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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257023, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360225

RESUMO

The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


O presente estudo examina as correlações entre 15 caracteres morfométricos e 10 caracteres merísticos e comprimento total (CT) de machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados de Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833), coletados do porto de Karachi, West Wharf, na costa de Karachi. As análises estatísticas das relações de regressão linear mostraram, principalmente, correlações fortes (r ≥ 0,70; p < 0,05) entre o CT e a maioria dos caracteres morfométricos em machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados, exceto a altura da nadadeira peitoral e o comprimento da base da nadadeira pélvica, enquanto os caracteres merísticos foram constantes, indicando correlações fracas ou negativas (r ≤ 0,50; p > 0,05) com o CT. Portanto, de acordo com nossos resultados, existe uma relação direta entre o CT dos peixes e todos os caracteres morfométricos, que foram considerados os melhores indicadores de crescimento do padrão alométrico positivo em peixes. Além disso, a análise do teste t de duas amostras revelou (teste t; p > 0,05) que nenhum dimorfismo sexual foi relatado em A. vari.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Arábia
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254252, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355876

RESUMO

Abstract Indian major carps are the widely consumed fish species of Pakistan, being a cheap source of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids, they are good for cardiovascular health. Water pollution due to discharge of untreated industrial waste water into water bodies contaminates this precious source of nutrients. The present study therefore, was aimed to assess deterioration of fatty acid profile of three Indian major carp species due to different concentrations of industrial wastes. The water samples were collected from the river Chenab at the site where it receives industrial wastewater via Chakbandi drain. After exposure to 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% dilutions of collected water in different aquaria it was observed that proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in selected fish species were decreased significantly as the intensity of the dose increased (P < 0.05). Conversely the level of saturated fatty acids increased with the increasing dose of treatment (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that untreated wastewater not only deteriorate the fatty acid profile of aquatic animals but also these toxic substances can reach human body through fish meat and pose further health hazards. Therefore, it is highly recommended that industrial effluents should be treated before they are dumped into water bodies.


Resumo As carpas indianas são as espécies de peixes mais consumidas no Paquistão, sendo uma fonte barata de proteínas e de ácidos graxos insaturados e boa para a saúde cardiovascular. A poluição da água por causa do descarte de resíduos industriais não tratados em corpos d'água contamina essa preciosa fonte de nutrientes. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a deterioração do perfil de ácidos graxos de três principais espécies de carpas indianas em diferentes concentrações de resíduos industriais. As amostras de água foram coletadas do rio Chenab no local onde recebe esgoto industrial via dreno de Chakbandi. Após a exposição a diluições de 1,5%, 3% e 4,5% da água coletada em diferentes aquários, foi observado que a proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados em espécies de peixes selecionadas diminuiu significativamente com o aumento da intensidade da dose (P < 0,05). Por outro lado, o nível de ácidos graxos saturados aumentou com a elevação da dose de tratamento (P < 0,05). Essas descobertas sugerem que águas residuais não tratadas não apenas deterioram o perfil de ácidos graxos dos animais aquáticos, mas também essas substâncias tóxicas podem atingir o corpo humano por meio da carne de peixe e representar mais riscos à saúde. Portanto, é recomendável que os efluentes industriais sejam tratados antes de serem despejados em corpos d'água.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carpas , Indústria Têxtil , Rios , Ácidos Graxos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249211, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345523

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H' = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H' = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Água , Biodiversidade , Água do Mar , Ecossistema , Peixes
4.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(3): 1380-1385, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35280584

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an endocrine disruptor chemical (EDC) with potentially adverse effects on the male reproductive system. Pachypodol (5,4'-dihydroxy-3,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone) is a promising flavonoid isolated from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth that shows a broad range of pharmacological properties. However, the potential curative effects of pachypodol on testicular toxicity are not available until now. Therefore, this research was proposed to examine the efficiency of pachypodol against PFOS-induced testicular toxicity in adult male rats. The experiments were conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48), which were equally distributed into four groups: control, PFOS (20 mg/kg), PFOS + Pachypodol (20 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg respectively), and Pachypodol (10 mg/kg). After 56 days of treatment, testes were excised by slaughtering rats, weighed, and stored till further analysis. The estimated parameters include biochemical markers, spermatogenic indices, hormonal and histopathological profiles. PFOS exposure disturbed the biochemical profile by altering the antioxidant/oxidant balance. For instance, it decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GSR) while increasing the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). PFOS intoxication also led to a notable decline in viability, motility, epididymal sperm count, and the number of HOS coiled-tail sperms, whereas the higher level of abnormality in the head, mid-piece, and tail of sperms were observed. Besides, it lowered luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and plasma testosterone. In addition, PFOS exposure led to histopathological damages in testicles. However, pachypodol treatment potently alleviated all the illustrated impairments in testes. Conclusively, our results demonstrate the promising free-radical scavenging activity of pachypodol, a novel phytochemical, against the PFOS-instigated testicular dysfunctions.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257023, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195173

RESUMO

The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Peixes , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254252, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019104

RESUMO

Indian major carps are the widely consumed fish species of Pakistan, being a cheap source of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids, they are good for cardiovascular health. Water pollution due to discharge of untreated industrial waste water into water bodies contaminates this precious source of nutrients. The present study therefore, was aimed to assess deterioration of fatty acid profile of three Indian major carp species due to different concentrations of industrial wastes. The water samples were collected from the river Chenab at the site where it receives industrial wastewater via Chakbandi drain. After exposure to 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% dilutions of collected water in different aquaria it was observed that proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in selected fish species were decreased significantly as the intensity of the dose increased (P < 0.05). Conversely the level of saturated fatty acids increased with the increasing dose of treatment (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that untreated wastewater not only deteriorate the fatty acid profile of aquatic animals but also these toxic substances can reach human body through fish meat and pose further health hazards. Therefore, it is highly recommended that industrial effluents should be treated before they are dumped into water bodies.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Rios , Indústria Têxtil , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237040, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249252

RESUMO

Abstract This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Resumo Esta investigação apresenta a alimentação e a atividade alimentar de bagres ribeirinhos Rita rita ameaçados de extinção, no período de fevereiro de 2017 a janeiro de 2018. Um total de 225 peixes foi analisado quanto ao conteúdo do estômago, caracterizando os itens alimentares dominantes e as características morfométricas. Os resultados apresentaram dez principais itens alimentares consumidos, preferencialmente escamas e ovos de peixes, teleósteos, copépodes, cladóceros, rotíferos e moluscos. O comprimento total e o peso corporal dos peixes variaram entre 9-34 cm (20,53 ± 6,90 cm) e 10-400 g (9125,94 ± 102,07 g), respectivamente. O índice de importância relativa (IRI%) mostrou a importância dos rotíferos sobre os demais itens alimentares. O índice de sobreposição de dieta de Morisita indicou variações sazonais nas dietas de bagres no verão e nas monções, exibindo a menor sobreposição, enquanto a sobreposição máxima ocorreu durante as estações das monções e do inverno. A escala multidimensional não métrica (nMDS) indicou a estreita associação entre os itens alimentares disponíveis durante o verão e o inverno, com uma diferença significativa entre as estações (ANOSIM, R = 0,638, P = 0,013). O índice de amplitude de nicho de Levin foi organizado na ordem de 0,88 > 0,81 > 0,78 > 0,63 > 0,43 para as classes de tamanho de V, IV, III, II e I, respectivamente. O PCA explicou 95,39% da variação total entre os itens alimentares e os grupos de tamanho de peixes. Peixes de pequeno porte apresentaram maior correlação com itens alimentares adequados ao tamanho da boca. Em conclusão, a variedade e a frequência dos itens alimentares registrados indicaram plasticidade alimentar considerável e comportamento alimentar oportunista, com uma mudança da natureza carnívora para onívora. Este estudo pode fornecer informações úteis sobre os hábitos alimentares e de alimentação de R. rita e apresentar subsídios para a preparação de sua dieta em futuras práticas de aquicultura.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Peixes-Gato , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Hábitos
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1036-1049, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153451

RESUMO

Abstract The primary objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal fish and crustacean variations concerning taxonomic composition, species richness, and diversity in sandy beach habitat. For this purpose, we investigated the Sonmiani Hor lagoon area during four distinct seasons, i.e., northeast (NE) monsoon, pre-monsoon, south-west (SW) monsoon, and post-monsoon for one year. During each haul, the net was pulled about 100m along the beach in 0.5m depth. The results showed a strong linear correlation between the diversity index and equitability in fishes (r = 0.978). The diversity index was strong negatively correlated with the abundance and biomass (r = -0.978, -0.972, respectively). The physical attributes like sea surface water temperature and salinity showed a strong negative effect on species assemblages (r = -0.981 and -0.943, respectively). The mean air and water temperature illustrated approximately 3°C difference during NE and pre-monsoon seasons. However, salinity, pH, and electrical conductivity did not show any significant seasonal variabilities. Under the ecological indices, the fish species displayed higher diversity (H' = 3.19) during SW monsoon, whereas the lowest diversity was observed during pre-monsoon (H' = 1.58). The equitability and species richness, however, remained more noticeable during SW monsoon (J' = 0.81). The total number of individuals of fish and crustaceans reached 4799 with 3813 fish individuals and 986 individuals of crustaceans. A total of 27 families of fish while five crustacean families comprising of 30 genera and 38 fish species while ten genera and 17 species of crustaceans were recorded. Liza subviridis displayed the highest abundance among the sampled fish species. In conclusion, fish species constituted a significant part of the coastal fauna in the study area. The seasonal variations displayed distinct variations in fish species composition and diversity.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar as variações sazonais de peixes e crustáceos em relação à composição taxonômica, riqueza de espécies e diversidade no habitat de praias arenosas. Para esse fim, investigamos a área da lagoa Sonmiani Hor durante quatro estações distintas, ou seja, monção nordeste (NE), pré-monção, monção sudoeste (SW) e pós-monção, por um ano. Durante cada transporte, a rede foi puxada cerca de 100 m ao longo da praia, a 0,5 m de profundidade. Os resultados mostraram uma forte correlação linear entre o índice de diversidade e a equitabilidade de peixes (r = 0,978). O índice de diversidade apresentou forte correlação negativa com a abundância e a biomassa (r = -0,978 e -0,972, respectivamente). Os atributos físicos, como temperatura da água da superfície do mar e salinidade, apresentaram forte efeito negativo sobre o conjunto de espécies (r = -0,981 e -0,943, respectivamente). A temperatura média do ar e da água teve uma diferença de aproximadamente 3 °C durante a monção NE e a pré-monção. No entanto, salinidade, pH e condutividade elétrica não apresentaram variabilidade sazonal significativa. A respeito dos índices ecológicos, as espécies de peixes apresentaram maior diversidade (H' = 3,19) durante a monção SW, enquanto a menor diversidade observada foi na pré-monção (H' = 1,58). A equitabilidade e a riqueza de espécies, no entanto, permaneceram mais perceptíveis durante a monção SW (J' = 0,81). O número total de peixes e crustáceos foi de 4.799, com 3.813 peixes e 986 crustáceos. Foram registradas 27 famílias de peixes e 5 famílias de crustáceos, com 30 gêneros e 38 espécies de peixes, além de 10 gêneros e 17 espécies de crustáceos. Liza subviridis apresentou a maior abundância entre as espécies de peixes amostradas. Em conclusão, as espécies de peixes constituíram uma parte significativa da fauna costeira na área de estudo. As variações sazonais apresentaram variações distintas na composição e diversidade das espécies de peixes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar , Biodiversidade , Salinidade
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730605

RESUMO

This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Humanos , Água do Mar
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468508

RESUMO

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Timerosal , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim , Masculino , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timerosal/metabolismo , Timerosal/toxicidade
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468509

RESUMO

Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.


Assuntos
Cisplatino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Flavonoides , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(10): 5860-5864, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588901

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial contaminant that poses severe threats to human and animal health. Vitexin (VIT) is a polyphenolic flavonoid of characteristic pharmacological properties. We explored the curative role of vitexin on Cd-induced mitochondrial-dysfunction in rat renal tissues. Twenty-four rats were equally divided into four groups and designated as control, Cd, Cd + vitexin and vitexin treated groups. The results showed that Cd exposure increased urea and creatinine levels while decreased creatinine clearance. Cd reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione content in the Cd exposed group. Cd exposure significantly (p < 0.05) elevated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in rat kidney. Cd also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the mitochondrial TCA-cycle enzymes, including isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and malate-dehydrogenase activities. Besides, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, including NADH-dehydrogenase, coenzyme Q-cytochrome reductase, succinic-coenzyme Q, and cytochrome c-oxidase activities were also decreased under Cd exposure. Cd exposure also damaged the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). However, VIT treatment potentially reduced the detrimental effects of Cd in the kidney of rats. In conclusion, our study indicated that the VIT could attenuate the Cd-induced renal toxicity in rats.

13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105668

RESUMO

This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Hábitos , Humanos , Estações do Ano
14.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(6): 3438-3447, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121882

RESUMO

In an epoch of escalating number of antibiotic-resistance bacteria, there is a dire need to develop efficient and novel feeding strategies for animal nutrition as alternatives to antibiotics. Here, implicating nutrigenomic approach, phytobiotics and organic acids were used to evaluate ghrelin gene expression levels, gut microflora composition, performance parameters and intestinal histomorphological changes in broiler chickens. One-day-old chicks (n = 315) were reared for 42 days and distributed randomly into five experimental groups; each with three replicates (21 birds per replicate). Experimental groups were control: basal diet only, antimicrobial growth promoter: 40 g/metric ton of basal diet (virginiamycin), organic acids: 4 kg/metric ton of basal diet, phytobiotics: 3 kg/metric ton of basal diet, combination: 7 kg/metric ton of basal diet (organic acids 4 kg and phytobiotics 3 kg metric ton of feed). Growth performance, histological and ghrelin gene expression analysis were executed on 21 and 42 days while, quantitative bacterial analysis of cecum and ileum was performed on day 42. Increased feed intake and body weight (p < 0.05) were noticed in phytobiotics group. Addition of phytobiotics significantly improved (p < 0.05) villus height and ratio of villus height/crypt depth in ileum, jejunum, and duodenum and down-regulated ghrelin gene expression levels. Total coliform and Escherichia coli in cecal and ileal digesta were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in organic acids group. Correlation analysis revealed Lactobacillus spp. were positively correlated to villus height/crypt depth ration in duodenum. The findings indicated the importance of gene-nutrient-microbiota interactions based on nutrigenomics approach. Hence, phytobiotics and organic acids might be suitable alternatives to antibiotics for improved performance and immunity, along with healthier meat production in poultry.

15.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 1036-1049, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175007

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal fish and crustacean variations concerning taxonomic composition, species richness, and diversity in sandy beach habitat. For this purpose, we investigated the Sonmiani Hor lagoon area during four distinct seasons, i.e., northeast (NE) monsoon, pre-monsoon, south-west (SW) monsoon, and post-monsoon for one year. During each haul, the net was pulled about 100m along the beach in 0.5m depth. The results showed a strong linear correlation between the diversity index and equitability in fishes (r = 0.978). The diversity index was strong negatively correlated with the abundance and biomass (r = -0.978, -0.972, respectively). The physical attributes like sea surface water temperature and salinity showed a strong negative effect on species assemblages (r = -0.981 and -0.943, respectively). The mean air and water temperature illustrated approximately 3°C difference during NE and pre-monsoon seasons. However, salinity, pH, and electrical conductivity did not show any significant seasonal variabilities. Under the ecological indices, the fish species displayed higher diversity (H' = 3.19) during SW monsoon, whereas the lowest diversity was observed during pre-monsoon (H' = 1.58). The equitability and species richness, however, remained more noticeable during SW monsoon (J' = 0.81). The total number of individuals of fish and crustaceans reached 4799 with 3813 fish individuals and 986 individuals of crustaceans. A total of 27 families of fish while five crustacean families comprising of 30 genera and 38 fish species while ten genera and 17 species of crustaceans were recorded. Liza subviridis displayed the highest abundance among the sampled fish species. In conclusion, fish species constituted a significant part of the coastal fauna in the study area. The seasonal variations displayed distinct variations in fish species composition and diversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 823-828, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142532

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a poluição da água examinando a fragmentação do DNA em órgãos de peixes selecionados (rim, fígado, brânquias e tecido muscular) de Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris e Labeo rohita coletados de uma conhecida área poluída do rio Chenab, Paquistão e de um local de controle. Os peixes foram capturados usando uma rede branquial e foram divididos em três grupos de pesos diferentes (W1, W2 e W3) para estudar o grau de variação na fragmentação do DNA em relação ao peso corporal. Nos peixes do local poluído, a fragmentação do DNA foi maior nos rins, fígado, brânquias e músculos, em comparação ao controle. Não foi observada fragmentação significativa do DNA em peixes coletados no local de controle. Relação altamente significativa (P <0,01) entre o peso corporal e a fragmentação do DNA foi encontrada nos órgãos dos peixes adquiridos no local contaminado. Verificou-se que a fragmentação do DNA nos órgãos do corpo é afetada pelas concentrações de chumbo, cobre, níquel e cádmio em W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita e V. vulgarus colhidos no rio Chenab. A fragmentação do DNA em diferentes espécies de peixes de água doce é, portanto, um biomarcador confiável da poluição da água.


Assuntos
Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Fragmentação do DNA , Brânquias
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 535-543, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132422

RESUMO

Abstract Study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with different levels of full fat soybean meal (FFSBM) on growth and digestive enzyme activities in the stomach, Liver and intestine for Clarias gariepinus. Four diets (D1, D2, D3 and D4) were formulated with 0, 15, 20 and 20 g 100-1 protein + DL-methionine by alternating FFSBM with fish meal. The growth of C. gariepinus was found to be significantly decreased when FFSBM replacement increased. Final body weight was 89.69, 79.70, 70.82 and 68.29 g for fish fed on D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively, with significant differences between treatments. Specific growth rate (SGR) ranged between 3.11 to 2.78%. Proteolytic activity was higher only with alkaline pHs, whereas only very low activity was shown with acidic. Results of liver showed approximately similar results at acid and alkaline. In contrast, higher proteolytic activity in the stomach was observed at acid pHs 3.0 and 4.0 μg tyrosine-1 minute-1 mg-1 protein) whereas lower values were observed at neutral pH 7.0 g tyrosine-1 minute-1 mg-1 protein for catfish fed on the experimental diets. Moreover, trypsin activity was higher for the stomach, followed by the intestine and liver. However, higher amount of amylase observed in the liver than intestine and stomach.


Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da substituição da farinha de peixe por diferentes níveis de farelo de soja integral (FSI) sobre o crescimento e atividades de enzimas digestivas no estômago, fígado e intestino de Clarias gariepinus. Quatro dietas (D1, D2, D3 e D4) foram formuladas com 0, 15, 20 e 20 g 100-1 proteína + DL-metionina, alternando FSI com farinha de peixe. O crescimento de C. gariepinus foi significativamente reduzido quando aumentou a substituição de farinha de peixe por FSI . O peso corporal final foi de 89,69, 79,70, 70,82 e 68,29 g para peixes alimentados com D1, D2, D3 e D4, respectivamente, com diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Taxa de crescimento específico (TCE) variou entre 3,11 a 2,78%. A atividade proteolítica foi maior apenas com pHs alcalinos, enquanto que atividades muito baixas foram somente mostradas com ácido. Os resultados no fígado mostraram valores aproximadamente semelhantes tanto em meio ácido quanto alcalino. Em contraste, observou-se maior atividade proteolítica no estômago em pH ácido (3,0 e 4,0 g de tirosina-1 minuto-1 mg-1 de proteína), ao passo que valores mais baixos foram observados em pH neutro (7,0 g de tirosina-1 minuto-1 mg-1 de proteína) para os bagres que se alimentaram com as dietas experimentais. Além disso, a atividade da tripsina foi maior para o estômago, seguida pelo intestino e pelo fígado. No entanto, observou-se maior quantidade de amilase no fígado,intestino e estômago.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes-Gato , Trato Gastrointestinal , Soja , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise
18.
Braz J Biol ; 80(3): 535-543, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644648

RESUMO

Study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with different levels of full fat soybean meal (FFSBM) on growth and digestive enzyme activities in the stomach, Liver and intestine for Clarias gariepinus. Four diets (D1, D2, D3 and D4) were formulated with 0, 15, 20 and 20 g 100-1 protein + DL-methionine by alternating FFSBM with fish meal. The growth of C. gariepinus was found to be significantly decreased when FFSBM replacement increased. Final body weight was 89.69, 79.70, 70.82 and 68.29 g for fish fed on D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively, with significant differences between treatments. Specific growth rate (SGR) ranged between 3.11 to 2.78%. Proteolytic activity was higher only with alkaline pHs, whereas only very low activity was shown with acidic. Results of liver showed approximately similar results at acid and alkaline. In contrast, higher proteolytic activity in the stomach was observed at acid pHs 3.0 and 4.0 µg tyrosine-1 minute-1 mg-1 protein) whereas lower values were observed at neutral pH 7.0 g tyrosine-1 minute-1 mg-1 protein for catfish fed on the experimental diets. Moreover, trypsin activity was higher for the stomach, followed by the intestine and liver. However, higher amount of amylase observed in the liver than intestine and stomach.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Trato Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Soja
19.
Braz J Biol ; 80(4): 823-828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778486

RESUMO

This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Fragmentação do DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Brânquias , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 703-711, Nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001487

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to determine an appropriate replacement of fishmeal with amino acids (AAs) and optimized protein levels in practical diets for Oreochromis niloticus with mean initial body weight 12.52±0.63g. Six experimental and a control diet (total 7 diets) divided into two groups, and a control diet (D1) containing 32% protein. The first group contained three diets that included different dietary protein levels, viz. 20 (D2), 25 (D3), and 30% (D4) with AAs when replacing fishmeal by plant protein sources. In the second group, the diets were contained 20 (D5), 25 (D6), and 30% (D7) without AAs. The best growth performance was achieved in fish fed with diet D1. Total feed intake was increased with an increase in dietary protein level with AAs. The specific growth rate showed a similar pattern with a significant difference between control, D4 and D7 compared to other groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased when protein levels in the diets increased. The protein efficiency ratio showed a similar performance, with a slight increase between the control diet and diets with AAs. However, insignificant differences (P>0.05) were observed between diets with and without AAs. An economic evaluation indicated that inclusion of low fishmeal in tilapia diets reduced the price/kg of diets compared to control.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para determinar uma substituição adequada de farinha de peixe com aminoácidos (AA) e níveis otimizados de proteína em dietas práticas para Oreochromis niloticus com peso corporal inicial médio de 12,52 ± 0,63 g. Seis dietas experimentais e controle (total de 7 dietas) divididas em dois grupos, e uma dieta controle (D1) contendo 32% de proteína. O primeiro grupo continha três dietas que incluíam diferentes níveis de proteína na dieta, viz. 20 (D2), 25 (D3) e 30% (D4) com AAs ao substituir a farinha de peixe por fontes de proteína vegetal. No segundo grupo, as dietas continham 20 (D5), 25 (D6) e 30% (D7) sem AAs. O melhor desempenho de crescimento foi alcançado em peixes alimentados com dieta D1. O consumo total de ração foi aumentado com o aumento do nível de proteína na dieta com AAs. A taxa de crescimento específico mostrou um padrão semelhante com uma diferença significativa entre o controle, D4 ​​e D7 em comparação com outros grupos. A taxa de conversão alimentar diminuiu quando os níveis de proteína nas dietas aumentaram. A taxa de eficiência protéica apresentou desempenho semelhante, com discreto aumento entre a dieta controle e as dietas com AAs. Entretanto, diferenças insignificantes (P> 0,05) foram observadas entre dietas com e sem AAs. Uma avaliação econômica indicou que a inclusão de farinha de peixe baixa em dietas de tilápia reduziu o preço / kg de dietas em relação ao controle.


Assuntos
Animais , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Alimentos Marinhos/normas , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Peso Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/economia
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