the fresh fish. Proximate analysis revealed a more decrease in crude protein and lipid contents and increase in ash content in C. gariepinus and C. carpio at the two storage temperatures compared to the fresh fish muscle. Moisture content decreased in the fish muscle samples of both the fish species stored at -21 °C but increased in the 4 °C stored samples. pH of fish was found to increase in the two stored temperatures. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the organoleptic and proximate composition of the ice stored and fresh C. gariepinus and C. carpio, the same temperature and between the two different temperatures. The quality of fish muscle stored at 4 °C deteriorated faster than that of the -21 °C. Thus, storage temperature and duration have adverse effects on the nutritional quality of fish meat.


Resumo A avaliação organoléptica e a análise aproximada de Clarias gariepinus e Cyprinus carpio foram determinadas em peixe fresco e refrigerado a duas temperaturas diferentes (-21 °C e 4 °C) por um período de seis semanas. Um painel de doze juízes treinados avaliou a cor (ao vivo), textura, maciez e sabor da carne de peixe após dois minutos de cozimento a vapor. O escore médio revelou um declínio geral nas propriedades organolépticas, como cor, textura, frescor e sabor de C. gariepinus e C. carpio armazenados a duas temperaturas em comparação com o peixe fresco. A análise imediata revelou uma maior diminuição nos teores de proteína bruta e lipídios e aumento no teor de cinzas em C. gariepinus e C. carpio nas duas temperaturas de armazenamento em comparação com o músculo do peixe fresco. O teor de umidade diminuiu nas amostras de músculo de peixe de ambas as espécies de peixes armazenadas a -21 °C, mas aumentou nas amostras armazenadas a 4 °C. O pH dos peixes aumentou nas duas temperaturas armazenadas. Houve diferenças significativas (P <0,05) na composição organoléptica e próxima do gelo armazenado e fresco C. gariepinus e C. carpio, a mesma temperatura e entre as duas temperaturas diferentes. A qualidade do músculo do peixe armazenado a 4 °C deteriorou-se mais rapidamente do que a temperatura de -21 °C. Assim, a temperatura e duração do armazenamento têm efeitos adversos na qualidade nutricional da carne de peixe.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes-Gato , Carpas , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Refrigeração/normas , Temperatura Baixa , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/normas , Carne/análise , Carne/normas
13.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 38(12): 1344-1365, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514588

RESUMO

Research in the past has indicated associated long-term and low levels of exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) in early life and neuroendocrine disorders, such as obesity, precocious puberty, diabetes, and hypertension. BPA and its analogs bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol S (BPS) have been reported to have similar or even more toxic effect as compared to BPA. Exposure of rats to BPA and its analogs BPB, BPF, and BPS resulted in decreased sperm production, testosterone secretion, and histological changes in the reproductive tissues of male rats. In the present study, BPA, BPB, BPF, and BPS were administered in drinking water at concentrations of (5, 25, and 50 µg/L) from pregnancy day (PD) 1 to PD 21. Body weight (BW), hormonal concentrations, antioxidant enzymes, and histological changes were determined in the reproductive tissues. BPA and its analogs prenatal exposure to female rats induced significant statistical difference in the antioxidant enzymes, plasma testosterone, and estrogen concentrations in the male offspring when compared with the control. Histological parameters of both testis and epididymis revealed prominent changes in the reproductive tissues. The present study suggests that BPA and its analogs BPB, BPF, and BPS different concentrations led to marked alterations in the development of the male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Troca Materno-Fetal , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/metabolismo
14.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(4): 674-684, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397441

RESUMO

Acriflavine resistance protein B (AcrB) serves as prototype for multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux transporters of resistance nodulation division (RND) superfamily. AcrB has been proven as potential drug target with many synthetic and natural inhibitors have been identified such as those belonging to pyranopyridine, naphthamide and pimozide classes. The plant derived alkaloid inhibitors represented by reserpine has been found to inhibit both ATP binding cassette and major facilitator efflux transporters. In this study we report the reserpine induced inhibition of RND transporter AcrB. The preliminary docking analysis hints that reserpine shares its binding site with ciprofloxacin, a known substrate of AcrB and could possibly act as competitive inhibitor. For in vitro validation, AcrB from Salmonella typhi was cloned under the control of tac promoter and resulting vector was introduced into E. coli C41(DE3). Under autoinduced conditions, cells overexpressing AcrB transporter were subjected to combined dose of ciprofloxacin and reserpine. The combined exposure resulted in enhanced ciprofloxacin-induced growth inhibition of cells expressing AcrB transporter as compared to control cells transformed with vector of backbone sequence. Time kill analysis further confirmed these findings. To the best of our knowledge, this is first study to show that exposure to reserpine induces inhibition of AcrB. The assay developed in this study allows simple and reproducible detection of substrate/inhibitor effects upon AcrB and related efflux transporters.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/antagonistas & inibidores , Reserpina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(3): 161-167, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267555

RESUMO

Efflux-mediated multidrug resistance is a well-known phenomenon facilitated by multidrug resistant (MDR) transporters. One of the approaches to counteract efflux-mediated resistance is the use of MDR pump inhibitors, and thus be used in combination with the conventional antibiotics to treat deadly diseases like typhoid fever. We have previously reported that STY4874, an efflux transporter of Salmonella serotype Typhi, exhibited promising characteristics as MDR pump. In this study, we aimed to get an insight into possible STY4874 inhibitors of plant origin. STY4874 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and extracts from pomegranate peel, milk thistle seeds and reserpine, a synthetic plant alkaloid, were screened for inhibition of ciprofloxacin efflux. The extracts of milk thistle seeds and reserpine when incubated with ciprofloxacin showed statistically significant STY4874-mediated inhibitory activity, rendering the efflux pump inactive and hence early growth inhibition of host cells compared with cells expressing efflux pump and incubated only with ciprofloxacin. This efflux pump inhibitory activity was further confirmed by time-kill experiments. This study is the first to report on efflux pump inhibition of S. Typhi STY4874 and results can be extended towards its close homologues such as MdfA and MdtM from E. coli. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Understanding and combating resistance governed by multidrug efflux transporters is an ongoing research intensive area, affecting treatment of various nosocomial and endemic/epidemic infections. Confronting drug resistance requires that inhibitors debilitating the underlying mechanisms should be included in combination therapy. One such example is the prescription of clavulanic acid as combination therapy with amoxicillin, collectively called as co-amoxiclav to combat ß-lactamase-mediated resistance. However, research related to finding the inhibitors of efflux transporters, the resistance mechanism distinct from ß-lactamase mediated resistance is at an early stage. The current study finds that plant-derived inhibitors can be an option towards restraining efflux-mediated resistance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardo-Mariano/química , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reserpina/farmacologia , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
16.
Vaccine ; 37(10): 1266-1276, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733092

RESUMO

This study demonstrates that route and viral vector can significantly influence the innate lymphoid cells (ILC) and dendritic cells (DC) recruited to the vaccination site, 24 h post delivery. Intranasal (i.n.) vaccination induced ST2/IL-33R+ ILC2, whilst intramuscular (i.m.) induced IL-25R+ and TSLPR+ (Thymic stromal lymphopoietin protein receptor) ILC2 subsets. However, in muscle a novel ILC subset devoid of the known ILC2 markers (IL-25R- IL-33R- TSLPR-) were found to express IL-13, unlike in lung. Different viral vectors also influenced the ILC-derived cytokines and the DC profiles at the respective vaccination sites. Both i.n. and i.m. recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) priming, which has been associated with induction of high avidity T cells and effective antibody differentiation exhibited low ILC2-derived IL-13, high NKp46+ ILC1/ILC3 derived IFN-γ and low IL-17A, together with enhanced CD11b+ CD103- conventional DCs (cDC). In contrast, recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (rMVA) and Influenza A vector priming, which has been linked to low avidity T cells, induced opposing ILC derived-cytokine profiles and enhanced cross-presenting DCs. These observations suggested that the former ILC/DC profiles could be a predictor of a balanced cellular and humoral immune outcome. In addition, following i.n. delivery Rhinovirus (RV) and Adenovius type 5 (Ad5) vectors that induced elevated ILC2-derived IL-13, NKp46+ ILC1/ILC3-derived-IFN-γ and no IL-17A, predominantly recruited CD11b- B220+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDC). Knowing that pDC are involved in antibody differentiation, we postulate that i.n. priming with these vectors may favour induction of effective humoral immunity. Our data also revealed that vector-specific replication status and/or presence or absence of immune evasive genes can significantly alter the ILC and DC activity. Collectively, our findings suggest that understanding the route- and vector-specific ILC and DC profiles at the vaccination site may help tailor/design more efficacious viral vector-based vaccines, according to the pathogen of interest.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vírus/genética , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Injeções Intramusculares , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vírus/imunologia
17.
Braz J Biol ; 79(4): 703-711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379206

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine an appropriate replacement of fishmeal with amino acids (AAs) and optimized protein levels in practical diets for Oreochromis niloticus with mean initial body weight 12.52±0.63g. Six experimental and a control diet (total 7 diets) divided into two groups, and a control diet (D1) containing 32% protein. The first group contained three diets that included different dietary protein levels, viz. 20 (D2), 25 (D3), and 30% (D4) with AAs when replacing fishmeal by plant protein sources. In the second group, the diets were contained 20 (D5), 25 (D6), and 30% (D7) without AAs. The best growth performance was achieved in fish fed with diet D1. Total feed intake was increased with an increase in dietary protein level with AAs. The specific growth rate showed a similar pattern with a significant difference between control, D4 and D7 compared to other groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased when protein levels in the diets increased. The protein efficiency ratio showed a similar performance, with a slight increase between the control diet and diets with AAs. However, insignificant differences (P>0.05) were observed between diets with and without AAs. An economic evaluation indicated that inclusion of low fishmeal in tilapia diets reduced the price/kg of diets compared to control.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Dieta , Alimentos Marinhos , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/economia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Proteínas na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Alimentos Marinhos/normas
18.
Braz J Biol ; 79(4): 651-658, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379239

RESUMO

The organoleptic evaluation and proximate analysis of Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio were determined in fresh fish and when refrigerated at two different temperatures (-21 °C and 4 °C) for a period of six weeks. A panel of twelve trained judges evaluated the color (live), texture, softness and flavor of fish meat after two minutes' steam cooking. Average score revealed a general decline in organoleptic properties such as color, texture, freshness, and taste of C. gariepinus and C. carpio stored at two temperatures compared to the fresh fish. Proximate analysis revealed a more decrease in crude protein and lipid contents and increase in ash content in C. gariepinus and C. carpio at the two storage temperatures compared to the fresh fish muscle. Moisture content decreased in the fish muscle samples of both the fish species stored at -21 °C but increased in the 4 °C stored samples. pH of fish was found to increase in the two stored temperatures. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the organoleptic and proximate composition of the ice stored and fresh C. gariepinus and C. carpio, the same temperature and between the two different temperatures. The quality of fish muscle stored at 4 °C deteriorated faster than that of the -21 °C. Thus, storage temperature and duration have adverse effects on the nutritional quality of fish meat.


Assuntos
Carpas , Peixes-Gato , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/normas , Carne/análise , Carne/normas , Refrigeração/normas
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 525-534, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951573

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight with feeding treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The growth performance of the fish in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the fish fed with 20% replacement of fishmeal in diet B. The worst growth performance was observed in fish fed with commercial diet, designated as diet D. It was concluded that the fish meal can be replaced up to 20 percent with other plant protein sources without any negative impact on fish health. The replacement of fish meal with local plant sources (corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal and bagasse kenna mix) will not only be beneficial to achieve better growth performance in O. niloticus, it will be a value addition as well.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o nível adequado de substituição de farinha de peixe (FM) com fontes alternativas de plantas na alimentação alimentada a Oreochromis niloticus para avaliar o desempenho do crescimento. Três dietas isoproteiniosas (proteína de 40% de proteína bruta) foram preparadas a partir de diferentes ingredientes, como farinha de peixe, farinha de glúten de milho, farinha de glúten de trigo e farinha de bagaço de bagaço. O. niloticus apresentou um aumento máximo de peso como 9,70, 11,09, 8,53 e 8,32 g durante a 2ª, 2ª, 3ª e 2ª quinzena com o tratamento de alimentação A, B, C e D, respectivamente. O desempenho de crescimento do peixe em termos de ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico, razão de conversão alimentar e relação de eficiência protéica foi significativamente maior (P <0,05) nos peixes alimentados com 20% de reposição de farinha de peixe na dieta B. O pior O desempenho do crescimento foi observado em peixes alimentados com dieta comercial, designados como dieta D. Concluiu-se que a farinha de peixe pode ser substituída até 20 por cento com outras fontes de proteína vegetal sem qualquer impacto negativo na saúde dos peixes. A substituição da farinha de peixe por fontes locais de plantas (farelo de milho, farinha de glúten de trigo, farelo de soja e mistura de bagaço de bagaço) não só será benéfica para obter melhor desempenho de crescimento em O. niloticus, também será uma adição de valor.


Assuntos
Animais , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/métodos , Ração Animal/análise , Soja , Peso Corporal
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 667-672, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951598

RESUMO

Abstract Various bird pests caused severe economic losses to valuable crops and fruit orchards all over the world. Among the birds, house sparrow is also considered to cause heavy plunder, not only to seeds of crops but also seedlings especially in organic farming. In present study two bird repellents, methylanthranilate and anthraquinone tested against house sparrows on maize seeds and seedlings in aviary conditions. Trial group in aviary-I, the treated maize seeds and seedlings with different doses of both bird repellents, control group in aviary-II, untreated seeds and seedlings were provided for three hours in the early morning. In each aviary, two closed circuit cameras were also installed to monitor the behavioral responses against different concentrations of both chemical repellents. Statistical analysis showed that there existed highly significant (P<0.01) variations among the trial and control groups for seeds and seedlings. By comparing both repellents, significant (P<0.05) differences were detected and anthraquinone showed better efficacy when compared to methylanthranilate, but in maize seedlings both repellents equal repellent properties. Non-significant (P>0.05) differences were observed in different grading of both natural chemical repellents for maize seeds while significant (P<0.05) variations were noticed for maize seedlings when provided to sparrows. By videotaped behavior sparrows presented manifest head juddering and feather upsetting activities by consumption of treated seeds and seedlings with higher concentrations of both natural bird repellents.


Resumo Várias pragas de aves causaram graves perdas econômicas para cultivos valiosos e pomares de frutas em todo o mundo. Entre os pássaros, o pardal da casa também é considerado um grande saqueo, não só para as sementes das culturas, mas também para as mudas, especialmente na agricultura orgânica. No presente estudo, dois repelentes de aves, metilantranilato e antraquinona testados contra pardais de casa em sementes de milho e mudas em condições de aviário. O grupo de ensaio em aviary-I, as sementes de milho tratadas e as mudas com diferentes doses de repelentes de aves, grupo de controle em aviary-II, sementes não tratadas e mudas foram fornecidas por três horas no início da manhã. Em cada aviário, duas câmeras de circuito fechado também foram instaladas para monitorar as respostas comportamentais contra diferentes concentrações de ambos os repelentes químicos. A análise estatística mostrou que existiam variações altamente significativas (P<0,01) entre os grupos de teste e controle para sementes e mudas. Ao comparar os dois repelentes, detectaram-se diferenças significativas (P<0,05) e a antraquinona apresentou maior eficácia quando comparada ao metilantranilato, mas em mudas de milho, ambos os repelentes são iguais às propriedades repelentes. As diferenças não significantes (P>0,05) foram observadas em diferentes classificações de repelentes químicos naturais para sementes de milho, enquanto as variações significativas (P<0,05) foram observadas para as mudas de milho quando fornecidas aos pardais. Por um comportamento gravado em video, os pardais apresentaram manifestações de cabeça e vibrações de penas por consumo de sementes tratadas e mudas com maiores concentrações de repelentes de aves naturais.


Assuntos
Animais , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pardais , Animais Selvagens
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